SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Twelver

Twelver known as Imamiyyah, is the largest branch of Shia Islam. The term Twelver refers to its adherents' belief in twelve divinely ordained leaders, known as the Twelve Imams, their belief that the last Imam, Imam al-Mahdi, lives in occultation and will reappear as the promised Mahdi. According to Shia tradition, the Mahdi's tenure will coincide with the Second Coming of Jesus, to assist the Mahdi against the Dajjal. Twelvers believe that the Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the theology of Twelvers, the Twelve Imams are exemplary human individuals who not only rule over the community with justice, but are able to preserve and interpret sharia and the esoteric meaning of the Quran; the words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams are a model for the community to follow. Twelver Shiism is the largest branch of Shia Islam, with about 85% of all Shias, or 150 to 200 million Twelver Shias. Twelvers make majorities among Shia Muslims in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain.

They make significant minorities in India, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Nigeria and Tanzania. Iran is the only country. Twelvers share many tenets of Shia with related sects, such as the belief in Imams, but the Ismaili Shias believe in a different number of Imams and, for the most part, a different path of succession regarding the Imamate, they differ in the role and overall definition of an Imam. Twelvers are distinguished from Ismailis by their belief in Muhammad's status as the "Seal of the Prophets", in rejecting the possibility of abrogation of Sharia laws, in considering both esoteric and exoteric aspects of the Quran. Alevis in Turkey and Albania, Alawites in Syria and Lebanon, share belief in the Twelve Imams with Twelvers, but their theological doctrines are markedly different; the term'Twelver' is based on the belief that twelve male descendants from the family of Muhammad, starting with Ali ibn Abi-Talib and ending with Muhammad al-Mahdi, are Imams who have religious and political authority.

The Twelvers are known by other names: The Shi'ah is used as a synonym for "Twelvers" since this branch comprises the majority group in Shia Islam. Shia refers to a group of Muslims who believe that the succession to Muhammad must remain in his family for specific members who are designated by a divine appointment. Tabatabai states. Ja'fari refers to the Twelver Juridical school, followed by the majority of Shias; the term is derived from the name of Ja'far al-Sadiq, considered by the Twelvers to be their Sixth Imam who presented "a legal treatise". Ja'far al-Sadiq is respected and referenced by the founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of jurisprudence. Imami or Imamiyyah or Imamite is a reference to the Twelver belief in the infallibility of the Imāms. Although the Ismā'īlīs share the generic concept of Imams, this term is used for the Twelvers who believe that the leadership of the community after Muhammad belongs to Ali and eleven subsequent successors that together comprise the Fourteen Infallibles.

In 610, when Muhammad received the first revelation, Ali was 10 years old. At the time of Muhammad, some of the supporters of Ali Miqdad ibn al-Aswad, Salman the Persian, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Ummar ibn Yasir were called the Shiites of Ali; the division of Islam into Shia and Sunni traces back to the crisis of the succession to Muhammad. The followers of Ali fight with some of the Quraysh and some of the companions of Muhammad like Talhah and Zubayr; as most of his supporters were in Iraq, Ali moved the capital of Islam to Kufa and there began to fight against Mu'awiyah, who rejected giving allegiance to Ali. The death of Husayn played an important role in the spread of Shi'ism in the regions of Iraq and Persia. At the end of the first century, the influential leaders in the government established the city of Qom for the settlement of the Shia. Al-Baqir was teacher of a reporter of hadith, he introduced the principle of Taqiyya. Al-Baqir narrated many ahadith about Jurisprudence and other religious sciences which based the foundations for the Shia instructions.

With change in political situations and a suitable conditions for the development of religious activities and the time of elaborating the religious sciences, Ja'far al-Sadiq had an important role in forming the Shia Jurisprudence. Ja'far al-Sadiq and al-Baqir are the founders of the Imami Shiite school of religious law. Al-Sadiq acquired a noteworthy group of scholars around himself, comprising some of the most eminent jurists and theologians of the time. During his time, Shia developed in legal issues. Both Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq improved the position of the Shia and elaborated the intellectual basis of the interpretation and practice of Shiite Islam, their teachings were the basis for the development of Shiite religious rituals. At the beginning of the third/ninth century once again Shia flourished and it was due to the translation of scientific and philosophical books from other languages to Arabic, Al-Ma'mun giving freedom to the propagation of different religious views and his interest in intellectual debates.

Under the rule of a

Route nationale 21

The Route nationale 21 is a trunk road in south west France. The N21 used to end at Gavarnie in the Pyrenees but after 1972 ended at Argelès-Gazost the old road is now the D921. Since 2006 the section south of Lourdes, dual carriageway has been maintained by the Department Hautes-Pyrenees. Limoges - Bergerac - Agen - Lourdes - Argelès-Gazost The road starts at a junction with the N20 and heads west along the bank of the river Vienne which it crosses at Aixe-sur-Vienne; the road turns south west over open countryside to the small town of Châlus. The road passes through the Parc Regional Limousin reaching 350m altitude; the road passes the town of Thiviers before joining the River Isle close to its joining the river Auvezere. The road turns west to the town of Périgueux. To the south of Périgueux the road is now numbered the D6021, with through traffic directed to use the N221 and A89 autoroute; the N21 recommences after the junction with the A89 and D6021 heading south. The countryside is now wooded including the Forêt de Montclard.

The road meets the River Dordogne at the town of Bergerac. After Bergerac the road heads south east past the Chateau Montbazillac, to the small town of Castillonnes and Cancon; the countryside becomes more rolling and the road reaches the Lot valley. The road now by-passes the town of Villeneuve-sur-Lot and continues to the south; the road heads to the Garonne valley and the town of Agen. The town is home of the attraction Walibi Aquitaine and famous for its Prunes. Through traffic is directed west of the town along the N113; the road continues south crossing the river and a junction with the A62 autoroute. The countryside becomes more rugged as the road passes the towns of Astaffort and Lectoure; the road heads into the valley of the Ger and the town of Fleurance. Further south the road passes through the town of Auch; the road heads south west to Mirande and the town of Miélan. The road heads west crossing a ridge and the Puntous de Laguian. At Rabastens-de-Bigorre the road turns south again to the town of Tarbes.

The road leaves Tarbes to the south west with a junction to the A64 autoroute. It passes the Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrenees Airport before reaching the town of Lourdes; the road is dual carriageway south of Lourdes and is now numbered the D821 following the River Luz. Thereafter the old road is now the D921 continuing south along the Gorges de Luz into the Pyrenees mountains, it passes Luz-St-Sauveur before taking the Gorges de St Sauveur to the skiing resort of Gavarnie overlooked by the Pic de Tentes and the Cirque de Gavarnie

10th Force Support Battalion (Australia)

The 10th Force Support Battalion is an Australian Army logistics battalion and is part of the 17th Sustainment Brigade. Its role is to provide third line or'general' support within an area of operations.10FSB is located at Lavarack Barracks and Ross Island Barracks in Townsville, a Troop is located in Darwin.10FSB was formed on 1 March 1998, following the amalgamation of the 10th Terminal Regiment, 2nd Field Logistics Battalion and the 1st Division Postal Unit. The battalion was awarded a Meritorious Unit Citation for operations in East Timor during INTERFET in 1999–2000, the first logistics unit to win such an award; the 10th Force Support Battalion consists of: Battalion Headquarters 10th Logistic Support Company 2nd Force Supply Company 30th Terminal Squadron 68 Terminal Support Troop 69 Terminal Support Troop 72 Terminal Support Troop 35th Water Transport Squadron 70/71 Water Transport Troop 36 Water Transport Troop 42 Amphibious Troop Ship’s Army Detachment HMAS Choules Kehoe, Mick. The Force Behind the Force, 10 Force Support Battalion in East Timor 20 September 1999 – 20 February 2000.

Russell Island: 10 FSB