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Twenty Questions

Twenty Questions is a spoken parlor game which encourages deductive reasoning and creativity. It originated in the United States and was played in the 19th century, it escalated in popularity during the late 1940s when it became the format for a successful weekly radio quiz program. In the traditional game, one player is chosen to be the answerer; that person does not reveal this to the others. All other players are questioners, they each take turns asking a question which can be answered with a simple "Yes" or "No." In variants of the game, multiple state answers may be included such as the answer "Maybe." The answerer answers each question in turn. Sample questions could be: "Is it bigger than a breadbox?" or "Can I put it in my mouth?" Lying is not allowed in the game. If a questioner guesses the correct answer, that questioner wins and becomes the answerer for the next round. If 20 questions are asked without a correct guess the answerer has stumped the questioners and gets to be the answerer for another round.

Careful selection of questions can improve the odds of the questioner winning the game. For example, a question such as "Does it involve technology for communications, entertainment or work?" can allow the questioner to cover a broad range of areas using a single question that can be answered with a simple "yes" or "no". If the answerer responds with "yes," the questioner can use the next question to narrow down the answer; the most popular variant is called "Animal, Mineral." This is taken from the Linnaean taxonomy of the natural world. In this version, the answerer tells the questioners at the start of the game whether the subject belongs to the animal, vegetable or mineral kingdom; these categories can produce odd technicalities, such as a wooden table being classified as a vegetable, or a belt being both animal and mineral, or vegetable, if made from plant fibers. Other versions specify that the item to be guessed should be in a given category, such as actions, famous people, etc. In Hungary, a similar game is named after Simon bar Kokhba.

A version of Twenty Questions called Yes and No is played as a parlour game by characters of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol. Similar to the aforementioned, there is another version known to English as a Second Language educators, played based on a given topic. There are many different ways. 20 Questions on "Educate, Learn", for example, was developed for the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education and Women's Affairs. The abstract mathematical version of the game where some answers may be wrong is sometimes called Ulam's game or the Rényi–Ulam game; the game suggests. The game is used as an example when teaching people about information theory. Mathematically, if each question is structured to eliminate half the objects, 20 questions will allow the questioner to distinguish between 220 or 1,048,576 objects. Accordingly, the most effective strategy for Twenty Questions is to ask questions that will split the field of remaining possibilities in half each time; the process is analogous to a binary search algorithm in computer science or successive approximation ADC in analog-to-digital signal conversion.

In 1901 Charles Sanders Peirce discussed factors in the economy of research that govern the selection of a hypothesis for trial — cheapness, intrinsic value, relation to other projects. He discussed the potential of Twenty Questions to single one subject out from among 220 and, pointing to skillful caution, Thus twenty skillful hypotheses will ascertain what two hundred thousand stupid ones might fail to do; the secret of the business lies in the caution which breaks a hypothesis up into its smallest logical components, only risks one of them at a time. He elaborated on how, if that principle had been followed in the investigation of light, its investigators would have saved themselves from half a century of work. Note that testing the smallest logical components of a hypothesis one at a time does not mean asking about, say, 1,048,576 subjects one at a time. Instead it means extracting aspects of a guess or hypothesis, asking, for example, "did an animal do this?" before asking "did a horse do this?".

That aspect of scientific method resembles a situation puzzle in facing a puzzling scenario at the start. Both games involve asking yes/no questions, but Twenty Questions places a greater premium on efficiency of questioning. A limit on their likeness to the scientific process of trying hypotheses is that a hypothesis, because of its scope, can be harder to test for truth than to test for falsity or vice versa. In developing the participatory anthropic principle, an interpretation of quantum mechanics, theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler used a variant on Twenty Questions, called Negative Twenty Questions, to show how the questions we choose to ask about the universe may dictate the answers we get. In this variant, the respondent does not choose or decide upon any particular or definite object beforehand, but only on a pattern of'Yes' or'No' answers; this variant requires the respondent to provide a consistent set of answers to successive

Leona Cavalli

Leona Cavalli is a Brazilian actress. Her father politician and poet and teacher mother's name, has three brothers. At birth, was named Alleyona, her mother wanted it to be Leona, but the father thought the name too strong for a baby and decided to adapt - it. Cavalli comes from their sponsors, her childhood was in nature, playing fields by the gauchos, where the horse ran, climbed trees, swam praticaca and many other sports. With her father, twice mayor of the city, learned early to live with a lot of people climbing on the stump, attending rallies without bothering to be the daughter of a public person alive. With his mother, learned to appreciate the beauty and love freedom. At age ten she was traveling, had boyfriends and wanted to be an actress.she participated in several parts as, A Divina Sarah, As Lágrimas Amargas de Petra Von Kant, Brincando em cima Daquilo, O Homem e o Cavalo, etc. Came the UFRGS, in the course of Performing Arts and the PUC, in the course of law. But, dropped everything and went to St. Paul in an attempt to do theater professionally.

Participated in several films such as, Um Céu de Estrelas, Amarelo Manga, Olga, Antônia, Aparecida - O Milagre, etc. Is participated in several telenovelas and miniseries as, Da Cor do Pecado, Começar de Novo, Belíssima, Bang Bang, the miniseries Amazônia, de Galvez a Chico Mendes, Duas Caras, Negócio da China, etc. Leona participated in an episode of Casos e Acasos. Leona in 2010, participates in the miniseries Dalva e Herivelto portraying the character Margot, is in the theater with the monologue "Máscaras de Penas Penadas". In 2010, he participated in an episode of As Cariocas and A Vida Alheia, series aired by Globo, As well as appearing in the feature film Os Inquilinos. In 2011, she made a cameo on Araguaia; this air, soap opera, A Vida da Gente as Dra. Celina. In 2012, made an appearance in the series As Brasileiras, in the episode A Justiceira de Olinda. Zarolha plays the character in the remake of the telenovela Gabriela. In 2013 will be in the soap opera Amor à Vida of Walcyr Carrasco, the plot she interprets the medical Glauce.

Official website Leona Cavalli on IMDb

Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman

Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman is a Nigerian lawyer who serves as the ECOWAS Commissioner for Political Affairs and Security. Prior to this, she was appointed Minister of Women Affairs and Social Development in December 2008, she left office in March 2010. Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman was born in Argungu, a fishing community in Kebbi State, Her father was an area court judge, her mother came from the Gwandu royal family, she was brought up in Birnin Argungu. In 1972 she obtained entry to Lagos, she went on Zaria where she obtained a degree in law. She went to the London School of Economics and Political Science where she gained a master's degree in law, her first job as a lawyer was with the Ministry of Justice in the old Sokoto State. She worked at Continental Merchant Bank, Lagos for seven years, worked for a short time at NAL Merchant Bank before moving to Aluminum Smelter Company, where she was company secretary/legal adviser. After that, she worked at the Securities and Exchange Commission before being appointed Minister.

President Umaru Yar'Adua appointed Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman as Minister for Women Affairs on 17 December 2008. In September 2009 Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman decried marginalization of women in Nigerian politics, she said that violence and male chauvinism were prevalent in the political climate, coupled with lack of money few women were able to contest for public office. At meetings in October 2009 organized by UNICEF and the Ministry of Women Affairs and Social Development, Salamatu Hussaini Suleiman said her mission was to serve as the national vehicle for speedy and healthy development of Nigerian women, to ensure the protection and development of women and children for meaningful life, she urged the state to give women at least 30 % representation in appointive positions. In December 2009 she decried the failure of the government to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Nigerian Ministry of Women AffairsShe was Honourable Minister of state II Foreign Affairs - Nigeria, 2010 to 2011


The name Ctesippus may refer to a character in Plato's Euthydemus and Lysis, to a historical figure, see Leptines and Against Leptines. In Greek mythology, the name Ctesippus may refer to: Ctessipus, son of Heracles by Deianira, he was grandfather of Antimachus and great-grandfather of Deiphontes. Thersander, son of Agamedidas, is given as his great-grandson. Ctesippus, another son of Heracles by Astydameia the daughter of Amyntor or Ormenius. Ctessipus, two of the suitors of Penelope, one from Same, the other from Ithaca; the rich and "lawless" Ctesippus of Same, son of Polytherses, who has'fabulous wealth' appears in the Odyssey. Telemachus says if he had hit the guest, he would have run Ctesippus through with his spear. In the battle between Odysseus and the suitors, Ctesippus attempts to kill Eumaeus with a spear, but misses due to Athena's intervention, though scratches Eumaeus's shoulder, is thereupon himself killed by Philoetius, who thus avenges the disrespect towards his master. Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History translated by Charles Henry Oldfather.

Twelve volumes. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Vol. 3. Books 4.59–8. Online version at Bill Thayer's Web Site Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica. Vol 1-2. Immanel Bekker. Ludwig Dindorf. Friedrich Vogel. in aedibus B. G. Teubneri. Leipzig. 1888–1890. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, PH. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Pausanias, Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library Pausanias, Graeciae Descriptio. 3 vols. Leipzig, Teubner. 1903. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F. B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website

Laura (Capaccio)

Laura is a southern Italian village and hamlet of Capaccio, a municipality in the province of Salerno, Campania. As of 2001 its population was of 1,301. On September 9, 1943, the beaches of Laura and Paestum were the landing points of the U. S. Fifth Army during the Operation Avalanche, part of the Allied invasion of Italy. Located in the northern side of Cilentan Coast, nearby the mouth of Sele river, Laura lies a few km from the Ancient Greek city of Paestum and the village of Capaccio Scalo, it is 12 km far from Capaccio, 14 from Agropoli, 25 from Eboli, 22 from Battipaglia and 36 from Salerno. The inhabited area extends along the main road and by the Tyrrhenian coastline, part of the Nature Reserve Foce Sele-Tanagro; the urban expansion, as well as to the surrounding villages, began in the late 20th century, because of the seaside tourism and the proximity to the ruins of Paestum. Crossed in the middle by the provincial highway SP 175/B that links Salerno to Agropoli by the coast, Laura is few km far from the national highway SS 18 Naples-Reggio Calabria and from the railway stations of Capaccio-Roccadaspide and Paestum.

Cilentan dialect Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park Media related to Laura at Wikimedia Commons

Evald Nielsen

Evald Nielsen was a Danish silversmith and long-standing master of the Goldsmith's Guild of Copenhagen and one of the leading men behind the organizing of the Danish gold- and silversmiths. Nielsen was born in Stubbekøbing on the island Falster in the southeast of Denmark. In 1887 his father, a coach builder, smashed his knee in a working accident and went bankrupt with his workshop; when the father died in 1893, the family was left in poverty. In 1893 Evald Nielsen was apprenticed to the workshop of Aug. Fleron in Copenhagen, first as a press operator as steel engraver. In 1900, when he had finished his training, he travelled and worked in Germany and France, he visited the World Exhibition in Paris 1900. In 1905 Evald Nielsen opened his own workshop in a cellar in Raadhusstræde, Copenhagen. At first he worked as silversmith as well as engraver, but after a few years he concentrated on silver producing and selling hollow ware and first of all cutlery. In 1914 his workshop employed 14 persons.

In 1918 his shop and workshop moved to Vester Voldgade 11 in Copenhagen, where the firm had its base for the following decade. In 1926 Evald Nielsen bought a property at Nygade 5 - a street, part of the main shopping area in Copenhagen, moved his shop to this building. In 1931 the shop was renovated and rebuild in the art deco style, attracting much attention among the Copenhageners of that time. In 1930 the workshop was moved from Vester Voldgade to rented premises in Ny Vestergade 7 some hundred meters east of Nygade. From 1927 and a decade onwards Evald Nielsen's oldest son, the silversmith Aage Weimar worked in the firm, until he opened his own workshop. Evald Nielsen's other son, Bjarne Weimar, finished his education as a chaser in 1929 and started working in his father's firm. In 1941 he was taken into partnership, he tried to carry on with the firm, when Evald Nielsen died in 1958, his attempt wasn't successful, the shop in Nygade closed in the spring of 1970. The workshop in Ny Vestergade was in 1958 let on lease to Ejnar Olsen, who produced to the shop in Nygade.

In 1967 the workshop was sold to Helge Hansen. The following year he moved the activities to Rødovre, where he had a workshop. Up to 2006 the firm was carried on in the name of Evald Nielsens Eftf. the last years with Helge Hansen's sons Harly Hansen and Søren Pedersen as owners. In 2006 they sold the firm and the rights to the Evald Nielsen-name and -design to silversmith Gregers Holt. Evald Nielsen opened his workshop the year. In the years to come Evald Nielsen put his mark on the Danish skønvirke-style. Contrary to Georg Jensen Evald Nielsen based his firm on his own design and only to a small extent used artists and architects as designers. During the first decades he himself designed jewellery, hollow cutlery, he generated his own style, among other things characterized by the so-called drawn out or stretched mountings holding the stones of the jewellery. In the 1930s his son Aage Weimar was attached to the firm, he worked with design, he took part in bringing Evald Nielsen into the art deco style with its tighter use of form.

Evald Nielsen sold his silver not only in Denmark. Today his works are appreciated by collectors in the two countries. Throughout his whole life Evald Nielsen was characterized by his wholehearted holding on to skilful craftsmanship and excellent quality. To him the trained craftsman was the one and only to design and create. "The professional skill and knowledge of the trade has always been essential in preserving the confidence between the goldsmith and the costumers," he in January 1935 wrote in Guldsmede-Bladet. Because of that he worked hard to organize the training of the employees at the workshops, among other things he in 1918 took part in planning and teaching at the first courses for gold- and silversmiths at the Danish Technological Institute. In 1913 Evald Nielsen became a member of the Goldsmith's Guild of Copenhagen. In 1918 he was elected master of the guild. From on he engaged himself in organizing work, building up an organization that could represent the Danish gold- and silversmiths in negotiations with the growing labor unions that defended the rights of the employees.

The most important step was the formation of Dansk Guldsmedemesterforening in 1920 with Evald Nielsen as the first chairman. From here he was engaged in a number of organizations, among other things he for many years was a member of the executive committee of The Confederation of Danish Employers. During the 1940s Evald Nielsen cut down on the organizing work, he resigned the chairmanship of Dansk Guldsmedemesterforening in 1946, shortly after his silver jubilee. In 1948 - after 30 years - he retired from the mastership of the Goldsmith's Guild of Copenhagen and was at that occasion made honorary master. Through his contribution Evald Nielsen to a high degree formed the basis of the organization of the Danish gold- and silversmiths, prevailing today. Silver from the workshop of Evald Nielsen is marked with "EN" or his full name: "Evald Nielsen". Chr. Rimestad: "EN - solist i sølv. En biografi om sølvsmeden Evald Nielsen". BoD 2010, ISBN 978-87-7691-723-4