The Subaru Impreza is a compact car, manufactured since 1992 by Subaru, introduced as a replacement for the Leone, with the predecessor's EA series engines replaced by the new EJ series. Now in its fifth generation, Subaru has offered four-door sedan and five-door body variants since 1992. Mainstream versions have received "boxer" flat-four engines ranging from 1.5- to 2.5-liters, with the performance-oriented Impreza WRX and WRX STI models uprated with the addition of turbochargers. Since the third generation series, some markets have adopted the abbreviated Subaru WRX name for these high-performance variants; the first three generations of Impreza in North America were available with an off-road appearance package called the Outback Sport. For the fourth generation, this appearance package was renamed the XV, unlike the Outback Sport, is sold internationally; the Impreza is a major rival to the Mitsubishi Lancer. Subaru has offered both front- and all-wheel drive layouts for the Impreza. Since the late-1990s, some markets have restricted sales to the all-wheel drive model—therefore granting the Impreza a unique selling proposition in the global compact class characterized by front-wheel drive.
However, Japanese models remain available in either configuration. A 2019 iSeeCars study named the Impreza as the lowest-depreciating sedan after five years. Announced on 22 October 1992, the Impreza was released in Japan in November and offered in either front-wheel drive or all-wheel drive versions and as a four-door sedan or five-door hatchback/wagon; the car used a shortened version of the Legacy's floor pan. According to a Motor Trend article written March 1992 on page 26, the name of Subaru's new compact was to be called the Loyale, displaying an official photograph of the four-door sedan. In late 1995, a two-door coupe was introduced. Initial engine choices included 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 liter aspirated engines. Subaru chose to continue their longstanding use of the boxer engine in the Impreza. According to Subaru, their configuration of the engine inline with the transmission minimizes body roll due to the lower center of gravity compared with offset engines in most other vehicles; the boxer design provides good vibration mitigation due to the principles of a balanced engine because the movement of each piston is countered by a piston in the opposing cylinder bank, eliminating the need for a counter-weighted rotating crankshaft, but with some vibration from offsets.
Torque steer is reduced with this type of powertrain layout since the front drive shafts are of equal length and weight. At the time of introduction, the Japanese and European market aspirated models received an unusual grille with a small central opening. Only the WRX and regular North American models received a conventional "full" grille until the 1994 facelift, when the regular models' appearance was brought in line with that of the sporting models; the Outback Sport was introduced to North America in 1994 for the 1995 model year as an updated Impreza "L" Sports Wagon. It was the top trim level of the Impreza wagon model with no significant mechanical or performance changes from the lower trim levels aside from a lifted suspension. Subaru found some sales success with the Outback Sport as a smaller companion with similar ride height changes, body colors and trim levels to the larger, more successful selling Legacy-based Outback. For the first time, the 2.2-liter engine was used in the American Impreza.
The 2.5-liter engine was introduced. In Japan, the Impreza WRX Sports Wagon was offered with a similar approach to the Outback Sport, calling it the "Impreza Gravel Express". Subaru discontinued the Gravel Express when the second generation Impreza was introduced due to limited sales; the hood-scoop found on the American Outback Sport was non-functional but was included because the American and Japanese versions were built at the same factory in Japan. The Outback Sport was offered with optional equipment, such as a gauge pack installed on top of the dashboard, that included a digital compass, outside temperature and barometer or altimeter readings. Trim levels were GL and Sport generation. LX models were front-wheel drive, powered by a 1.6-liter engine. GL trim levels were either front-wheel all-wheel-drive. From 1996, the 1.8-liter versions were dropped, replaced by a 2.0-liter engine. Sport versions had alloy wheels, a 2.0-liter engine only. During this generation, Subaru offered a limited edition Impreza Sports Wagon called the Casa Blanca, which had a retro-inspired front and rear end treatment, inspired by the popular kei car Subaru Vivio Bistro styling package and Subaru Sambar Dias Classic.
The Impreza received an external facelift for the 1997 model year, followed by an interior redesign in 1998, using the new redesigned dashboard from the Forester. Subaru of North America offered the Impreza with the 1.8-liter engine only, with either front- or all-wheel drive. For the 1995 model year, the 1.8/EJ18 was available with a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission on the'base' model only. The 2.2/EJ22 was only available with an automatic transmission for the L
Nitrous oxide known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula N2O. At room temperature, it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with taste. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidiser similar to molecular oxygen, it is soluble in water. Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects, its name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system, it is used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs, it is estimated that 30% of the N2O in the atmosphere is the result of human activity, chiefly agriculture.
Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidiser in a rocket motor. This is advantageous over other oxidisers in that it is much less toxic, due to its stability at room temperature is easier to store and safe to carry on a flight; as a secondary benefit, it may be decomposed to form breathing air. Its high density and low storage pressure enable it to be competitive with stored high-pressure gas systems. In a 1914 patent, American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard suggested nitrous oxide and gasoline as possible propellants for a liquid-fuelled rocket. Nitrous oxide has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs; the combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others. It is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel. Nitrous oxide may be used in a monopropellant rocket. In the presence of a heated catalyst, N2O will decompose exothermically into nitrogen and oxygen, at a temperature of 1,070 °F.
Because of the large heat release, the catalytic action becomes secondary, as thermal autodecomposition becomes dominant. In a vacuum thruster, this may provide a monopropellant specific impulse of as much as 180 s. While noticeably less than the Isp available from hydrazine thrusters, the decreased toxicity makes nitrous oxide an option worth investigating. Nitrous oxide is said to deflagrate at 600 °C at a pressure of 309 psi. At 600 psi, for example, the required ignition energy is only 6 joules, whereas N2O at 130 psi a 2,500-joule ignition energy input is insufficient. In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion; the gas is not flammable at a low pressure/temperature, but it delivers more oxygen than atmospheric air by breaking down at elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is mixed with another fuel, easier to deflagrate. Nitrous oxide is a strong oxidant equivalent to hydrogen peroxide, much stronger than oxygen gas.
Nitrous oxide is stored as a compressed liquid. Sometimes nitrous oxide is injected into the intake manifold, whereas other systems directly inject, right before the cylinder to increase power; the technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines. Meant to provide the Luftwaffe standard aircraft with superior high-altitude performance, technological considerations limited its use to high altitudes. Accordingly, it was only used by specialised planes such as high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft, high-speed bombers and high-altitude interceptor aircraft, it sometimes could be found on Luftwaffe aircraft fitted with another engine-boost system, MW 50, a form of water injection for aviation engines that used methanol for its boost capabilities. One of the major problems of using nitrous oxide in a reciprocating engine is that it can produce enough power to damage or destroy the engine. Large power increases are possible, if the mechanical structure of the engine is not properly reinforced, the engine may be damaged, or destroyed, during this kind of operation.
It is important with nitrous oxide augmentation of petrol engines to maintain proper operating temperatures and fuel levels to prevent "pre-ignition", or "detonation". Most problems that are associated with nitrous oxide do not come from mechanical failure due to the power increases. Since nitrous oxide allows a much denser charge into the cylinder, it increases cylinder pressures; the increased pressure and temperature can cause problems such as melting valves. It may crack or warp the piston or head and cause pre-ignition due to uneven heating. Automotive-grade liquid nitrous oxide differs from medical-grade nitrous oxide. A small amount of sulfur dioxide is added to prevent substance abuse. Multiple washes through a base can remove this, decreasing the corrosive properties observed when SO2 is further oxidised during combustion into sulfuric
The Mini Hatch known as Mini Cooper, Mini One, or the Mini, is a three-door or five door hatchback first introduced in late 2000, with a second generation launched in 2006 and a third generation model launched in 2014. A convertible version was introduced in 2004, with the second generation following in 2008; the Mini Hatch was the first model launched by BMW under the Mini marque after the original Mini was discontinued in 2000. The new model built by BMW is technically unrelated to the former; the Mini is produced in Cowley, England, at Plant Oxford, since July 2014, at VDL Nedcar in Born, Netherlands. The mini convertible is, since 2015; the first new generation Mini Hatch was introduced in late 2000, being the first model launched under the Mini marque after the original Mini was discontinued in the same year. In some European markets, the Mini One was powered by a 1.4-litre inline-four version of the Tritec engine, but all other petrol powered Minis used the 1.6-litre version. From 2004 through 2008, the soft-top convertible R52 was made.
There are numerous styling and badging differences between the models, including the Cooper S having a distinctive scoop cut into the bonnet. The Cooper S has twin exhausts which exit under the centre of the rear valance; the non-S Cooper has a single exhaust. The Mini One D has no visible exhaust pipes at all. In some markets, such as Australia and the US, only the Mini Cooper and Cooper S are offered. Other trim lines of note, sold in varying markets around the world, are the Mini Seven, Mini Park Lane, Mini Check Mate, Mini Monte Carlo; the Mini Hatch was designed by Frank Stephenson, drew inspiration from the original two-door Mini. Development of the car was conducted between 1995 and 2001 by Rover Group in Gaydon, United Kingdom and BMW in Munich, Germany. During this development phase, there was continual contention between the two design groups concerning the positioning of the car. BMW prevailed, in 1999, they assumed control over the entire project following the departure of BMW's CEO, Bernd Pischetsrieder.
When BMW sold off Rover in 2000, it retained the Mini project, moved the planned production site of the car from Rover's Longbridge plant, to BMW's Oxford plant in Cowley, England. The team of designers working on the 2001 Mini had finished the full-sized clay mock-up of the Mini in plenty of time for a presentation to the board of directors. However, the American chief designer, Frank Stephenson, realised that the model did not have an exhaust pipe, his short-term solution was to pick up an empty beer can, punch a hole in it, strip off the paint and push it into the clay at the back of the car, which took just a few minutes. The overall design for the mock-up was so good that the board members told him not to change a thing, resulting in the distinctive exhaust tip seen in production cars; the first generation of the new Mini received a facelift in July 2004 for the upcoming 2005 model year. This was when the new convertible was introduced. Aside from minor design changes and improved equipment, the Rover R65 manual gearbox was replaced with a Getrag five-speed.
The vehicles produced during the 2001 to 2006 model years included four hatchback models: the standard "Mini One", the diesel-engined "Mini One/D", the sportier "Mini Cooper" and the supercharged "Mini Cooper S". In November 2006, BMW released a facelift version of the Mini Hardtop as a 2007 model-year vehicle. From March 2002, the Mini was exported to Japan and sold at Japanese BMW dealerships as well as Yanase locations; the car complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations and the introduction of the Mini coincided with several vehicles in Japan that exhibited a retro look that Japanese car companies were offering. The names Cooper and Cooper S are the names used for the sportier version of the classic Mini, which in turn come from the involvement of John Cooper and the Cooper Car Company; the Cooper heritage is further emphasised with the John Cooper Works range of tuning options. The John Cooper Works company created a higher spec model of the Mini Cooper S, the Mini Cooper S Works.
It has a higher volume exhaust and air filter, uprated brakes and suspension, different 17-inch wheels than the S models. A race-prepared version, with rear-wheel drive, called the Mini Cooper S3, competed in the Belcar championship from 2002; the last Mk I variant to be produced using the supercharged Tritec engine was the Mini Cooper S with John Cooper Works GP Kit, a light-weight, quasi-race-prepped John Cooper Works model. Hand-finished by Bertone in Italy, it was offered as a limited-production run of 2000 cars during the 2006 model year, with 444 of those intended for the UK market, although 459 were sold; the GP has more bolstered Recaro front seats but had no rear seats, which along with reduced sound-deadening, removal of the rear wash-wipe system, optional air-conditioning and radio, other weight-reduction steps, resulted in a weight saving of around 40 kg compared to a Cooper S. Mechanically, it has a less restrictive intercooler, recalibrated engine management, high-volume injector nozzles, a freer-flowing exhaust system.
Extra cooling capabilities let the supercharged engine run longer on cooler temperatures for better track performance, rated at 218 PS (
The Volkswagen Jetta is a compact car/small family car manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen since 1979. Positioned to fill a sedan niche above the firm's Golf hatchback, it has been marketed over seven generations, variously as the Atlantic, Vento, City Jetta, Jetta City, GLI, Clasico and Sagitar; the Jetta has been offered in two- and four-door saloon / sedan, five-door wagon / estate versions – all as four- or five-seaters. Since the original version in 1980, the car has grown in power with each generation. By mid-2011 10 million Jettas have been produced and sold all over the world; as of April 2014, Volkswagen marketed over 14 million. Numerous sources note that the Jetta nameplate derives from the Atlantic'jet stream' during a period when Volkswagen named its vehicles after prominent winds and currents (e.g. the Volkswagen Passat, Volkswagen Bora, Volkswagen Scirocco. A 2013 report by former VW advertising copywriter Bertel Schmitt, said that — after consulting VW sources including Dr. Carl Hahn, former Volkswagen of America Chief and W.
P. Schmidt, former sales chief at Volkswagen — no evidence suggested Volkswagen employed a naming theme for its front-drive, water-cooled vehicles. Although the Golf reached considerable success in the North American markets, Volkswagen observed the hatchback body style lacked some of the appeal to those who preferred the traditional three-box configuration; the styling of the 1970 AMC Gremlin was controversial for truncating the Hornet sedan, but Volkswagen stylists reversed the process by grafting a new trunk onto the tail of the Golf to produce a larger Jetta saloon. The Jetta became the best-selling European car in the United States and Mexico; the car was popular in Europe, including the United Kingdom and Turkey. The Jetta was introduced to the world at the 1979 Frankfurt Auto Show. Production of the first generation began in August 1979 at the Wolfsburg plant. In Mexico, the Mark 1 was known as the "Volkswagen Atlantic"; the car was available as a two-door sedan and four-door sedan body styles, both of which shared a traditional three-box design.
Like the Volkswagen Golf Mk1, its angular styling was penned by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Styling differences could be found depending on the market. In most of the world, the car was available with composite headlamps, while in the US, it was only available with rectangular sealed beam lamps due to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108; the suspension setup was identical to the Golf and consisted of a MacPherson strut setup in front and a twist-beam rear suspension. It shared its 2,400 mm wheelbase with its hatchback counterpart, although overall length was up by 380 millimetres; the capacity of the luggage compartment was 377 litres. To distinguish the car from the Golf, interiors were made more upscale in all markets; this included velour color coordinated sill to sill carpeting. Engine choices varied depending on the local market. Most were based on 827 engines of the era. Choices in petrol engines ranged from a 1.1 litre four-cylinder engine producing 37 kW, to a 1.8-litre I4 which made 82 kW and 150 newton metres of torque.
Some cars were equipped with carburetors, while others were fuel-injected using K or KE Jetronic supplied by Robert Bosch GmbH. Diesel engine choices included a 1.6-litre making 37 kilowatts and a turbocharged version of the same engine which produced 51 kilowatts and 130 newton metres of torque. Volkswagen considered producing the Jetta in a plant located in Sterling Heights, Michigan in the US. However, due to declining sales in North America, the decision was postponed and abandoned in 1982; the site was subsequently sold to Chrysler in 1983 and was in operation as of 2009. This generation was produced in SFR Yugoslavia and Herzegovina, under the joint venture Tvornica Automobila Sarajevo for the Balkan area. In North America, the Jetta was introduced for the 1980 model year. Volkswagen was standardizing their engine lineup and the Jetta received the same 1588 cc four-cylinder with 76 hp at 5500 rpm as used in the Scirocco, the Audi 4000, fuel injected Rabbits. Specs were nearly identical for 49-state and Californian cars, although at 83 lb⋅ft torque was one pound-foot lower in 49-state cars.
Those received a two-way catalytic converter and exhaust gas recirculation, while the Californian Jettas received a three-way catalyst and lambda sensor. The three-way catalyst electronics system required extra space and replaced the glovebox in early Californian cars. For 1981, the engine was switched to the new, North America-only 1715 cc unit with 74 hp at 5000 rpm; the dashboard was upgraded as were the seats and ventilation system. Volkswagen was an early adopter of passive restraint systems; the first generation cars could be equipped with an "automatic" shoulder belt mounted to the door. The idea was to always have the belt buckled thereby doing away with the requirement that the driver and passenger remember to buckle up. Instead of a lap belt, the dashboard was designed with an integrated knee bar to prevent submarining underneath the shoulder belt. One quirk was that cars
Lancia Delta S4
The Lancia Delta S4 is a Group B rally car manufactured by the Italian car company Lancia. The Delta S4 competed in the World Rally Championship in 1985 and 1986, until Group B class was disbanded and the cars were banned from competition by European sanctioning body FIA; the car replaced, was an evolution of the 037. The S4 took full advantage of the Group B regulations, featured a midship-mounted engine and all-wheel drive for superior traction on loose surfaces; the car's 1,759 cc Inline-four engine combined supercharging and turbocharging to reduce turbo lag at low engine speeds. The engine generated a maximum output of 490 PS but some sources claim that the engine was capable of generating 507 PS. In 1985, Lancia engineers tested an S4 engine under extreme conditions, the engine developed around 1,014 PS at 5 bars of boost pressure. An engine capacity multiple of 1.4 was applied to forced induction engines by the FIA and the choice of 1,759 cc put the S4 in the under 2,500 cc class, which allowed for a minimum weight of 890 kg.
The combined super/turbocharger system was a development of the 037 engine that generated 325 hp with a supercharger only. Like Peugeot's earlier 205 T16, the mid-engine Lancia Delta S4 was a Delta silhouette race car, shared nothing in terms of construction with the production front-engine Delta; the chassis was a tubular space frame construction much like the 037. It featured long travel double wishbone suspension front and rear, with a single large coil over at the front along with a separate spring and twin shock absorbers at the rear; the bodywork was made of a carbon fibre composite with front and rear bodywork detachable for fast replacement due to accident damage, allowing ease of access during on-event servicing. The bodywork featured several aerodynamic aids including bonnet opening behind the front-mounted water radiator with Gurney flap, front splitter and winglets moulded into the front bumper panel, flexible front skirt, rear deck lid wing that featured both a full aerofoil wind section twinned with a deflection spoiler.
The door construction style was brought from the 037 with a hollow shell all-Kevlar construction that had no inner door skin, no door handle or window winder. The door was opened with a small loop and the windows were fixed perspex with small sliding panels to allow ventilation and passing of time cards; the all-wheel drive system, developed in cooperation with English company Hewland, featured a centre differential which allowed for 60-75% of the torque to go to the rear wheels. The Group S Lancia ECV was to replace the Delta S4 in the 1987 season but the Group S was scrapped along with Group B and Lancia used the production-derived Delta for the 1987 season; the method of turbocharging and supercharging an engine is referred to as twincharging. The Delta S4 was the first example of this technology. Contemporary turbochargers were inefficient, as they did not produce boost pressure at low RPM; this phenomenon, known as turbo lag, negatively affects driveability, an important aspect of any car.
Superchargers do not suffer from lag as they are powered directly from the engine's crankshaft, rather than by the exhaust gases. However, because of this direct mechanical connection, the supercharger presents a significant parasitic load to the engine at higher RPM. Lancia designed their twincharger system so the supercharger provides instantaneous boost in the lower RPM range, switching to the turbocharger for more efficient higher RPM engine operation. Between October 1985 and 1986 Lancia built 200 examples of a road-going version of the Delta S4 named Lancia Delta S4 but known as "Stradale", for the purpose of homologation in Group B. In Italy, the car was priced at about 100 million Lira: five times the price of the most expensive Delta of the time, the HF Turbo; the Stradale's chassis was a space frame, similar to its rally counterpart, built out of CrMo steel tubes and aluminium alloy for the crash structures. Like the rally car, the 1.8-litre four-cylinder engine was longitudinally mid-mounted, equipped with Weber-Marelli IAW integrated electronic ignition and fuel injection, a supercharger, a turbocharger and two intercoolers.
In road tune the 1.8 produced 250 PS at 291 N ⋅ m of torque at 4,500 rpm. The "Stradale" kept a three differential four-wheel-drive system from the rally car. Lancia claimed the car could reach a top speed of 225 km/h and accelerate from standstill to 100 km/h in 6.0 seconds. In contrast to its bare bones racing sister, the S4 Stradale featured an Alcantara-upholstered interior, sound deadening, a suede steering wheel, was equipped with power steering, trip computer and air conditioning. In competition, the car won its first event, the 1985 RAC Rally in the hands of Henri Toivonen and carried Markku Alén to second in the drivers' championship the following year. For two weeks after the end of the 1986 season Alen was champion until the FIA annulled the results of the Sanremo Rally due to irregular technical scrutineering. Alén had won that the loss of points handed the title to Peugeot's Juha Kankkunen. All told, in 1986 there were 3 wins for the Delta S4; the Monte Carlo Rally by Toivonen, Rally Argentina by the Olympus Rally by Alén.
The car won the 1986 European Rally Championship with Italian driver Fabrizio Tabaton, whose car was run by Italian team HF GRIFONE in ESSO livery. The fac
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline, diesel fuel and propane/LPG. CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the aforementioned fuels. In comparison to other fuels, natural gas poses less of a threat in the event of a spill, because it is lighter than air and disperses when released. Biomethane – cleaned-up biogas from anaerobic digestion or landfills – can be used. CNG is made by compressing natural gas, to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure, it is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 MPa in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline/internal combustion engine automobiles that have been modified or in vehicles which were manufactured for CNG use, either alone, with a segregated gasoline system to extend range or in conjunction with another fuel such as diesel. Natural gas vehicles are used in Iran Pakistan, the Asia-Pacific region, Indian capital of Delhi, other large cities like Ahmedabad, Pune, Kolkata—as well as cities such as Lucknow, Varanasi, etc.
Its use is increasing in South America and North America because of rising gasoline prices. In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks and school buses, trains; the cost and placement of fuel storage tanks is the major barrier to wider/quicker adoption of CNG as a fuel. It is why municipal government, public transportation vehicles were the most visible early adopters of it, as they can more amortize the money invested in the new fuel. In spite of these circumstances, the number of vehicles in the world using CNG has grown steadily. Now, as a result of the industry's steady growth, the cost of such fuel storage tanks has been brought down to a much more acceptable level. For the CNG Type 1 and Type 2 tanks, many countries are able to make reliable and cost effective tanks for conversion need. CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42 percent that of liquefied natural gas, 25 percent that of diesel fuel. Worldwide, there were 14.8 million natural gas vehicles by 2011, led by Iran with 2.86 million, Argentina and India.
With the Asia-Pacific region leading with 5.7 million NGVs, followed by Latin America with four million vehicles. Several manufacturers sell bi-fuel cars. In 2006, Fiat introduced the Siena Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market, equipped with a 1.4L FIRE engine that runs on E100, E25, Ethanol and CNG. Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a dual-fuel vehicle. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting and involves installing a CNG cylinder, plumbing, a CNG injection system and the electronics; the cost of installing a CNG conversion kit can reach $8,000 on passenger cars and light trucks and is reserved for vehicles that travel many miles each year. CNG costs emits up to 90 % fewer emissions than gasoline. CNG locomotives are operated by several railroads; the Napa Valley Wine Train retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002. This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, is now the Napa Valley Wine Train's primary locomotive.
Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG locomotive on a freight line since 2005. CNG locomotives are diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the traction motors; some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines. CNG is cheaper than petrol or diesel. Natural gas vehicle have lower maintenance costs than other hydrocarbon-fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed. Increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not dilute the crankcase oil. Being a gaseous fuel, CNG mixes and evenly in air. CNG is less to ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature, a narrow range of flammability. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. Less pollution and more efficiency: CNG emits less pollution directly than gasoline or oil when combusted.
For example, an engine running on petrol for 100 km emits 22 kilograms of CO2, while covering the same distance on CNG emits only 16.3 kilograms of CO2. Due to lower carbon dioxide emissions, switching to CNG can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, natural gas leaks represent an increase in greenhouse gas emissions; the ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from California's pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO2-equivalent per megajoule by CARB (the California Air Resource