New Year's Eve
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve, the last day of the year, is on 31 December. In many countries, New Year's Eve is celebrated at evening social gatherings, where many people dance, drink alcoholic beverages, watch or light fireworks to mark the new year; some Christians attend a watchnight service. The celebrations go on past midnight into New Year's Day, 1 January. Tonga and Kiritimati, part of Kiribati, are examples of the first places to welcome the New Year while and Baker Island in the United States of America are among the last. In Algeria, New Year's Eve is celebrated with family and friends. In the largest cities, such as Algiers, Annaba, Oran, Sétif and Béjaïa, there are large celebrations which may feature concerts, late-night partying, fireworks at midnight and sparklers and shouts of "Bonne année!". The Martyrs' Memorial and the Grand-Post Place in Algiers are the main attraction for the majority of Algerians during the celebration. At 8pm, the President's message of greetings to Algerians is read on TV.
EPTV network airs a yearly New Year's Eve entertainment show, variying its name and guests, which features sketches and musical performances. Popular films are broadcast. At home or at restaurants, a special type of pastry cake, called "la bûche" is eaten, black coffee or soda is drunk with it, few minutes before the New Year's countdown. On New Year's Day, people children, write their "New Year's letter" on decorated paper, called "Carte de bonne année", to their parents and relatives, featuring their resolutions and wishes. In Egypt the new year is celebrated with fireworks, fire crackers, smashing glass bottles or breaking things on the street also. In Ghana, many people celebrate New Year's Eve by going to Church. At midnight, fireworks are displayed across various cities of Ghana in Accra and Tema. In Morocco, New Year's Eve is celebrated in the company of family and friends. People get together to eat cake and laugh. Traditionally, people celebrate it at home. At midnight, fireworks are displayed in the corniche of Casablanca.
In Nigeria, the New Year's Eve is celebrated by going to Church. The Lagos Countdown is an event in Nigeria, created to increase tourism and making Lagos a premium destination for business and leisure; the event lasts till 1 January. It is attended by an average of 100,000 people; the event takes place at the Eko Atlantic city, beside the Barbeach attracting thousands of domestic and foreign tourists who are entertained every evening by different artists... In South Sudan, people attend church services at many churches in Juba; the service begins at 9PM. At the stroke of midnight, people sing the famous carol, "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" to mark the beginning of the year with a blessing; the service ends at 12:30AM. In Rwanda, New Year's Eve is celebrated by going to church, taking part in social gatherings and family activities; the services start from 6 PM for the Roman Catholic church and 10 PM for the Protestants. At 00:00, the president delivers an end-of-year address, broadcast live on many Radio and Televisions stations.
Fireworks were introduced in recent years, with the most significant displays happening at Kigali Convention Centre, Rebero Hill, Mount Kigali, Bumbogo Hill. Traditional celebrations in Argentina include a family dinner of traditional dishes, including vitel tonné, sandwiches de miga, piononos. Like dessert: turrón, mantecol and pan dulce. Just before midnight, people flock to the streets to enjoy fireworks and light firecrackers; the fireworks can be seen in any terrace. The first day of the New Year is celebrated at midnight with champagne. People wish each other a happy New Year, sometimes share a toast with neighbours. Parties continue until dawn; the celebration is during the summer, like in many South American countries, so it's normal to see many families in the New Year at tourist centers of the Argentine Atlantic coast. The New Year, is one of Brazil's main holidays, it marks the beginning of the summer holidays, which last until Carnival. Brazilians traditionally have a copious meal with family or friends at home, in restaurants or private clubs, consume alcoholic beverages.
Champagne is traditionally drunk. Those spending New Year's Eve at the beach dress in white, to bring good luck into the new year. Fireworks and eating grapes or lentils are customs associated with the holiday; the beach at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro is ranked among the top 10 New Year Fireworks display. The combination of live concerts, a spectacular fireworks display and millions of revelers combine to make the Copacabana's New Year's party one of the best in the world. In addition, the celebrations are broadcast on major Brazilian television networks including Rede Globo with the special Show da Virada. In other regions, different events take place; the most famous are on the edge such as Copacabana. In the Northeast, in Fortaleza, the party is in Iracema Beach, in Salvador, the change of year happens in a great music festival. In the South, the most famous festivities on th
A wigwam, wickiup or wetu is a semi-permanent domed dwelling used by certain Native American and First Nations tribes, still used for ceremonial purposes. The term wickiup is used to label these kinds of dwellings in the Southwestern United States and Western United States, while wigwam is applied to these structures in the Northeastern United States and Canada. Wetu is the Wampanoag term for a wigwam dwelling; these terms can refer to many distinct types of Native American structures regardless of location or cultural group. The wigwam is not to be confused with the Native Plains teepee, which has a different construction and use; the domed, round shelter was used by numerous Native American cultures. The curved surfaces make it an ideal shelter for all kinds of conditions; these structures are formed with a frame of arched poles, most wooden, which are covered with some sort of roofing material. Details of construction vary with the culture and local availability of materials; some of the roofing materials used include grass, bark, mats, hides or cloth.
Wigwams were most seasonal structures although the term is applied to rounded and conical structures built by Native American groups that were more permanent. Wigwams take longer to put up than tipis and their frames are not portable like a tipi. A typical wigwam in the Northeast had a curved surface. Young green tree saplings of just about any type of wood, ten to fifteen feet long, were cut down and bent. While the saplings were being bent, a circle was drawn on the ground; the diameter of the circle varied from ten to sixteen feet. The bent saplings were placed over the drawn circle, using the tallest saplings in the middle and the shorter ones on the outside; the saplings formed arches all in one direction on the circle. The next set of saplings were used to wrap around the wigwam to give the shelter support; when the two sets of saplings were tied together, the sides and roof were placed on it. The sides of the wigwam were bark stripped from trees; the male of the family was responsible for the framing of the wigwam.
Mary Rowlandson uses the term Wigwam in reference to the dwelling places of the Native Americans that she stayed with while in their captivity during King Philip's War in 1675. The term wigwam has remained in common English usage as a synonym for any "Indian house". During the American revolution the term wigwam was used by British soldiers to describe a wide variety of makeshift structures. Wickiups were used by different indigenous peoples of the Great Basin and Pacific Coast, they were single room, dome-shaped dwellings, with a great deal of variation in size and materials. The Acjachemen, an indigenous people of California, built cone-shaped huts made of willow branches covered with brush or mats made of tule leaves. Known as Kiichas, the temporary shelters were utilized for sleeping or as refuge in cases of inclement weather; when a dwelling reached the end of its practical life it was burned, a replacement erected in its place in about a day's time. Below is a description of Chiricahua wickiups recorded by anthropologist Morris Opler: The home in which the family lives is made by the men and is ordinarily a circular, dome-shaped brush dwelling, with the floor at ground level.
It is eight feet high at the center and seven feet in diameter. To build it, long fresh poles of oak or willow are driven into the ground or placed in holes made with a digging stick; these poles, which form the framework, are arranged at one-foot intervals and are bound together at the top with yucca-leaf strands. Over them a thatching of bundles of big bluestem grass or bear grass is tied, shingle style, with yucca strings. A smoke hole opens above a central fireplace. A hide, suspended at the entrance, is fixed on a cross-beam so that it may be swung forward or backward; the doorway may face in any direction. For waterproofing, pieces of hide are thrown over the outer hatching, in rainy weather, if a fire is not needed the smoke hole is covered. In warm, dry weather much of the outer roofing is stripped off, it takes three days to erect a sturdy dwelling of this type. These houses are "warm and comfortable though there is a big snow." The interior is lined with brush and grass beds over which robes are spread....}}
The woman not only makes the furnishings of the home but is responsible for the construction and repair of the dwelling itself and for the arrangement of everything in it. She provides the grass and brush beds and replaces them when they become too old and dry.... However "they had no permanent homes, so they didn't bother with cleaning." The dome-shaped dwelling or wickiup, the usual home type for all the Chiricahua bands, has been described.... Said a Central Chiricahua informant: Both the teepee and the oval-shaped house were used when I was a boy; the oval hut was the best house. The more well-to-do had this kind; the teepee type was just made of brush. It had a place for a fire in the center, it was just thrown together. Both types were common before my time... A house form that departed from the more common dome-shaped variety is recorded for the Southern Chiricahua as well: When we settled down, we used the wickiup; the English word wigwam derives from Proto-Algonquian * wi · kiwa · ʔmi. Others have similar names for the structure: wigwôm in Abenaki wiigiwaam in the Anishinaabe language wiigiwaam with v
Ian Edward Wright, is an English former professional footballer and television and radio personality. He is a studio pundit for BBC Sport, ITV Sport and BT Sport. Wright enjoyed success with London clubs Crystal Palace and Arsenal as a forward, spending six years with the former and seven years with the latter. With Arsenal he lifted the Premier League title, both the major domestic cup competitions, the European Cup Winners Cup, he played 581 league games, scoring 387 goals for seven clubs in Scotland and England, earning 33 caps for the English national team. Wright played in the Premier League for West Ham United, the Scottish Premier League for Celtic and the Football League for Burnley and Nottingham Forest; as of 2016–17, he is Arsenal's second-highest scorer of all time and Crystal Palace's third-highest. After retiring from the game he has been active in the media in football-related TV and radio shows, his sons and Shaun Wright-Phillips, are both professional footballers. Wright is the third son of Jamaican immigrants.
His father, Herbert was absent from a young age, he was brought up by his mother, Nesta and a bullying stepfather. Wright came to professional football late. Despite having had trials at Southend United and Brighton during his teens, he was unable to attract sufficient interest to win a professional contract offer. Reverting to playing for amateur and non-league teams, he was left disillusioned about his chances of a career as a professional footballer. After a spell of poverty during which his wife was expecting their first child, Wright spent two weeks in Chelmsford Prison for failing to pay fines for driving without tax or insurance, he recalls that after being locked in the cell, he burst into tears and vowed to God to do everything in his power to make it as a footballer. Wright described his teacher Sydney Pigden as “the first positive male figure that I had in my life”. Wright played for Bermondsey-based Sunday league club Ten-em-Bee before signing for semi-professional Greenwich Borough in 1985 for £30 a week.
After six or seven matches, he was spotted by a Crystal Palace scout after a tip-off from Dulwich Hamlet manager Billy Smith and was invited for a trial at Selhurst Park. Having impressed then-manager Steve Coppell, he signed professional terms for Crystal Palace in August 1985, just three months short of his 22nd birthday, he made his mark in his first season, scoring nine goals to finish as Palace's second-highest scorer. When Mark Bright arrived on the Palace scene the following year the duo soon established a successful striking partnership and it was their goals which took the club back to the top flight via the playoffs in 1989. Wright was instrumental that season, scoring 24 goals in the Second Division and a grand total of 33 in all competitions. Wright was called up for England B duty in December 1989 but a twice-cracked shin bone reduced his initial impact in the First Division. However, after recovering from the injury he made a dramatic appearance as a'super-sub', in the 1990 FA Cup Final against Manchester United.
He equalised for Palace a few minutes after coming onto the field forcing extra time putting them ahead in extra time. The eventual score was 3–3, but Palace lost the replay 1–0; the next season, he gained full international honours, reached a hundred goals for Crystal Palace, as the club finished in their highest league position of third place in the top flight. He scored twice as Palace beat Everton to win the Full Members Cup at Wembley. Wright became renowned for his deadly striking ability, as shown when he scored a hat-trick in just eighteen minutes in Palace's penultimate game of the 1990–91 season away to Wimbledon. Wright scored 117 goals in 253 starts and 24 substitute appearances over six seasons for The Eagles in all competitions, making him the club's record post-war goalscorer and third on the all-time list. In 2005, he was voted into their Centenary XI and was named as their "Player of The Century". Wright signed for Arsenal in September 1991 for £ 2.5 m. He scored on his debut against Leicester City in a League Cup tie, produced a hat-trick on his league debut against Southampton, in the final match of the season, scored another hat-trick against Southampton, to take his total to 31 goals in all competitions.
The third goal of that hat-trick was the last goal scored in the old First Division before the Premier League broke away in 1992. Wright's 29 league goals were enough to make him the league's top scorer; as of 2016–17, only Wright and Teddy Sheringham have led the top-flight scoring charts having scored for two clubs during the season in question. Wright went on to be the club's top scorer for six seasons in a row, he played a major part in the club's success during the 1990s, winning an FA Cup and League Cup double in 1993. Wright helped Arsenal reach the 1994 European Cup Winners' Cup Final, although he was suspended for the final in which Arsenal beat Parma 1–0. Wright scored in every round but the final of Arsenal's 1995 Cup Winners' Cup runners-up campaign, scored in the Premier League, but it was a difficult time for Arsenal following the dismissal of manager George Graham over illegal payments, under caretaker Stewart Houston they could only manage a 12th-place finish in the league; the arrival of Bruce Rioch heralded a bleaker time.
The arrival of Dennis Bergkamp brought a brief but fruitful striking partnership: in their first season together they help
Yeasts are eukaryotic single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, 1,500 species are identified, they are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary depending on species and environment measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds. Fungal species that can take both forms are called dimorphic fungi. By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages.
It is a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, is one of the most researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and human biology. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans. Yeasts have been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a single phylogenetic grouping; the term "yeast" is taken as a synonym for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in two separate phyla: the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts are classified within the phylum Ascomycota; the word "yeast" comes from Old English gist and from the Indo-European root yes-, meaning "boil", "foam", or "bubble". Yeast microbes are one of the earliest domesticated organisms. Archaeologists digging in Egyptian ruins found early grinding stones and baking chambers for yeast-raised bread, as well as drawings of 4,000-year-old bakeries and breweries.
In 1680, Dutch naturalist Anton van Leeuwenhoek first microscopically observed yeast, but at the time did not consider them to be living organisms, but rather globular structures as researchers were doubtful whether yeasts were algae or fungi. Theodor Schwann recognized them as fungi in 1837. In 1857, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur showed that by bubbling oxygen into the yeast broth, cell growth could be increased, but fermentation was inhibited – an observation called the "Pasteur effect". In the paper "Mémoire sur la fermentation alcoolique," Pasteur proved that alcoholic fermentation was conducted by living yeasts and not by a chemical catalyst. By the late 18th century two yeast strains used in brewing had been identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. carlsbergensis. S. cerevisiae has been sold commercially by the Dutch for bread-making since 1780. In 1825, a method was developed to remove the liquid; the industrial production of yeast blocks was enhanced by the introduction of the filter press in 1867.
In 1872, Baron Max de Springer developed a manufacturing process to create granulated yeast, a technique, used until the first World War. In the United States occurring airborne yeasts were used exclusively until commercial yeast was marketed at the Centennial Exposition in 1876 in Philadelphia, where Charles L. Fleischmann exhibited the product and a process to use it, as well as serving the resultant baked bread; the mechanical refrigerator liberated brewers and winemakers from seasonal constraints for the first time and allowed them to exit cellars and other earthen environments. For John Molson, who made his livelihood in Montreal prior to the development of the fridge, the brewing season lasted from September through to May; the same seasonal restrictions governed the distiller's art. Yeasts are chemoorganotrophs, as they use organic compounds as a source of energy and do not require sunlight to grow. Carbon is obtained from hexose sugars, such as glucose and fructose, or disaccharides such as sucrose and maltose.
Some species can metabolize pentose sugars such as ribose and organic acids. Yeast species either require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration or are anaerobic, but have aerobic methods of energy production. Unlike bacteria, no known yeast species grow only anaerobically. Most yeasts grow best in a neutral or acidic pH environment. Yeasts vary in regard to the temperature range. For example, Leucosporidium frigidum grows at −2 to 20 °C, Saccharomyces telluris at 5 to 35 °C, Candida slooffi at 28 to 45 °C; the cells can survive freezing with viability decreasing over time. In general, yeasts are grown in liquid broths. Common media used for the cultivation of yeasts include potato dextrose agar or potato dextrose broth, Wallerstein Laboratories nutrient agar, yeast peptone dextrose agar, yeast mould agar or broth. Home brewers who cultivate yeast use dried malt extract and agar as a solid grow
Aintree is a village and civil parish in the Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, Merseyside. In Lancashire, it lies between Walton and Maghull on the A59 road, about 5.5 miles north-east of Liverpool city centre, in North West England. It is best known as the site of Aintree Racecourse, which since the 19th century has staged the Grand National horserace. During the 1950s and 1960s, there was a three-mile-long international Grand Prix motor racing circuit on the site, which used the same grandstands as the horserace. A shorter form of the racing circuit is still used for various motorsport events; the name Aintree, thought to be of Saxon origin, means "one tree" or "tree standing alone." It is first recorded in 1226 as Ayntre in 1292. Eyntre occurs. Local legend held that an oak tree on Bull Bridge Lane was "the Ain tree" though the antiquity of the name excludes the possibility; the historic core of the village was a small linear settlement near the junction of School Lane, Bull Bridge Lane and Wango Lane.
Much of the nearby flat and boggy land was reclaimed for agriculture following the Alt Drainage Act of 1779. The village itself has Aintree Davenhill and Holy Rosary and a Music School; the village had a public library. A retail park along Ormskirk Road on former industrial land has brought a significant number of major out-of-town shops to the area. Aintree Davenhill Primary School has a large field with a metal building, built in the 1950s; the building was turned into a school. The classrooms were along corridors that were going to be hospital wards. Holy Rosary Primary School was a split-site school until 2008 with an approximate 1⁄2 mile between the schools; the reception and infant classes were based at a site at the Old Roan end of the village between Altway and Aintree Lane, the junior classes based at the Valentine end of the village in the Oriel Drive site. After substantial building work to extend the Oriel Drive school, the Aintree Lane/Altway site was closed as a school at the beginning of the 2008–09 academic year, was taken over by Old Roan Baptist Church and is now called the Hope Centre, providing various services for the local community.
The school has a large field used for events such as their sports day and an all-weather sports pitch. The original building was built in the 1980s; the main road from Liverpool to Aintree is the A59 - with the road passing through Aintree's retail parks. The M57, M58, A59, A5036 meet at a complex junction called Switch Island, between Aintree and Maghull. Although Aintree railway station is convenient for the racecourse, the village itself is closer to Old Roan railway station. Both are on the Merseyrail Northern Line's Ormskirk branch, with regular service between Liverpool Central and Ormskirk. In the past, it was served by Aintree Central railway station on the North Liverpool Extension Line, located behind Aintree railway station; the North Mersey Branch ran through, close to the station, had Aintree Racecourse railway station. Bus services are regular: a bus every 20 minutes to Liverpool runs through the village, while various other routes to Liverpool and destinations to the north—including Maghull and Southport—stop near the Old Roan.
The Leeds and Liverpool Canal runs through the village. Ted Sagar, the former Everton goalkeeper, ran a pub in Aintree after retiring as a player in 1952. Phil Thompson, former Liverpool captain and now Sky Sports pundit, lived on Bull Bridge Lane. Andy Burnham, a leading Labour Party MP from 2001 to 2017, Mayor of Greater Manchester, was born in Old Roan in Aintree in 1970, Richard Crawshaw, Baron Crawshaw of Aintree OBE, known as Dick Crawshaw, lived for most of his life on Aintree Lane. Ronald Sugden, first-class cricketer and Royal Air Force officer Listed buildings in Aintree Village Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 9 Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 10 Aintree Racecourse Aintree Village Parish Council Aintree Village Parish Council Local History St. Giles Parish Church Aintree Circuit Club - founded by the owners of Aintree Racecourse in 1954 Liverpool Motor Club Multimap.com Aerial photograph grid reference SJ375985 Get-a-Map from Ordnance Survey
A snack is a small service of food and eaten between meals. Snacks come in a variety of forms including packaged snack foods and other processed foods, as well as items made from fresh ingredients at home. Traditionally, snacks are prepared from ingredients available at home without a great deal of preparation. Biscuits, cold cuts, leftovers, popcorn and sweets are used as snacks; the Dagwood sandwich was the humorous result of a cartoon character's desire for large snacks. With the spread of convenience stores, packaged snack foods became a significant business. Snack foods are designed to be portable and satisfying. Processed snack foods, as one form of convenience food, are designed to be less perishable, more durable, more portable than prepared foods, they contain substantial amounts of sweeteners and appealing ingredients such as chocolate and specially-designed flavors. Beverages, such as coffee and tea, are not considered snacks although they may be consumed along with or in lieu of snack foods.
A snack eaten shortly before going to bed or during the night may be called a "bedtime snack", "late night snack", or "night snack". In the United States, a popular snack food is the peanut. Peanuts first arrived from South America via slave ships and became incorporated into African-inspired cooking on southern plantations. After the Civil War, the taste for peanuts spread north, where they were incorporated into the culture of baseball games and vaudeville theaters. Along with popcorn, snacks bore the stigma of being sold by unhygienic street vendors; the middle-class etiquette of the Victorian era categorized any food that did not require proper usage of utensils as lower-class. Pretzels were introduced to North America via New Amsterdam in the 17th century. In the 1860s, the snack was still associated with immigrants, unhygienic street vendors, saloons. Due to loss of business during the Prohibition era, pretzels underwent rebranding to make them more appealing to the public; as packaging revolutionized snack foods, allowing sellers to reduce contamination risk, while making it easy to advertise brands with a logo, pretzels boomed in popularity, bringing many other types of snack foods with it.
By the 1950s, snacking had become an all-American pastime, becoming an internationally recognized emblem of middle American life. Healthy snacks include those that have significant vitamins, are low in saturated fat, added sugars, sodium. Examples of healthy snacks include: Eggs, such as hard-boiled eggs and vegetables Lean cheese Lean meats, Low-fat dairy products Nuts and seeds Foods that have whole grains Government bodies, such as Health Canada, recommend that people make a conscious effort to eat more healthy, natural snacks - such as fruit, vegetables and cereal grains – while avoiding high-calorie, low-nutrient junk food. A 2010 study showed that children in the United States snacked on average six times per day twice as as American children in the 1970s; this represents consumption of 570 calories more per day than U. S. children consumed in the 1970s. A Tufts University Department of Psychology empirical study titled "Effect of an afternoon confectionery snack on cognitive processes critical to learning" found that a consumption of a confectionery snack in the afternoon improved spatial memory in the study's sample group, but in the area of attention performance it had a mixed effect.
"Wikibooks Cookbook – A collection of recipes from around the world". Wikibooks
Justin Drew Bieber is a Canadian singer-songwriter. After talent manager Scooter Braun discovered his YouTube videos covering songs, he was signed to RBMG in 2008. Bieber released his debut EP, My World, in late 2009, it was certified platinum in the US. Bieber released his first studio album, My World 2.0, in 2010. It debuted at number one in several countries, was certified triple platinum in the US, contained his single "Baby", which debuted at number five on the Billboard Hot 100 and sold 12 million units. Following his debut album and promotional tours, he released his 3D biopic-concert film Justin Bieber: Never Say Never and his second studio album, Under the Mistletoe, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200, his third studio album, Believe generated the single "Boyfriend", which reached number one in Canada. His fourth studio album Purpose was released in 2015, spawning three number one singles: "What Do You Mean?", "Sorry", "Love Yourself". Afterwards, Bieber was featured on several successful collaborations, including "Cold Water", "Let Me Love You", "Despacito", "I'm the One".
His US album and singles sales total 44.7 million. He has sold an estimated 150 million records, making him one of the world's best-selling music artists, became the second person to reach 100 million followers on Twitter in August 2017 after Katy Perry. Bieber has won numerous awards throughout his career, including an American Music Award for Artist of the Year in 2010 and 2012, a Grammy Award for Best Dance Recording for the song "Where Are Ü Now", a Latin Grammy Award, he has been listed three times by Forbes magazine among the top ten most powerful celebrities in the world, in 2011, 2012, 2013. In 2016, Bieber became the first artist to surpass 10 billion total video views on Vevo. Bieber was born on March 1, 1994, in London, Ontario, at St Joseph's Hospital, was raised in Stratford, Ontario, he is the only child of Jeremy Jack Patricia "Pattie" Mallette, who were never married. Mallette was was underage when she gave birth, her mother Diane and stepfather Bruce helped her raise her son.
His mother is of French-Canadian descent. He has claimed that he has some undetermined Aboriginal Canadian ancestry. Through Jeremy, Bieber has three younger half-siblings. Jeremy and his ex-girlfriend Erin Wagner, who broke up in 2014 after seven years together, have two children, daughter Jazmyn and son Jaxon. Jeremy married his girlfriend Chelsey in February 2018, they have a daughter named Bay. Bieber has a stepsister named Allie, the daughter of his stepmother. Pattie worked a series of low-paying office jobs, raising Bieber as a single mother in low-income housing. Bieber has maintained contact with his father. Bieber attended a French-language immersion elementary school in Stratford, the Jeanne Sauvé Catholic School. Growing up, he learned to play the piano, drums and trumpet, he graduated from high school in Stratford, the St. Michael Catholic Secondary School in 2012 with a 4.0 GPA. In early 2007, aged 12, Bieber sang Ne-Yo's "So Sick" for a local singing competition in Stratford and was placed second.
Mallette posted a video of the performance on YouTube for their family and friends to see. She continued to upload videos of Bieber singing covers of various R&B songs, Bieber's popularity on the site grew. In the same year, Bieber busked shows in front of Avon Theatre steps during tourism season; when searching for videos of a different singer, Scooter Braun, a former marketing executive of So So Def Recordings, clicked on one of Bieber's 2007 videos by accident. Impressed, Braun tracked down the theatre that Bieber was performing in, located Bieber's school, contacted Mallette, reluctant because of Braun's Judaism, she remembered praying, "God, I gave him to you. You could send me a Christian man, a Christian label!", and, "God, you don't want this Jewish kid to be Justin's man, do you?" However, church elders convinced her to let Bieber go with Braun. At 13, Bieber went to Atlanta, with Braun to record demo tapes. Bieber began singing for Usher one week later. Bieber was soon signed to a joint venture between Braun and Usher.
Justin Timberlake was reportedly in the running to sign Bieber but lost the bidding war to Usher. Usher sought assistance in finding a label home for the artist from manager Chris Hicks, who helped engineer an audition with his contact L. A. Reid of The Island Def Jam Music Group. Reid signed Bieber to Island Records in October 2008 and appointed Hicks as executive Vice-President of Def Jam, where he could manage Bieber's career at the label. Bieber moved to Atlanta with his mother to pursue further work with Braun and Usher. Braun became Bieber's manager in 2008. Bieber's first single, "One Time", was released to radio while Bieber was still recording his debut album; the song reached number 12 on the Canadian Hot 100 during its first week of release in July 2009 and peaked at number 17 on the Billboard Hot 100. During fall 2009, it had success in international markets; the song was certified the US and gold in Australia and New Zealand. His first release, an extended play entitled My World, was released on November 17, 2009.
The album's second single, "One Less Lonely Girl", two promo singles, "Love Me" and "Favorite Girl", were released on the iTunes Store and charted within the top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100."One Less Lonely Girl" was also released