Rock music in Australia
Australian rock called Oz rock, is rock music from Australia. The nation has a rich history of rock music and an appreciation of the roots of various rock genres originating in the United States or Britain, but continental Europe, more the musical styles of Africa. Australian rock has contributed to the development of some of these genres, as well as having its own unique Australiana sound with pub rock and its indigenous music. From 1955 to 1975 three distinct "waves" of Australian rock occurred; the first wave was from 1955 to 1963 and was influenced by American and British styles with local variants provided by artists such as Johnny O'Keefe, who had a hit with "Wild One", which appeared in July 1958. Late in that stage, clean-cut acts, which featured on TV's Bandstand and toured as the "Bandstand family", were representing local music on the record charts; the second wave from 1964 to 1969 was directly influenced by The Beatles and their tour of the country in June 1964. Two major acts from that era are The Easybeats and Bee Gees.
A weekly magazine, Go-Set, published from 1966 to 1974, aimed at teenagers and twenty-year-olds became the most influential and popular music-related publication of the period. The third wave from 1970 to 1975, with the advent of pub rock, was typified by early exponents, Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs and Buffalo. Internationally, AC/DC, which had started as a pub rock group in November 1973 has come to be the most well-known Australian rock band, with more than 71 million sales in the US alone by 2014. Beginning in that era was Countdown, a popular music TV program on national broadcaster, ABC, ran from November 1974 until July 1987. After 1975 Australian rock began to diversify including local contributors to punk and indie rock styles. By the 1980s baby boomer acts were prominent, which included John Farnham, whose album, Whispering Jack peaked at number one on the Australian charts for 25 weeks and was certified 24x platinum indicating shipment of over 1.68 million copies – the highest by any Australian artist.
In that decade, indigenous rock groups, Yothu Yindi and Warumpi Band, achieved wider recognition. In the mid-1950s American rockabilly and rock and roll music was taken up by local rock musicians and it soon caught on with Australian teens, through films and from 1956, television. Although issued in 1954, "Rock Around the Clock", a single by United States group Bill Haley and His Comets, did not chart in Australia until 1956. Considered a novelty song, the track and the related film of the same name: "was like a beginner's guide to rock and roll, inspired legions of local copyists". In July 1956 Frankie Davidson's cover version of another Haley single, "Rock-A-Beatin' Boogie", was released and is the first charting example of Australian recorded rock and roll, albeit as a minor hit. Other early recorded examples by Australians include non-charting singles: "Saturday Night Fish Fry" by Les Welch, "Rock Around the Clock" by Vic Sabrino and "Washboard Rock'n' Roll" by the Schneider Sisters. Back in September 1953 US entrepreneur, Lee Gordon, arrived in Sydney and soon established himself nationally by organising a record-breaking tour by US singer Johnnie Ray in August 1954.
Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, described Gordon as "the'midwife' of Australian rock'n' roll, cut an imposing figure in his role as label manager, tour promoter and all-round music entrepreneur". From 1954 to 1962 Gordon's Big Show promotions brought to Australia — in many cases for the first or only time — dozens of US jazz and popular stars, including Louis Armstrong, Ella Fitzgerald, Artie Shaw, Nat King Cole, Frank Sinatra, Bill Haley & The Comets, Little Richard, Buddy Holly & The Crickets, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, he promoted local talent by using Australian acts as supports on those tours. In 1956 the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was established to regulate the music industry's releases. United Kingdom's EMI had dominated the Australasian record market since the end of WWII, they made UK music a powerful force in the late 1950s and 1960s with signings like Cliff Richard and The Shadows, The Beatles, The Hollies and Cilla Black. EMI locally distributed Decca as well as the US Capitol label.
During this period, however, a number of local companies in Australia expanded into the growing Australian music market, which grew after the emergence of the first wave of American rock'n' roll. In 1952 merchant bank, Mainguard took over a struggling Sydney engineering firm and relaunched it as Festival Records, its main local competition was ARC, a former radio production and disc transcription service that established the successful Pacific and Coronet labels and competed with Festival as a manufacturer and distributor in New South Wales. Although most of the major labels were Sydney-based, Melbourne's vibrant dance and concert scene powered a local boom in rock'n' roll and pop music and it became Australia's pop capital in the 1960s. During the 1950s luthier Bill May expanded his Maton guitar company, becoming one of the first local manufacturers of the new electric guitars and amplifiers. In 1953 precision engineering company White & Gillespie established a custom recording division, which their company history claims was the first in Australia to press records in the new vinyl microgroove format.
The new division soon included the W&G label and studio, which arguably had its biggest success with the earlier Australian releases of Melbourne band based in London, The Seekers. In 1960 Melbourne consumer electronics company, Astor Elec
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Albert Productions, a division of music publishing and recording company Albert Music, is one of Australia's longest established independent record labels to specialise in rock and roll music. The label was founded in 1963 by Ted Albert, whose family owned and operated the Sydney music publishing house J. Albert & Son. During the 1960s, Albert Productions operated like other similar companies, such as those founded by producers Joe Meek, Phil Spector or Shel Talmy; these companies discovered and signed new pop performers and groups, produced their recordings independently leased the finished product to established record labels, who handled their release and promotion. Ted Albert signed two of the most important Australian groups of the mid-1960s, Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs and The Easybeats, their recordings were released through a deal with EMI's subsidiary label Parlophone and included some of the biggest Australian hits of the decade, most of which were produced by Albert himself and Shel Talmy.
The company curtailed its recording activities in the late 1960s but was revived in the early 1970s, when Albert Productions established its own record label and a state-of-the-art recording studio in central Sydney. Early Alberts acts included Alison MacCallum, Ted Mulry, John Paul Young and Bobbi Marchini, many of their recordings were produced by visiting British pop svengali Simon Napier-Bell, but the label's greatest success came in the mid-1970s, following the return to Australia of former The Easybeats' members, Harry Vanda and George Young. In the last years of The Easybeats the duo had become both a powerful songwriting team and skilled producers, upon returning to Australia in early 1973 they became inhouse producers for Albert Productions, which became one of the most successful labels in Australian music. In the early 1970s they produced 20% of the music on the Australian charts, had three or four tracks in the top 20 simultaneously. Working in collaboration with engineer Bruce Brown, Vanda & Young produced a string of successful singles and albums for acts including former band mate Stevie Wright, John Paul Young, AC/DC, The Angels and William Shakespeare.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Vanda & Young enjoyed their own successful career as Alberts recording artists, releasing a string of regarded albums and singles under the ironic pseudonym Flash and the Pan. These included the Australian hits "Down Among the Dead Men" and "Hey St Peter" and "Walking in the Rain", covered by Grace Jones; the Albert Productions label is known internationally through its association with hard rock band AC/DC. Vanda & Young produced all their albums recorded in Australia between 1974 and 1978, two mainstay members of the band and Angus Young, were George's younger brothers. In 2003 Albert Productions established operations in the United Kingdom and added the Northern Ireland rock band The Answer to its recording artist stable. Albert Productions does not only specialise in rock and roll, Australian R&B singer, Paulini signed to Albert Productions in 2009. Alberts serves at the local sub-publisher for Famous Music UK, EMI Virgin, Bug Music, Irving Berlin, Imagem, among others.
AC/DC Cheetah Rose Tattoo Paulini Megan Washington Minus The Bear Acidtone The Seabellies The Basics Shelley Harland Eulogies Bad Veins The Dears Darker My Love Sea Wolf Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs Breed 77 Dallas Crane George Young Graham Lowndes happylife Harry Vanda Red Top Matches Aleesha Rome John Paul Young Oblivia Skybombers Stevie Wright The Choirboys The Answer The Easybeats The Marcus Hook Roll Band The Missing Links The Throb The Angels San Cisco William Shakespeare Noel McGrath. Australian Encyclopaedia Of Rock. Published by Outback Press Australia. 1978. Clinton Walker. Highway To Hell. Published by Pan Macmillan, Australia 1994, & Picador 2002.. Glenn Goldsmith. Hard Road. Published by Random House Australia, 2004.. Peter Wilmoth; the Countdown Years. 1974-1987. Published by McPhee Grible, Australia, 1993. Murray Engleheart. Blood Sweat & Beers. Published by Harper Collins, Australia, 2010.. John Tait. Vanda & Young, Inside Australia's Hit Factory. Published by UNSW Press. Australia, 2010.. Jane Albert.
House Of Hits. Published by Hardie Grant Books, Australia, 2010. List of record labels milesago.com amo.org.au Official website
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Lent is the first Album by Dallas Crane, released in 1998. However, this album has become rare these days. Nylon Don't Breath A Romantic Comedy Suppose I'm a Catholic Jonco Mr. Meddle Days of the Wild T. V. Trenchcoat De Ville Cyclone January
Dallas Crane are a triple ARIA Award nominated Australian alternative rock band from Melbourne. Their self-titled third album was released on 10 July 2004, which peaked in the ARIA Albums Chart top 50, its nominations at the ARIA Music Awards of 2004, included Best Rock Album. Its lead single, "Dirty Hearts", debuted in the related ARIA Singles Chart top 50. Dallas Crane's fourth album, Factory Girls, peaked in the top 30, their highest charting single, "Sit on My Knee" – a duet with Jimmy Barnes – reached No. 14 in July 2005. In 2009 they featured as a support act for The. After re-grouping following a short hiatus in 2012 Dallas Crane's began work on their 5th studio album "Scoundrels" featuring Chris Brodie on bass guitar, Dave Larkin on vocals and guitar, Steve Pinkerton on drums and Pete Satchell on guitar and vocals. Dallas Crane formed in 1996 in Melbourne by Chris Brodie on bass guitar, Dave Larkin on lead vocals and guitar, Pete Satchell on guitar and vocals and Shan Vanderwert on drums.
Satchell and Larkin were former school mates and Brodie and Vanderwert joined soon after. They rehearsed material for their debut album, Lent, in a Port Melbourne oil shed on the property of Dallas Crane Transport; the local trucking company was owned by friends: their rehearsals were paid for in beer, the group were renamed, Dallas Crane. After working the Melbourne pub circuit they befriended local sound engineer, Robbie Rowlands, who produced their debut self-funded album, released locally on their own label, Slant 6. Larkin recalled "We were pretty young and, the swag of songs we had at the time. It’s a incongruous record when you look at it, but we rate it as our favorite for that reason, and because it was our first and the whole recording experience was new to us." One of their fans was Richard Kingsmill of national radio station, Triple J, who invited them to record a track, "Nylon Don't Breathe", live in the ABC studios, during his Australian Music Show. The track was co-written by Larkin and Satchell: it appeared on the Five Alive: Live at the Wireless live 2× CD compilation.
They were the only unsigned act of 35 artists to appear on the album. This endorsement led to wider interest in the band interstate. Dallas Crane toured Australia in support of You Am I and Regurgitator. Larkin reflected that You Am I "were instrumental for us in many ways... When we started out, they were the band. If you could go well in Australia, you would be going as well as You Am I. In terms of cred and how good you were as a live band, they were it." Dallas Crane became the head-liners at St. Kilda's Esplanade Hotel, their live repertoire featured tracks that were recorded for a second studio album, Twenty Four Seven, released on 17 October 2000. They had recorded and mixed the album in a week at Melbourne's Hothouse Recording Studios with Craig Harnath producing. Shortly after its release Brodie left due to commitments with his brother Dan Brodie and their band, the Broken Arrows, which had signed to a record label, EMI. Chris Brodie was replaced in Dallas Crane by Pat Bourke on bass guitar in early 2001.
Twenty Four Seven received positive responses from Australian rock music critics with local rock street press, Beat Magazine and In-Press, hailing it as "Album of the Week" and "Rock Record of the Summer", respectively. The lead track, "Sit on My Knee", written by Larkin, was released as a single, it was placed on high rotation by Triple J. The group followed with "Sold Me" and "Already Gone". Dallas Crane won Best Live Band at the Australian Live Music Awards, leading to them representing their country at the International Live Music Awards in London in 2002, featuring their debut performance at Shepherd's Bush Empire alongside Russell Crowe's "Thirty Odd Foot of Grunt" They continued to win support slots to a number of artists including Ryan Adams, The Black Keys, You Am I and Rocket Science. During their shows with You Am I, lead singer Tim Rogers touted, "Dallas Crane is the best band in the country" and made reference to them in the You Am I single, "Who Put the Devil in You". Rogers curated the soundtrack for a feature film, Dirty Deeds, asked Dallas Crane to supply a cover version of "Wild About You" performed by Australian 1960's band, the Missing Links.
Midway through 2002 Dallas Crane signed a management deal with talent managers, Majorbox Music, in Melbourne. The band's follow up release was a five-track extended play, No Through Road, it was released as a 7" vinyl single, with the title track and a raucous B-side, "Wannabe". It was recorded at Sing Sing Studios with Rowlands as producer; the song was well received critically and earned high-rotation on Triple J, consolidating them as a prospering force in the local music scene. Dallas Crane continued to tour Australia, joining the Whitlams, Rocket Science on national runs consecutively, they played at Homebake in Sydney in 2003, joining fellow Australian groups the Church and Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds for the festival's line-up. They teamed up with music mates Dan Brodie and the Broken Arrows and Dan Kelly and the Alpha Males for a national tour, Dan Does Dallas. Dallas Crane started their own headline tour promoting No Through Road and finished the year at Melbourne's Big Day Out festival.
Shortly after that performance, they gathered backstage to sign with Albert Productions, joining label mates AC/DC on a roster that had included the Easybeats and Rose Tattoo. Ladybird, a three-track EP, was recorded with Harnath producing at Hothouse Studios and was the first official Alberts' release leading to more high-ro
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular