Mingo County, West Virginia
Mingo County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,839, its county seat is Williamson. Created in 1895, Mingo is West Virginia's newest county, named for the historic Iroquoian Mingo people. Mingo County is the newest county in the state, formed by an act of the state legislature in 1895 from parts of Logan County; the county was named for the Mingo Indians. The attempt to unionize coal miners in the county in the 1920s led to the Battle of Blair Mountain in neighboring Logan County. Politically, Mingo County is well known for its opposition to former President Barack Obama. In 2008, Obama netted only 8 % of the vote in one of his worst performances. In 2012, Mingo County Democrats voted for Keith Russell Judd, a convicted felon, the only other candidate on the ballot, over Obama. In 2014, Mingo County native Jeremy T. K. Farley published The Ghosts of Mingo County, based on the real life story of Timmy Barker, a history of what he described as "the bloodiest county in America."
The book met with mixed reviews. In 2016, Mingo County was "one of the places in America most touched by opioids." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 423 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. I‑73 I‑74 U. S. Highway 52 U. S. Highway 119 West Virginia Route 49 West Virginia Route 65 West Virginia Route 80 Lincoln County Logan County Wyoming County McDowell County Pike County, Kentucky Martin County, Kentucky Wayne County Buchanan County, Virginia As of the census of 2000, there were 28,253 people, 11,303 households, 8,217 families residing in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 12,898 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.39% White, 2.34% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 0.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 11,303 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 12.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 25.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 29.10% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $21,347, the median income for a family was $26,581. Males had a median income of $31,660 versus $18,038 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,445. About 25.90% of families and 29.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.90% of those under age 18 and 18.60% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 26,839 people, 11,125 households, 7,707 families residing in the county. The population density was 63.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,699 housing units at an average density of 30.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.1% white, 1.8% black or African American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.0% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 12.6% were Irish, 11.9% were American, 7.0% were German, 6.9% were English. Of the 11,125 households, 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $32,902 and the median income for a family was $40,199.
Males had a median income of $46,917 versus $27,168 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,629. About 16.9% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. The youngest of West Virginia’s 55 counties, Mingo was created from powerfully secessionist Logan County. For the 110 years following its creation, Mingo County was powerfully Democratic, voting for Walter Mondale – who came within 3,819 votes of losing all 50 states – by a two-to-one margin in 1984, voting Republican only for William Howard Taft in 1908, Herbert Hoover in 1928 due to powerful anti-Catholic sentiment against Al Smith, Richard Nixon against the left-wing George McGovern in 1972. Like all of West Virginia, since 2000 a combination of declining unionization and differences with the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has produced a dramatic swing to the Republican Party. In 2016, this heavily Democratic county voted only eight percentage points less Republican than Unionist and rock-ribbed GOP Grant County.
Williamson Delbarton Gilbert Kermit Matewan Chattaroy Gilbert Creek Justice Red Jacket Beech Ben Mate District Kermit Harvey District Lee District Magnol
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
East Lynn Lake
East Lynn Lake is a 1,005-acre reservoir on the East Fork Twelvepole Creek in Wayne County, West Virginia. The lake is operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Huntington District, as part of a series of flood control projects for the Ohio River basin. East Lynn Lake was authorized by the U. S. Congress in 1938 following the devastating Flood of 1937. Like many other projects authorized in this era, construction did not take place until much later. Construction occurred about 1969-1970 with the intended purposes of flood control and fish and wildlife management. East Lynn Lake was established as the project's official name in 1971. Construction of the lake resulted in the destruction of the town of Stiltner at the mouth of Brush Creek, it required the relocation of a large stretch of West Virginia Route 37, which followed the East Fork Twelvepole Creek valley, inundated by the lake. East Lynn Lake is home to 29 species of fish indigenous to southern West Virginia as well as carp and other non-native species.
The lake is stocked by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, which manages the lake and surrounding land as East Lynn Lake Wildlife Management Area. The lake has both wake-permitted and no wake zones, which makes it popular for both fishing and water skiing; the Army Corps of Engineers maintains several recreational areas including a campground at the lake. There is a marina near the dam. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers site for East Lynn Lake
Interstate 64 is an Interstate Highway in the Eastern United States. Its western terminus is at I-70, U. S. Route 40, US 61 in Wentzville, Missouri, its eastern terminus is at an interchange with I-264 and I-664 at Bowers Hill in Chesapeake, Virginia. I-64 connects the major metropolitan areas of St. Louis and Lexington in Kentucky, West Virginia, Richmond and Hampton Roads in Virginia. At 953.74 miles, I-64 is the second longest interstate highway not ending with a 5 or 0, after I-94. I-64 overlaps with I-55, I-57, I-75, I-77, I-81, I-95. I-64 does not maintain exit number continuity for any of the overlaps, as each of the six north-south routes maintain their exit numbering on their respective overlaps with I-64. In Missouri, the stretch was labeled as the Daniel Boone Expressway only as US-40, as such, is still known to some locals in the St. Louis area as Highway 40 though the road has been designated as both I-64 and US-40 since 1988; this road is the southernmost portion of the Avenue of the Saints.
An interchange at Highway N O'Fallon, Missouri opened on December 13, 2004. This interchange accommodates the tie-in of the Missouri Route 364 freeway to I-64. In April 2007, construction started to rebuild 10.5 miles of I-64 in St. Louis, from Spoede Road to Kingshighway; this project included repaving the entire road, rebuilding the overpasses and interchanges, adding a fourth lane between Spoede Road and I-170, connecting I-64 to I-170 in all directions. Construction resulted in the complete closure of portions of the expressway in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, I-64 was closed from I-270 to I-170, re-opening December 15, 2008. Beginning December 15, 2008, I-64 from I-170 to Kingshighway was closed. On December 6, 2009, with a grand opening ceremony and dedication, Interstate 64 was completed in its entire length in Missouri from the Poplar Street Bridge to I-70 in Wentzville; as of December 7, 2009, I-64 signed all the way to Interstate 70 in Wentzville. All stoplights have been removed; the portion of Interstate 64 in St. Louis has been named the Jack Buck Memorial Highway, in honor of the late sportscaster.
I-64 enters Illinois from St. Louis, via the Poplar Street Bridge, where it overlaps I-55 as it crosses the Mississippi River. After crossing the city of East St. Louis and the rest of suburban St. Clair County, the freeway heads southeast through rural Southern Illinois. Shortly after passing Mid-America Airport at Exit 23, I-64 enters Clinton County Washington County. After providing access to towns such as Carlyle, Breese and Centralia, the freeway overlaps I-57 through the Mt. Vernon area for five miles. East of Mt. Vernon in Illinois, services along I-64 are few; the freeway crosses Jefferson and White counties as it progresses east toward Indiana and the Evansville area. East of the St Louis area, there are numerous oil wells dotting the landscape; the section from IL 127 to I-57 opened on October 4, 1974. The section from IL 161 to IL 127 opened in December 1973; the section in the Metro East, except for a short section near I-55/70, opened on December 23, 1975. The section from US 460 to US 45 opened on August 7, 1975.
I-64 enters the state of Indiana. It passes Griffin and Poseyville, passes under nearby State Road 68 passes three marked exits for Evansville proceeds through part of the scenic Hoosier National Forest, with exits leading to Dale and Huntingburg, Santa Claus and Ferdinand, French Lick and Tell City, Indiana's first state capital, Corydon. Near milepost 61, there is a time change from Central Time Zone to Eastern Time Zone; as with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, this change in time zone is not marked with any roadside signage. Between Evansville and New Albany, I-64 intersects a few major north-south arterial highways, such as U. S. 231, Indiana 37, Indiana 135 and offers access to Interstate 65 to Indianapolis via Interstate 265 before crossing into Kentucky on the Sherman Minton Bridge. The 123-mile route in Indiana can be described as being somewhat winding the farther east one travels within the state; the longest straight line distance along the route is the around 9 mile stretch from the Indiana 65 exit to the 26 mile marker, 1 mile east of U.
S. 41. There are many points along the route where the two halves of the highway are nearly 500 feet apart around the Hoosier National Forest and points to the east. In addition, there are several points in the sharp valleys along its route in Dubois, Perry and Harrison Counties, where the highway towers more than 100 feet above the surrounding terrain. Interstate 64 enters Kentucky at Louisville, paralleling the Ohio River along the Riverfront Expressway, it intersects with several downtown interchanges before coming to the Kennedy Interchange, where it intersects Interstate 65 and Interstate 71 in a tangle of ramps referred to as the "Spaghetti Junction". Moving eastward, I-64 passes through Shelbyville, Midway, Winchester, Mount Sterling and Morehead, before leaving the state near Ashland at Catlettsburg, it overlaps Interstate 75 as it makes an arc around the northeast of Lexington's urban core, with the exit numbers for I-75 used for the concurrent portion. The two interstate
Lavalette, West Virginia
Lavalette is a census-designated place in Wayne County, West Virginia, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 1,073. Lavalette is located at the intersection of West Virginia Route 152 and West Virginia Route 75, eight miles south of Huntington; the town is near Beech Fork Lake, a popular location for boating and fishing, Twelvepole Creek. Lavalette was named after the daughter of a Norfolk & Western Railway official. Lavalette is a part of WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 287,702. Lavalette has two 18-hole public golf courses - Silo Golf Course. Silo Golf Course has a restaurant call the Wedge, it specializes in rustic cuisine. Lavalette has a paid EMS ambulance service with two emergency response squads and one transport unit; the 35 member volunteer fire department has four engine companies, a rescue boat, a mobile disaster response trailer
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Beech Fork Lake
Beech Fork Lake is a 720 acre reservoir located near Lavalette in Wayne County, West Virginia. Beech Fork Lake is partly located in neighboring Cabell County. Millers Fork and Stowers Branch join Beech Fork with their own river valleys contributing to the majority of the lakesurface of Beech Fork Lake; these streams are tributaries of Twelvepole Creek. Beech Fork Lake as a flood control impoundment was authorized by the Flood Control Act of October 23, 1962 and was constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in the mid-1970s; the lake was completed and dedicated in May 1978. Known in agrarian times as "Bean Capital Of The World" because of its abundant harvests, remote Beech Fork and its fertile farms had by the mid-20th century devolved into a "Tobacco Road" cut off from the opportunities of modern development; some tombstones in the park's Bowen Cemetery date to the 18th century. Government appropriation of private land for the lake caused rancor among locals with historic land holdings.
The Beech Fork strain of Adkins family was driven out to the Huntington metropolitan area. So numerous were these displaced persons that townsfolk joked about an "Adkins factory" at Beech Fork which mass-produced persons of the surname, it has been said that in the last days, "the Jews will go back to Palestine and the Adkinses will go back to Beech Fork." Boating, hiking and picnicking opportunities are available on site. Biking or walking along the roadways around the park, however inviting, is not recommended due to automobile traffic along the narrow rural routes; the park is an excellent site for birdwatching. Thousands of square miles of Appalachian hardwood trees surround the Beech Fork Lake area, providing a habitat for wood warblers, thrushes, cuckoos and many other forest dwelling birds. Due to a lack of extensive wetlands attractive to waterfowl, such species are comparatively less common. Beech Fork State Park Beech Fork State Park U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Beech Fork Website