CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Where Is Everybody?
"Where Is Everybody?" is the first episode of the American anthology television series The Twilight Zone. It was broadcast on October 2, 1959 on CBS. A man finds himself alone on a dirt road dressed in a U. S. Air Force flight suit, having no memory of how he got there, he finds a diner and walks in to find a jukebox playing loudly and a hot pot of coffee on the stove, but there are no other people besides himself. He accidentally breaks a clock, upon which the jukebox stops playing; the man walks toward a nearby town. Like the diner, the rest of the town seems deserted, but the man seems to find evidence of someone being there recently; the man grows unsettled as he wanders through the empty town, needing someone to talk to but at the same time feeling that he is being watched. In a soda shop, the man notices an entire spinning rack of paperback books titled The Last Man on Earth, Feb. 1959. As night falls, the lights in the park turn on, leading the man to a movie theater, the marquee of, illuminated.
He remembers he is an Air Force soldier from Battle Hymn. When the film begins onscreen, he runs to the projection booth and finds nobody there becomes more paranoid that he is being watched. Running through the streets in a panic, the man hits a pedestrian call button; the call button is revealed to be a panic button: the man, whose name is given as Sgt. Mike Ferris, is in an isolation booth being observed by a group of uniformed servicemen, he has been undergoing tests to determine his fitness as an astronaut and whether he can handle a prolonged trip to the Moon alone, though the town was a hallucination caused by sensory deprivation. The officiating general warns Ferris that while his basic needs will be provided for in space travel, he will not have companionship: "next time be alone". Ferris is carried from the hangar on a stretcher as he tells the Moon in the sky not to "go away up there", reminding himself of the loneliness he faces. Earl Holliman as Mike Ferris James Gregory as General Garry Walberg as Colonel Serling's original pilot for The Twilight Zone was "The Happy Place", which revolved around a society in which people were executed upon reaching the age of 60, being considered no longer useful.
CBS executive William Self rejected the story, feeling it was too dark. Unlike other episodes, which were filmed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, "Where is Everybody?" was filmed at Universal. The episode featured Westbrook Van Voorhis as narrator; when Voorhis was unavailable for episodes, Serling re-recorded the narration himself for consistency. Serling notably changed the opening narration to place the Twilight Zone within the fifth dimension, among other alterations. Serling adapted "Where is Everybody?" for a novelization titled Stories From the Twilight Zone. Serling grew dissatisfied with the lack of science fiction content and changed the story to include Ferris discovering a movie ticket in his pocket while on the stretcher. A variation on this plotline was used in the episode "King Nine Will Not Return"; the New York Times praised the episode, saying that Serling proved "that science cannot foretell what may be the effect of total isolation on a human being", though " resolution... seemed trite and anticlimactic.
In the desultory field of filmed half-hour drama, however, Mr. Serling should not have much trouble in making his mark. At least his series promises to be different. Charles Beaumont praised the episode in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science-Fiction, writing that he "read Serling's first script... Old stuff? Of course. I thought so at the time... but there was one element in the story which kept me from my customary bitterness. The element was quality. Quality shone on every page, it shone in the scene set-ups. And because of this, the story seemed new and powerful. There was one compromise, but it was made for the purpose of selling the series." DeVoe, Bill.. Trivia from The Twilight Zone. Albany, GA: Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-136-0 Grams, Martin.. The Twilight Zone: Unlocking the Door to a Television Classic. Churchville, MD: OTR Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703310-9-0 Full video of the episode at CBS.com "Where Is Everybody?" on IMDb "Where Is Everybody?" at TV.com
Barbara Marie Nickerauer, better known as Barbara Nichols, was an American actress who played brassy or comic roles in films in the 1950s and 1960s. Nichols was born Barbara Marie Nickerauer to George and Julia Nickerauer, raised in Queens, New York, she began modeling for cheesecake magazines in the late 1940s, was considered a minor rival to Marilyn Monroe. On Broadway, she appeared in Let It Ride. In the mid-1950s, she moved to Hollywood and began appearing in showy supporting roles in A-films starring such actors as Clark Gable, Susan Hayward, Sophia Loren, Doris Day in such films as Miracle in the Rain, The King and Four Queens, The Naked and the Dead, The Pajama Game, Sweet Smell of Success, That Kind of Woman, Where the Boys Are. One of her few starring roles was in the 1965 science-fiction film The Human Duplicators. Nichols was a frequent guest star on many television series including It's a Great Life, The Jack Benny Television Show, The Twilight Zone, The Untouchables, The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters, Going My Way, Hawaii Five-O, Green Acres and The Beverly Hillbillies.
Her final film was Won Ton Ton, the Dog Who Saved Hollywood in 1976. Nichols died on October 5, 1976, aged 47, from liver failure due to complications of a damaged spleen and liver sustained in an automobile accident many years earlier, she is interred at Pinelawn Memorial Park in New York. Barbara Nichols on IMDb Barbara Nichols at the Internet Broadway Database Barbara Nichols at AllMovie
E. F. Benson
Edward Frederic Benson was an English novelist, memoirist and short story writer. E. F. Benson was born at Wellington College in Berkshire, the fifth child of the headmaster, Edward White Benson, his wife born Mary Sidgwick. E. F. Benson was the younger brother of Arthur Christopher Benson, who wrote the words to "Land of Hope and Glory", Robert Hugh Benson, author of several novels and Roman Catholic apologetic works, Margaret Benson, an author and amateur Egyptologist. Two other siblings died young. Benson's parents had no grandchildren. Benson was educated at Temple Grove School at Marlborough College, where he wrote some of his earliest works and upon which he based his novel David Blaize, he continued his education at Cambridge. At Cambridge, he was a member of the Pitt Club, in life he became an honorary fellow of Magdalene College. At Cambridge he fell in love with Vincent Yorke. Benson wrote in his diary: "I feel mad about him just now... Ah, if only he knew, yet I think he does." Benson's first book published was Sketches From Marlborough.
He started his novel writing career with the fashionably controversial Dodo, an instant success, followed it with a variety of satire and romantic and supernatural melodrama. He repeated the success of Dodo, which featured a scathing description of composer and militant suffragette Ethel Smyth, with the same cast of characters a generation later: Dodo the Second, "a unique chronicle of the pre-1914 Bright Young Things" and Dodo Wonders, "a first-hand social history of the Great War in Mayfair and the Shires"; the Mapp and Lucia series, written late in his career, consists of six novels and two short stories. The novels are: Queen Lucia, Lucia in London, Miss Mapp and Lucia, Lucia's Progress and Trouble for Lucia; the short stories are "The Male Impersonator" and "Desirable Residences". Both appear in anthologies of Benson's short stories, the former is often appended to the end of the novel Miss Mapp; the last three novels were produced as a television series by London Weekend Television for the initiated Channel 4 during 1985–6 with the series title Mapp and Lucia and featuring Nigel Hawthorne, Geraldine McEwan and Prunella Scales.
During 2007, the television series was rerun by the British digital channel ITV3. A new 3-part adaptation written by Steve Pemberton was broadcast during three nights on BBC One. Benson was known as a writer of atmospheric and at times humorous or satirical ghost stories, which were first published in story magazines such as Pearson's Magazine or Hutchinson's Magazine, 20 of which were illustrated by Edmund Blampied; these "spook stories", as they were termed, were reprinted in collections by his principal publisher, Walter Hutchinson. His 1906 short story, "The Bus-Conductor", a fatal-crash premonition tale about a person haunted by a hearse driver, has been adapted several times, notably during 1944 and for a 1961 episode of The Twilight Zone; the catchphrase from the story, "Room for one more", created a legend, occurs in the 1986 Oingo Boingo song, "Dead Man's Party". Benson's story David Blaize and the Blue Door is a children's fantasy influenced by the work of Lewis Carroll. "Mr Tilly's Seance" is a witty and amusing story about a man flattened by a traction-engine who finds himself dead and conscious on the'other side'.
Other notable stories are the eerie "The Room in the Tower" and "Pirates". Benson is known for a series of biographies/autobiographies and memoirs, including one of Charlotte Brontë, his last book, delivered to his publisher ten days before his death, was an autobiography entitled Final Edition. H. P. Lovecraft spoke well of Benson's works in his essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature", most notably of his story "The Man Who Went Too Far". Further "Mapp and Lucia" books have been written by Tom Holt, Guy Fraser-Sampson, Ian Shepherd; the principal setting of four of the Mapp and Lucia books is a town named Tilling, recognizably based on Rye, East Sussex, where Benson lived for many years and served as mayor from 1934. Benson's home, Lamb House, served as the model for Mallards, Mapp's—- and Lucia's—- home in some of the Tilling series. There was a handsome "Garden Room" adjoining the street but it was destroyed by a bomb during the Second World War. Lamb House attracted writers: it was earlier the home of Henry James, of Rumer Godden.
He donated a church window of the main parish church in Rye, St Mary's, in memory of his brother, as well as providing a gift of a viewing platform overlooking the Town Salts. E. F. Benson was intensely discreet. At Cambridge he fell in love with several fellow students, including Vincent Yorke, father of the novelist Henry Yorke, confiding to his diary "I feel mad about him just now... Ah, if only he knew, yet I think he does." In life Benson sustained friendships with wide circle of gay men, shared a villa at Capri with John Ellingham Brooks. (Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy
Rodman Edward Serling was an American screenwriter, television producer, narrator known for his live television dramas of the 1950s and his science-fiction anthology TV series, The Twilight Zone. Serling was active in politics, both on and off the screen, helped form television industry standards, he was known as the "angry young man" of Hollywood, clashing with television executives and sponsors over a wide range of issues including censorship and war. Serling was born on December 1924, in Syracuse, New York, to a Jewish family, he was the second of two sons born to Samuel Lawrence Serling. Serling's father had worked as a secretary and amateur inventor before having children, but took on his father-in-law's profession as a grocer to earn a steady income. Sam Serling became a butcher after the Great Depression forced the store to close. Rod had Robert J. Serling, their mother was a homemaker. Serling spent most of his youth 70 miles south of Syracuse in the city of Binghamton after his family moved there in 1926.
His parents encouraged his talents as a performer. Sam Serling built a small stage in the basement, where Rod put on plays, his older brother, writer Robert, recalled that, at the age of six or seven, Rod entertained himself for hours by acting out dialogue from pulp magazines or movies he had seen. Rod talked to people around him without waiting for their answers. On a two-hour trip from Binghamton to Syracuse, the rest of the family remained silent to see if Rod would notice their lack of participation, he did not. In elementary school, Serling was seen as the class clown and dismissed by many of his teachers as a lost cause. However, his seventh-grade English teacher, Helen Foley, encouraged him to enter the school's public speaking extracurriculars, he was a speaker at his high school graduation. He began writing for the school newspaper, in which, according to the journalist Gordon Sander, he "established a reputation as a social activist", he was interested in sports and excelled at tennis and table tennis.
When he attempted to join the varsity football team, he was told. Serling was interested in writing at an early age, he was an avid radio listener interested in thrillers and horror shows. Arch Oboler and Norman Corwin were two of his favorite writers, he "did some staff work at a Binghamton radio station... tried to write... but never had anything published." He was accepted into college during his senior year of high school. However, the United States was involved in World War II at the time, Serling decided to enlist rather than start college after he graduated from Binghamton Central High School in 1943; as editor of his high school newspaper, Serling encouraged his fellow students to support the war effort. He wanted to leave school before graduation to join the fight but his civics teacher talked him into graduating. "War is a temporary thing," Gus Youngstrom told him. "It ends. An education doesn't. Without your degree, where will you be after the war?" Serling enlisted in the U. S. Army the morning after high school graduation, following his brother Robert.
Serling began his military career in 1943 at Camp Toccoa, under General Joseph May "Joe" Swing and Col. Orin D. "Hard Rock" Haugen and served in the 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment of the 11th Airborne Division. He reached the rank of Technician Fourth Grade. Over the next year of paratrooper training and others began boxing to vent aggression, he competed as a flyweight and had 17 bouts, rising to the second round of the division finals before being knocked out. He was remembered for berserker style and for "getting his nose broken in his first bout and again in last bout." He tried his hand with little success. On April 25, 1944, Serling saw that he was being sent west to California, he knew. This disappointed him. On May 5, his division headed to the Pacific, landing in New Guinea, where it would be held in reserve for a few months. In November 1944, his division first saw combat; the 11th Airborne Division would not be used as paratroopers, but as light infantry during the Battle of Leyte. It helped mop up after the five divisions.
For a variety of reasons, Serling was transferred to the 511th's demolition platoon, nicknamed "The Death Squad" for its high casualty rate. According to Sergeant Frank Lewis, leader of the demolitions squad, "He screwed up somewhere along the line, he got on someone's nerves." Lewis judged that Serling was not suited to be a field soldier: "he didn't have the wits or aggressiveness required for combat." At one point, Lewis and others were in a firefight, trapped in a foxhole. As they waited for darkness, Lewis noticed. Serling sometimes went exploring on his own, against orders, got lost. Serling's time in Leyte political views for the rest of his life, he saw death every day while in the Philippines, at the hands of his enemies and his allies, through freak accidents such as that which killed another Jewish private, Melvin Levy. Levy was delivering a comic monologue for the platoon as they rested under a palm tree when a food crate was dropped from a plane above, decapitating him. Serling placed a Star of David over his grave.
Television City, alternatively CBS Television City, is an American television studio complex located in the Fairfax District of Los Angeles at 7800 Beverly Boulevard, at the corner of Fairfax Avenue. The studio along with Culver Studios is owned by Hackman Capital Partners. Designed by architect William Pereira, it is one of two CBS television studios in southern California — the other is CBS Studio Center, located in the Studio City section of the San Fernando Valley, which houses additional production facilities and the network's Los Angeles local television operations. Since 1961, it has served as the master control facility for CBS's west coast television network operations which were based at Columbia Square. Since its inauguration in 1952, numerous TV shows have been broadcast live or taped at Television City, including many shows not aired on CBS, it has been the production site of several films such as the 1996 feature That Thing You Do!, starring Tom Hanks and Liv Tyler. During the opening credits of many of the shows taped here, a voice-over announced the phrase "from Television City in Hollywood".
The complex houses a total of eight separate studios. The facility infrequently conducts backstage tours led by a CBS page. CBS planned to move most of its entertainment operations to the Los Angeles area in 1950; as they needed additional space beyond its Columbia Square complex on Sunset Boulevard, CBS purchased the property at Fairfax Avenue and Beverly Boulevard that year. Hiring architect William Pereira, the company reported spend $7 million on the studio. Television City opened on November 16, 1952, it was built on the site of Gilmore Stadium. Before the stadium, it was an oil field. Studio 43 was equipped with RCA TK-40A color cameras in 1954, with cables allowing any of the original four studios to use those cameras. In 1956, Studio 41 was equipped with RCA TK-41s. However, CBS color broadcasts decreased in frequency until the following decade, when the 1964 production of Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella was recorded. CBS programs were, in general, in black-and-white until Norelco PC-60s were installed starting in 1964.
Studio 33 is the current home of the long-running CBS game show The Price Is Right and the HBO late-night series Real Time with Bill Maher. This soundstage was the home of The Carol Burnett Show for its entire 1967–1978 run, The Red Skelton Show prior to that, as well as the notable game shows Match Game, The $25,000/$100,000 Pyramid, Hollywood Squares, Wheel of Fortune, the 1986–1989 revival of Card Sharks, the 1988–1995 run of Family Feud. On April 9, 1998, on the 5000th episode of The Price Is Right, CBS named Studio 33 as the Bob Barker Studio in honor of the show's longtime host and executive producer; when it became standard for sitcoms to tape in front of a studio audience in the 1970s, many shows were recorded on soundstages at Television City, such as All in the Family and Good Times. The ABC sitcoms Three's Company and Welcome Back, Kotter were taped at Television City. CBS Television City is home to CBS' visual effects studio, CBS Digital, the CBS Records music label. "Television City" is a registered trademark of CBS for its TV production facilities.
In September 2017, CBS investigated selling the property due to a development boom in the Fairfax District. As a result of this possibility, the city of Los Angeles is taking steps to declare the facility a historic and cultural monument. CBS Corp. sold Television City to Los Angeles real estate investment company Hackman Capital Partners for $750 million in a deal finalized in mid-December 2018. The deal gives the buyer the right to use the Television City name. Programs produced at Television City, including The Price Is Right, The Young and the Restless and The Late Late Show with James Corden will continue to be based at Television City, as will the headquarters of the CBS international unit; the stark modern architecture at Television City consists of black and white planes meeting at razor-sharp corners, with accents of dazzling red, the work of Pereira & Luckman of Los Angeles. The studio facility was built to handle the larger production needs for the network, most of which took place at the rather cramped Columbia Square.
The building's black and white color scheme was used to identify areas where it was designed to be expanded. Black walls and glass walls indicated "temporary" structure that could be removed during expansion, while white areas were "permanent"; the building held four soundstages, but a renovation in the late 1980s added two new soundstages to the east of the original building, plus additional office/storage space and technical facilities. Another renovation further added two more studios in what had been rehearsal halls in the original building; the original plans for Television City called for 24 soundstages, before CBS executives deciding to settle with just the initial four. Below is a partial list of programs that have broadcast live at Television City. Official website
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi