UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
UKChartsPlus is an independent weekly newsletter about the UK music charts. It was first published in September 2001 as ChartsPlus in order to authoritatively record the official music chart information in the United Kingdom, as compiled by the Official Charts Company, its publication began after Hit Music ceased publication in May 2001. The newsletter was established to be independent of Music Week, licensing the chart data directly from Official Charts Company and other chart providers, it covered: The UK Singles Chart up to number 200 The UK Albums Chart up to number 200 The Compilation Album Chart up to number 50It included a New Entries Spotlight on all new top 200 singles, a Year to Date collection of all the current year's Top 200 albums and singles. Since it has expanded to include the BPI silver, gold or platinum sales awards, predictions of the success of forthcoming releases, Budget Albums Top 50, Airplay Top 100, Downloads Top 40; the Welsh Singles and Albums Top 75s and the Scottish Singles and Albums Top 75s are published in reference to the main UK Top 200 listings.
It published genre specific charts, for Indie, Rock and R&B. Some of these charts are exclusive to ChartsPlus and it is the only place where the UK Singles Chart and UK Albums Chart positions below 75 are published, as is the case for the Compilation Album Chart for positions below 40. In October 2008, publisher Musiqware Ltd. stopped production of ChartsPlus: the last issue published was number 371. In December 2008, ChartsPlus was relaunched by new publisher UKChartsPlus, the first issue under new control was number 383. Issues 372-382 were issued retrospectively between January and March 2009. With issue no. 463 the publication was relaunched under the new title "UKChartsPlus", featuring a new cover, several new charts, some expanded charts, a new colour scheme. It now features a singles index and an albums index showing each entry's chart positions across all charts featured in UKChartsPlus; the range of charts: Top 200 Singles Top 200 Artist Albums Top 200 Download Songs Top 100 Audio Streaming Songs Top 100 Download Albums Top 50 Compilation Albums Top 50 Budget Albums Top 40 Vinyl Albums Top 40 Dance Singles & Albums Top 50 R&B Singles & Albums Top 40 Rock/Metal Singles & Albums Top 50 Indie Singles & Albums Top 20 Indie Breakers Singles & Albums Top 100 Year So Far Singles & Albums Top 75 Scottish Singles & Albums Top 75 Welsh Singles & Albums UK Radio Airplay Top 100, from July 2013: UK Radio Airplay Top 200 UK TV Airplay Top 40, from July 2013: UK TV Airplay Top 40 The Big Top 40 Other features: New Entries Spotlight: Singles New Entries Spotlight: Albums UKChartsPlus Singles Index UKChartsPlus Albums Index BPI Sales Awards NMC Airplay Awards, from July 2013: UKChartsPlus Airplay Awards Occasional additions: Michael Jackson Performance Chart Beatles Performance Chart Football Songs Chart Christmas Songs Chart Lonnie's Random Observations As of February 2011, two versions are available for subscription: Full version: £145 p.a.
£43.75, £17.50 Express version: £120 p.a. £36.25, £13 Individual back issues are available at £5 each or in quarterly or annual batches. Hit Music Music Week UK Albums Chart UK Singles Chart UK Album Downloads Chart UK Singles Downloads Chart UKChartsPlus website Bibliography of British Chart books Website of rival chart publisher Music Week Magazine
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte
Rattan is the name for 600 species of old world climbing palms belonging to subfamily Calamoideae. Rattan is known as manila, or malacca, named after the ports of shipment Manila and Malacca City, as manau; the climbing habit is associated with the characteristics of its flexible woody stem, derived from a secondary growth, makes rattan a liana rather than a true wood. Calamoideae includes tree palms such as Raphia and Metroxylon and shrub palms such as Salacca; the climbing habit in palms is not restricted to Calamoideae, but has evolved in three other evolutionary lines—tribes Cocoseae and Areceae in subfamily Arecoideae, tribe Hyophorbeae in subfamily Ceroxyloideae. They do not climb by means of their reflexed terminal leaflets. Of these only Desmoncus spp. furnish stems of sufficiently good quality to be used as rattan cane substitutes. There are 13 different genera of rattans; some of the species in these "rattan genera" have a different habit and do not climb, they are shrubby palms of the forest undergrowth.
The largest rattan genus is Calamus, distributed in Asia except for one species represented in Africa. From the remaining rattan genera, Ceratolobus, Plectocomia, Myrialepis, Calospatha and Retispatha, are centered in Southeast Asia with outliers eastwards and northwards; the rattan genera and their distribution: In Uhl & Dransfield, Dransfield & Manokaran, a great deal of basic introductory information is available. Available rattan floras and monographs by region: Uses by taxon; the major commercial species of rattan canes as identified for Asia by Dransfield and Manokaran and for Africa, by Tuley and Sunderland: Utilized Calamus species canes: Other traditional uses of rattans by species: Most rattans differ from other palms in having slender stems, 2–5 cm diameter, with long internodes between the leaves. Rattans are superficially similar to bamboo. Unlike bamboo, rattan stems are solid, most species need structural support and cannot stand on their own. Many rattans have spines which act as hooks to aid climbing over other plants, to deter herbivores.
Rattans have been known to grow up to hundreds of metres long. Most of the world's rattan population exist in Indonesia, distributed among the islands Borneo and Sumbawa; the rest of the world's supply comes from the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. In forests where rattan grows, its economic value can help protect forest land, by providing an alternative to loggers who forgo timber logging and harvest rattan canes instead. Rattan requires simpler tools and is much easier to transport, it grows much faster than most tropical wood. This makes it a potential tool in forest maintenance, since it provides a profitable crop that depends on rather than replaces trees, it remains to be seen whether rattan can be as useful as the alternatives. Rattans are threatened with overexploitation, as harvesters are cutting stems too young and reducing their ability to resprout. Unsustainable harvesting of rattan can lead to forest degradation, affecting overall forest ecosystem services. Processing can be polluting.
The use of toxic chemicals and petrol in the processing of rattan affects soil and water resources, ultimately people's health. Meanwhile, the conventional method of rattan production is threatening the plant's long-term supply, the income of workers. Rattans are extensively used for making baskets and furniture; when cut into sections, rattan can be used as wood to make furniture. Rattan accepts paints and stains like many other kinds of wood, so it is available in many colours, it can be worked into many styles. Moreover, the inner core can be worked into wicker. Raw rattan is processed into several products to be used as materials in furniture making; the various species of rattan range from several millimetres up to 5–7 cm in diameter. From a strand of rattan, the skin is peeled off, to be used as rattan weaving material; the remaining "core" of the rattan can be used for various purposes in furniture making. Rattan is a good material because it is lightweight, suitable for outdoor use, and, to a certain extent, flexible.
Traditionally, the women of the Wemale ethnic group of Seram Island, Indonesia wore rattan girdles around their waist. Thin rattan canes were the standard implement for school corporal punishment in England and Wales, are still used for this purpose in schools in Malaysia and several African countries. In Singapore, the maximum strokes are 6 known as 6 of the best. Similar canes are used for military punishments in the Singapore Armed Forces. Heavier canes of rattan, are used for judicial corporal punishments, called "caning", in Aceh, Brunei and Singapore; some rattan fruits are edible, with a sour taste akin to
All Saints (group)
All Saints are a pop girl group formed in London in 1993. They were founded as All Saints 18.104.22.168 by Shaznay Lewis and Simone Rainford. The group struggled to find commercial success upon being signed to ZTT Records and were dropped by the label shortly after Rainford left the group. In 1996, the group were joined by sisters Nicole and Natalie Appleton and signed to London Records under their shortened name. Part of the British girl group wave of the 1990s, their debut album, All Saints, peaked at number two on the UK Albums Chart and went on to become the UK’s third best-selling girl group album of all time; the album contained three UK number one singles: "Never Ever", "Under the Bridge"/"Lady Marmalade" and "Bootie Call". "Never Ever" is the second best-selling girl group single of all-time in the UK, behind the Spice Girls' "Wannabe". It won two Brit Awards: Best British Single and Best British Video, the group were nominated for Best British Breakthrough Act, their second album, Saints & Sinners, became their first UK number-one album and achieved multi-platinum success.
It included the UK number one singles "Pure Shores" and "Black Coffee". Amid in-fighting among the group members, All Saints split the following year; the group reformed after signing to Parlophone Records to release their third album, Studio 1. However, the album bowed at number 40 in the United Kingdom and All Saints were dropped by their label shortly afterwards. Following a second split in 2009, the group reunited in 2014 for a series of live performances, prompting the group to release of Red Flag, Testament; as of January 2016, All Saints have sold 12 million records. Melanie Blatt and Shaznay Lewis started their career by singing backing vocals at Sarm West Studios, the ZTT recording studios near All Saints Road, London. In 1993, Blatt and Simone Rainford were signed to ZTT Records, music manager Ron Tom decided the trio should become a group. "One of the names was Spice, but we didn't think it was good enough" admitted Simone. Some of the others names they considered included Slinky and Shifty, but ended up calling themselves All Saints 22.214.171.124.
After the recording studio and the year of their births. They were launched as a trio for their first time at the Touch Magazine stage at the Notting Hill Carnival, but the problems started generate when the trio could not decide on what kind of music they wanted to make. They released their first single in 1994, "Silver Shadow", they released two singles together, "Silver Shadow" and "If You Wanna Party", but they were not successful. Additionally, Rainford was not getting along well with the other girls, subsequently left the group in 1995, the remaining duo was dropped by ZTT Records. Regardless and Lewis set out to find a replacement for Rainford. Conducting many auditions, Blatt's father, a taxi driver at the time, met Nicole Appleton in May 1996 whom Blatt knew from her days at the Sylvia Young Theatre School. However, Blatt was too embarrassed to ask Appleton to join the band, so she left it to the shy Shaznay to ask her. "We gave her the low-down on everything and played her some demos, which she loved", she said.
"She sang to me in the bathroom of a restaurant and we knew right away she'd be perfect. I was like,'Cool! She can join!' And, that". Nicole's older sister, Natalie Appleton, at first pondered with the idea of becoming the band's manager. However, it seemed natural. Natalie had to be persuaded to join the band, because she did not want to leave her daughter Rachel whilst she was overseas, her parents stepped in and offered to look after their granddaughter for her. After forming a new group in May 1996, the four singers met with Karl "K-Gee" Gordon, a former band member of Outlaw Posse, who recorded a demo for "I Know Where It's At"; the band began looking for a new record deal, but most record labels wanted to model them after the Spice Girls, who had become an international sensation by that time. The demo made its way to London Records, where John Benson finalised the recording deal in November 1996. All Saints recorded their debut album, All Saints, with producers such as Cameron McVey, Magnus Fiennes, Karl "K-Gee" Gordon, John Benson, Johnny Douglas, Nellee Hooper.
In mid-1997, the single "I Know Where It's At" broke the group into the mainstream, reaching number four on the UK Singles Chart. Their second single, "Never Ever", was issued in November 1997 and launched them worldwide, peaking at number one in the UK and Australia; the single sold 1.2 million copies in the UK alone and won the group two BRIT Awards in 1998: Best British Single and Best British Video. The album All Saints was released in November 1997, reached number two on the UK Album Chart, was BPI-certified five times platinum in the UK for sales of 1.5 million. The third single from the album was the double A-side "Under the Bridge / Lady Marmalade", which became their second UK number-one single in May 1998, earning a gold certification for 400,000 copies sold; the same month, the album was re-released with a different track listing. "Bootie Call", the fourth single went to number one, the silver-certified "War of Nerves" peaked at number seven, selling 200,000 copies. The album achieved success in countries such as Australia and the United States, where All Saints was certified platinum by the RIAA for sales of one million and produced two top forty singles on the Billboard Hot 100: "I Know Where It's At" and "Never Ever".
In November 1
All Hits is the first greatest hits album by All Saints released in 2001 following the group's split. It features a song by Melanie Blatt and Artful Dodger called "TwentyFourSeven". Official site
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro