click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Twelve Men

The Council of Twelve Men was a group of 12 men, chosen on 29 August 1641 by the residents of New Netherland to advise the Director of New Netherland, Willem Kieft, on relations with the Native Americans due to the murder of Claes Swits. Although the council was not permanent, it was the first representational form of democracy in the Dutch colony; the next two councils created were known as the Eight Men and the Nine Men The Dutch West India Company had incurred significant expenses building and manning fortifications. Kieft sought to offset some of the cost by demanding contribution from the Indians, whom he saw as deriving protection from rival tribes, they declined, pointing out that the Dutch had not been invited in the first place, with the Indian settlements so scattered, by the time word reached the fort any help dispatched would be too late. In the spring of 1640, some Raritan Indians attacked a Company trading boat near Staten Island and stole a canoe, they were subsequently mistakenly blamed for the theft of some pigs from the farm of David Pietersz. de Vries.

Kieft sent Cornelis van Tienhoven with a force of seventy sailors to demand payment. The Raritan declined to pay for pigs; as the meeting broke up, the Dutch attacked, killing a few Raritan, capturing several and routing the rest. Within six weeks the Raritan responded by burning De Vries' tobacco sheds. Four colonists died. Kieft spread word to several other tribes that he would pay a bounty in wampum for every head of a Raritan brought to him. A peace was reached by the end of the year. In August 1641, a Weckquaesgeek Indian killed Claes Swits, an elderly Swiss immigrant who ran a public house frequented by settlers and Indians alike at Turtle Bay, Manhattan; as a child, the young Indian had witnessed the murder of his uncle, upon coming of age took revenge. The Weckquaesgeek refused to hand the killer over to the Dutch. Another incident occurred at Achter Kol along the banks of the Hackensack River. Settlers and some Hackensacks had been drinking alcohol at a trading post when a conflict arose over a missing coat which ended in the death of the post's foreman.

Kieft was determined to conduct punitive measures against the Indians, but reluctant to assume sole responsibility for the decision. In August 1641, he summoned twelve prominent settlers to New Amsterdam to advise him on relations with the Indians, he posed three questions: Whatever it is not just to punish the barbarous murder of Claes Swits committed by an Indian and, in case the Indians refuse to surrender the murderer at our request, whether it is not justifiable to ruin the entire village to which he belongs? In what manner the same ought be put into effect and at what time? By whom it may be undertaken? The twelve council members were: David Pietersen de Vries Maryn Adriansen Jacques Benteyn, Jan Jansen Damen Gerrit Dircksen Hendrik Jansen Jochem Pietersen Kuyter Frederick Lubbertsen Abram Molenaar known as Abraham Pietersen van Deusen Joris Jansen Rapelje Jacob Stoffelsen Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck They did not counsel war, as desired by Willem Kieft, but recommended patience and negotiations to resolve differences with the tribes.

They requested that four of their number be elected to the Director-General's Council. Kieft was not pleased with the advice received. After months of haggling, in January 1642, Kieft told them that he would accept their request if they, in turn, would support his proposed war; the Council reluctantly agreed. Krieft dissolved the Council of Twelve in February 1643 and forbade them to meet with out his permission, his duplicity did nothing to reduce opposition to the war. Not all of the Twelve opposed Kieft's plan. A group of Tappan had moved to Pavonia, while a second group from east of the Hudson were at Corlears Hook. Both were seeking refuge from attacks of the Mohawk to the north. On February 24, 1643, Maryn Adriansen, Jan Jansen Damen, Damen's step-sons-in-law Abraham Isaacsen Verplanck and Cornelis Van Tienhoven, petitioned the Director to order an immediate attack upon the two groups of refugees. Kieft endorsed their request, he ordered Van Tienhoven to lead the soldiers stationed at Fort Amsterdam on a raid on those sheltering at Pavonia.

It took place the following night and eighty Tappan were killed. Kieft ordered Maryn Adriaensen and a band of volunteers to go to Corlear's Hook to attack the refugees there. Forty Indian men and children were killed there; this served to unite the various tribes against the Dutch and war broke out. The majority of the Twelve Men, most of whom who had not known of the petition, objected to Kieft's actions. Kieft blamed Maryn Adriaensen, who armed himself, went to Fort Amsterdam and attacked Kieft. Kieft was unharmed, Adriaensen arrested, his friends managed to have him sent to Amsterdam for trial. Schepen Burgomaster Voorleser

No More War Movement

The No More War Movement was the name of two pacifist organisations, one in the United Kingdom and one in New Zealand. The British No More War Movement was founded in 1921 as a pacifist and socialist successor to the No-Conscription Fellowship. For the first two years of its existence, it was known as the No More War International Movement, it became the British section of War Resisters International. Chaired by Fenner Brockway, it asked members to strive for revolutionary socialism but not to take part in any war. Other notable NMWM members included Wilfred Wellock, Leslie Paul, A. Barratt Brown, Leyton Richards, W. J. Chamberlain and Monica Whately; the movement received messages of support from several international figures, including Albert Einstein. In 1926, a member proposed the creation of a white poppy, in the manner of the British Legion's red poppies, but with the added meaning of a hope for an end to all wars; the group did not pursue the idea, but it was taken up by the Women's Co-operative Guild.

At its peak, the NMWM numbered around 3000 members, many from the Independent Labour Party. In 1929, several prominent British intellectuals signed a statement, "Why I Believe in the No More War Movement", supporting the NMWM's aims; the group published two journals: The New World and No More War. After Brockway resigned in 1929, secretaries Walter Ayles and Lucy Cox left in 1932, the group foundered. Reginald Reynolds, a Quaker influenced by Gandhi, became general secretary, but he could not stop a drift of members to the communist British Anti-War Movement and the New Commonwealth Society. Anarchists became prominent, but most left after the Movement, in accordance with its pacifist principles, refused to support the fighting of either side in the Spanish Civil War. In 1937 the organisation formally merged with the Peace Pledge Union, although the Midlands Council of the NMWM retained an independent existence for a year or so; the New Zealand NMWM was founded in the 1920s by Fred Page. It strived to influence public opinion in New Zealand through public discussion.

By the late 1930s it was losing influence to two other New Zealand pacifist bodies: the New Zealand branch of the Peace Pledge Union, Archibald Barrington and Ormond Burton's Christian Pacifist Society of New Zealand. No More War Movement: Remembrance: notes for Armistice Day Disarmament by example by Arthur Ponsonby Peace in our Time for all Time: The Rising Tide of War Resistance by Norman Cliff Militarism unmasked by Walter H Ayles The League's authority: war or public opinion? by A. Ruth Fry Election Points for Pacifists Fighting for Peace; the story of the war resistance movement. By W. J. Chamberlain, The Church, the Bible and War by Hector Macpherson A suppressed speech: militarism stripped too naked Burn your gunboats; the case for complete disarmament by Walter H Ayles Disarmament and unemployment by Walter H Ayles Can Britain disarm?: a reasoned case in fourteen points by A. Fenner Brockway Youth and adventure: on which side shall I enlist? by Wilfred Wellock What Fighting Means by C. E. M. Joad Can the church lead the world to peace? by Hastings Russell, Duke of Bedford War as viewed by Jesus and the early church: a body of evidence by Wilfred Wellock Will Disarmament Increase Unemployment? by Norman Angell The Draft Disarmament Convention and the world conference by Gerald Bailey Gandhi's fast: its cause and significance by Reginald Reynolds Disarmament or disaster?: a review of the first phase of the disarmament conference and an indictment of the British government's policy by A J Brown Real cowards: a talk about the Disarmament Conference by "H. C."

Your country is in danger!: if you love your country you should give this letter your most serious consideration: an open letter to every patriot. Shall We Arm the League? Death's Jamboree by Joseph Gorman War and the workers: an appeal to the labour, trade union, co-operative movements and the unemployed by Wilfred Wellock Revolt in the churches against armaments and war: being a symposium of articles contributed by leaders of Christian thought in support of disarmament by example by Wilfred Wellock Pacifism and the general strike. A constructive alternative to'collective security' The Roots of War. A Handbook on War and the Social Order. Published jointly by the Friends Anti-War Group and the No More War Movement. You remember Abyssinia?: an analysis of events and some conclusions by Reginald Renyolds The truth behind the Palestine riots. An information bulletin. By Reginald Reynolds All about pacifism and armaments: something for Christians, trade unionists, Liberals, Conservatives, co-operators, teachers and militarists

Ian Williams (American football)

Ian Williams is a former American football nose tackle of the National Football League. He was signed by the 49ers as an undrafted free agent in 2011, he played college football at Notre Dame. Williams grew up in Altamonte Springs and attended Lyman High School, where he played football for coach Bill Caughell. In his junior year, Ian was responsible for 83 tackles, 23 tackles for loss, 12 hurries, 4 forced fumbles, 2 sacks, 4 fumble recoveries and 4 passes broken up, as the Greyhounds won their third straight 5A district title and beat Melbourne High School for Lyman’s first Florida playoff win in school history. Williams continued his dominance from the defensive tackle position in 2006, recording over 40 tackles, 18 TFL, 12 sacks, he was recognized as the 120th rated prep player nationally on ESPN 150's listing and 30th on the South Florida Sun-Sentinel list of top 50 Florida prospects. Williams was recruited, receiving scholarship offers from Notre Dame as well as most of the top southern programs in the country, including the Alabama, Clemson, Florida and South Carolina.

Before her death in 1995, Ian's maternal grandmother, Lily May Green, had told Ian's mother Natalie Williams that her grandson would one day play for the University of Notre Dame. Not wanting to influence his decision, Natalie waited until after Ian signed with Notre Dame to tell her son of his grandmother's prescient forecast. Recruited to play nose tackle in then-defensive coordinator Corwin Brown's 3–4 system, Williams played in all 12 games his freshman year, starting two, he was named a Freshman All-American. His 45 tackles were the third most for any freshman defensive lineman in Notre Dame history, he ranked sixth on the team in tackles and was the only player ranked in the top 12 in tackles on the team who did not start at least four games. Williams appeared in all 13 games for the Irish, he had 40 total tackles including 2 TFL, in addition to a pass break up. Williams anchored the defense against Pittsburgh amassing 6 tackles and 2 TFL, he recorded 7 tackles against Navy, 8 against Syracuse, 3 tackles and a pass break up against the USC Trojans.

The Irish made a switch to the 4-3 defense under Jon Tenuta. Williams shifted from a 3–4 nose tackle to a 4–3 defensive tackle. Williams played in all 12 games, starting 8, he recorded 6 TFL, a pass breakup and his first career interception. New Irish defensive coordinator, Bob Diaco, switched the defense back to a 3–4 scheme. Williams thrived in a return to his natural position at nose tackle, anchoring the middle of the Irish defensive front and recording 37 tackles, 2 sacks and an interception in 7.5 games. Williams suffered an MCL sprain against Navy on October 23, 2010; the injury did not require surgery, but it did force Williams to miss the last four games of his senior season. Prior to the injury, he was one of only two players to appear in every game of his four-year Notre Dame career. Williams returned to practice in early December healthy enough to play for Notre Dame in the Hyundai Sun Bowl against the University of Miami Hurricanes on December 31, 2010. Williams was signed by the San Francisco 49ers as an undrafted free agent following the 2011 NFL Draft on July 25, 2011.

On March 11, 2013, Williams signed a two-year contract extension with the 49ers. On September 15, 2013, Williams broke his left ankle in a game against the Seattle Seahawks and was subsequently placed on injured reserve ending his season. On September 9, 2015, Williams was named a defensive team captain by head coach Jim Tomsula. Williams signed a five-year $27.5 million contract with the 49ers on March 9, 2016. However, on March 21, 2016, the deal was reduced to one–year, $3 million after Williams failed his physical following ankle surgery. On October 27, 2016, Williams was released with an injury settlement. San Francisco 49ers bio

June Harwood

June Harwood was an American painter based in California who made a name for herself in the 1960s as an inventive artist of the hard-edge movement. June Harwood was born in Middleton, New York, spent much of her childhood in the Adirondacks in northern New York State. In the halcyon days, she would row a boat across the lake, anchor in an inlet and paint small watercolor landscapes; these days contributed to her interest in art, in landscapes which recur in various forms during her painting career. She received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Syracuse University in 1953 and a Master of Arts degree from California State University, Los Angeles in 1957, she was a teacher at Hollywood High School in Los Angeles from 1958 – 1970, at the Los Angeles Valley College from 1975-1993, where she became a professor and, for a period, chairperson of the Art Department.”. After she received her BFA from Syracuse University in 1953, Harwood moved to California. There she worked at the Los Angeles Art Association and became familiar with the local art scene, met fellow hard-edge painters Lorser Feitelson and Helen Lundeberg.

Feitelson supported and encouraged her work and mentioned her work to Jules Langsner, a noted writer and art historian. Harwood and Langsner married in Rome, Italy in 1965; the couple spent their honeymoon in Paris with Man Ray. On teaching art: "I feel I can teach well and understand what kids are groping for," she told The Times in 1968. "The art field has never been more wide open or accepted, but at the same time, there are so many possible directions."She told her students that no matter what direction they chose, the basic formula for finding meaning in their work is always the same. "To be a painter, you have to be able to see yourself and understand," she said, "and this is difficult for any generation." Harwood’s progression toward Hard-edge painting first developed while pursuing her BFA at Syracuse University in the 1950s, where a focus on Abstract Expressionism and balance led to her trademark style. In an interview with Geoform, Harwood stated, "In nature most shapes can be reduced to geometric forms.

It seemed to me to be a logical approach to use geometric forms as a basis for painting and as a result, my work became associated with a movement known as Hard-edge—flat shapes with hard, clean edges...much of my painting develops intuitively and sometimes accidentally or serendipitously. But in all cases, the result should be to make all of the pieces fit, that there should be a “sense of rightness” about the total configuration." Harwood’s early paintings consisted of rigid, flat planes of color and interlocking forms – pure abstraction with no representational content. She painted with acrylics, uncommon for painters of her time, used tape to define the edges of her shapes. “My paint application was uniform, to say that no brush strokes were evident, creating impeccable, flat surfaces. Thus there would be no distraction from the intent, to create an interplay of ‘colorforms.’ Jules used this term to mean that color and form are one.”Her work evolved to include curves and networks of lines that flirted with Op-Art, sometimes painted with metallic paint to accentuate the play of light on the surface of the canvas.

In the 70s, her large, discreet forms began to break apart, as she became interested in kinetics and motion. In the 90s and 2000s, her edges softened and her brushwork became more painterly in works that recalled simple landscapes. In years she returned to the hard-edged forms that she began exploring sixty years before. Times art critic Christopher Knight, in reviewing a 2003 retrospective of her work at NoHo Modern in North Hollywood, said, "Following the trajectory of these paintings is rather like watching tectonic plates begin to shift, break apart and bend beneath unseen forces of stoppable pressure — rather like the unfolding decade of the 1960s itself." Though Harwood was not in the first exhibition considered to be hard-edge, "Four Abstract Classicists" curated by Jules Langsner in 1959, her works were included in the 1964 hard-edge show, “California Hard Edge Painting," in Balboa Pavilion Gallery in Orange County curated by Langsner. She was included in many important hard-edge exhibitions around Southern California.

Most in “California Hard Edge Painting” and Dave Hickey’s 2004 homage to “The Los Angeles School” exhibited at Otis College of Art and Design. Harwood’s work can be found in numerous private and public collections, including in California: California State University, Los Angeles. Louis Stern Fine Arts official website June Harwood Charitable Trust website

Marty Johnstone

Christopher Martin "Marty" Johnstone was a New Zealander drug trafficker born in Auckland. The former Takapuna Grammar pupil was dubbed "Mr Asia" by the Auckland Star newspaper in August 1978 in a series of articles by Pat Booth. In October 1979, Johnstone was lured to Britain on the pretext of a drug deal to take place in Scotland, he was murdered by Andy Maher, by order of Terrance John Clark, his handless body was dumped in Eccleston Delph, Lancashire. Maher cut off Johnstone's hands and mutilated his face in a vain attempt to foil dental identification by the police. Terry Clark, along with four others, was subsequently convicted of murdering Johnstone and was sentenced to life imprisonment; the trial at Lancaster Castle in 1980 was conducted under heavy security and was Britain's most expensive case at that time. Clark died in prison on the Isle of Wight. Hall, Richard. Greed: The Mr Asia Connection. Rowville, Victoria: Five Mile Press. ISBN 1-74124-328-9

ThreeWeeks

ThreeWeeks is a magazine that covers the Edinburgh Festivals in August. It has covered the Edinburgh Festival since 1996, it covered the Brighton Festival from 2006 to 2010, but withdrew due to lack of financial support. ThreeWeeks operates a media education programme for students and young journalists; these students form the magazine's review team. This team reviewed 1600 shows at the Edinburgh Festival in 2012 and 1,371 in 2013. At that time ThreeWeeks was the second largest reviewer at the Edinburgh Fringe after Broadway Baby but a reduction in its coverage meant that by 2017 it was only the 7th largest. In Brighton ThreeWeeks published a preview magazine, a daily column in local newspaper The Argus, a daily email newsletter and other online coverage. In Edinburgh ThreeWeeks publishes a preview magazine, a weekly magazine, a daily email newsletter and other online coverage, it used to publish a daily printed reviews sheet. In Edinburgh it stages an annual awards event called the ThreeWeeks Editors' Awards.

ThreeWeeks website Brighton Festival Fringe Edinburgh Festival Fringe