Spock is a fictional character in the Star Trek media franchise. Spock first appeared in the original Star Trek series serving aboard the starship Enterprise as science officer and first officer, as commanding officer of two iterations of the vessel. Spock's mixed human-Vulcan heritage serves as an important plot element in many of the character's appearances. Along with Captain James T. Kirk and Dr. Leonard "Bones" McCoy, he is one of the three central characters in the original Star Trek series and its films. After retiring from Starfleet, Spock serves as a Federation ambassador, becomes involved in the ill-fated attempt to save Romulus from a supernova, leading him to live out the rest of his life in a parallel timeline. Spock was played by actor Leonard Nimoy in the original series, in the animated Star Trek series, eight of the Star Trek feature films, a two-part episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation; the character has appeared in numerous Star Trek novels and video games. Numerous actors have played the character since Nimoy: several portrayed the various stages of Spock's rapid growth in the 1984 Star Trek film Star Trek III: The Search for Spock, Zachary Quinto has played Spock in the feature films Star Trek, Star Trek Into Darkness, Star Trek Beyond.
Star Trek: Discovery has used actor Ethan Peck to portray the role of Spock. Spock's backstory has been explained during the course of several episodes of Star Trek: The Original Series, the 2009 film Star Trek and the episode "Yesteryear" of Star Trek: The Animated Series. Born to the Vulcan Sarek and the human Amanda Grayson, Spock has a troubled childhood due to his mixed heritage. On his homeworld, he was bullied and tormented by full-blooded Vulcan children, who wished to incite the emotions of his human nature. For a time, he grew up alongside his older half-brother Sybok, until the older brother was cast out for rejecting logic. In the episode "Amok Time", it is revealed that Spock became betrothed to T'Pring during his childhood. Sarek supported Spock's scientific learning and supporting his application to the Vulcan Science Academy, as mentioned in "Journey to Babel". In the 2009 film Star Trek, Spock is seen rejecting his acceptance into the Vulcan Science Academy on the basis that they would never accept someone, only half-Vulcan.
Although this film set up the Kelvin timeline seen in this and films, writer Roberto Orci stated that he felt that the actions were unaffected by the changes in this timeline and so would have occurred in the same manner prior to The Original Series. Because Spock did not enter the VSA, sought to join Starfleet instead, he did not speak to his father for the following 18 years. Spock appeared as the science officer on the USS Enterprise in the first pilot for the series, "The Cage"; this was not shown on television at the time, but the events of the episode were shown in the two-part episode "The Menagerie" of the first season, Spock's previous 11 years of service on the Enterprise were described. Spock was one of the members of the away team who joined Captain Christopher Pike on a mission to Talos IV in order to investigate a distress call. Spock did appear in the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before", but this was broadcast as the third episode. During the events of that pilot, Spock became concerned at the risk to the ship posed by Lieutenant Commander Gary Mitchell and suggested possible solutions to Captain James T. Kirk.
The earliest appearance of Spock in the series as broadcast was "The Man Trap", the first such episode. When he needs to knock out an evil version of Kirk in "The Enemy Within", he uses a Vulcan nerve pinch. Together with Chief Engineer Montgomery "Scotty" Scott work together to rejoin the good and evil versions of the Captain, split following a transporter accident. During "Miri", he finds himself to be the only member of the landing party to be immune to the physical effects of the disease affecting human adults on the planet. However, he realises that he is a carrier and could infect the Enterprise if he were to return. Doctor Leonard McCoy manages allowing the team to return to the ship; when Simon van Gelder enters the bridge armed with a phaser in "Dagger of the Mind", Spock subdues him with a nerve pinch. He conducts a mind meld with van Gelder as part of the investigation into the activities of the nearby colony. After the power to the colony is shut down, a protective force field drops, Spock leads an away team to rescue Kirk.
Spock is reunited with Christopher Pike in "The Menagerie". Pike had been promoted to Fleet Captain but suffered an accident, resulting in severe burns and confining him to a wheelchair and restricting his communication to yes/no answers via a device connected to his brainwaves. Spock directs the ship to travel to Talos IV, a banned planet, he recounts the events of "The Cage" under a tribunal to Kirk and Commodore Jose I. Mendez; as the Enterprise arrives at the planet, Mendez is revealed to be a Talosian illusion. At the same time, the real Mendez communicates from Starfleet, giving permission for Pike to be transported to the planet, all charges against Spock are dropped. While the Enterprise is under threat in "Balance of Terror", Spock is accused by Lieutenant Stiles of knowing more about the Romulans than he admits when the alien's similar physical appearance is revealed. Spock hypothesises, he saves the life of Stiles in the process. Spock leads a landing party on the shuttlecraft Galileo in "The Galile
An alphabet song is any of various songs used to teach children the alphabet. Alphabet songs recite the names of all letters of the alphabet of a given language in order. "The A. B. C." or "A. B. Cs" is one of the best-known English language alphabet songs, the one most referred to as "the alphabet song" in the United States; the song was first copyrighted in 1835 by the Boston-based music publisher Charles Bradlee, given the title "The A. B. C. A German air with variations for the flute with an easy accompaniment for the piano forte"; the musical arrangement was attributed to an 18th-century composer. This was "Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1835, by C. Bradlee, in the clerk's office of the District Court of Massachusetts", according to the Newberry Library, which says, "The theme is that used by Mozart for his piano variations, Ah, vous dirai-je, maman." This tune is the same as the tune for "Twinkle, Little Star" and "Baa, Black Sheep". Lyrics: A, B, C, D, E, F, G... H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P...
Q, R, S.../ T, U, V... W... X.../ Y and Z. Now, I know my ABCs. Next time, won't you sing with me?. This is a version that goes Z to A instead of A to Z. z-y-x, w v-u-t, s-r-q p-o-n-m-l-k-j i-h-g-f-e-d-c-b-a Now you know your ZYXs I bet that's not what you expected! The e-d-c-b part is as fast as the l-m-n-o part in the normal alphabet song. In the United States, Z is pronounced zee; the absent zee-rhyme is not missed, although some children use a zee pronunciation in the rhyme which they would not use elsewhere. Variants of the song exist to accommodate the zed pronunciation. One variation shortens the second line and lengthens the last, to form a near-rhyme between N and zed: Alternate Zed Version from the UK: a-b-c-d-e-f-g h-i-j-k-l-m-n o-p-q-r-s-t-u v-w-x-y-zAnother alternate Zed version: a-b-c, d-e-f g-h-i-j-k-l-m n-o-p, q-r-s t-u-v-w-x-y-z a-b-c-d-e-f-g h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p q-r-s-t-u-v-w x-y-z doen ook nog mee. Dit zijn de letters van het alfabet, Helemaal van A tot Z. Note that the third line is lengthened and the fourth line is shortened, to compensate for the Dutch pronunciations.
A French-language version of the song is taught in Canada, with no alterations to the melody except in the final line that requires adjustment to accommodate the two-syllable pronunciation of the French y. Because the English language has 40 sounds and only 26 letters and beginning readers need to learn the different sounds associated with each letter. Many songs have been written to teach phonemic awareness and they are referred to as alphabet songs. There are songs that go through the alphabet, making some of the letters stand for something in the process. An example, A, You're Adorable, was recorded in 1948, by Buddy Kaye, Fred Wise, Sidney Lippman, Perry Como. A newer example of this is from the musical Matilda. "School Song" is an acrostic. The group Wee Sing released an alphabet song with the letters in reverse order, called "ZYXs"; the Canadian children's TV series The Big Comfy Couch used a version of the song in the first episode of Season 4, "Backwards". Comedian Soupy Sales released a song in 1966 called "Backwards Alphabet" which contained the reverse alphabet in lyrical style.
The original version of the song was performed by actress Judi Rolin with the Smothers Brothers in the 1966 teleplay adaptation of Alice Through the Looking Glass. "ABC–DEF–GHI", an alphabet song sung by Big Bird of Sesame Street "ABC Kids", an alternate song sung by The Wiggles who promoted ABC for Kids "Al'z A-B-Cee'z", an alphabet song by hip hop group 3rd Bass, on their album Derelicts of Dialect "Crazy ABCs", an alphabet rap song that combines pronunciation and phonetics for each letter by Every Child Wins "Crazy ABC's", an acrostic song listing words beginning with each letter used as a silent letter, by the Barenaked Ladies on their album Snacktime! "Do-Re-Mi", a show tune from The Sound of Music, used to teach the order of the notes in the Solfege scale "Swinging the Alphabet", a phonetically based novelty song, popularized by The Three Stooges in the film Violent Is the Word for Curly "ZYX", a backwards alphabet song by They Might Be Giants, on their second children's album Here Come the ABCs "The Elements", a mnemonic song of the periodic table by Tom Lehrer "A.
B. C. Rock", written by members of Bill Haley and His Comets and recorded by children's entertainer Sally Starr for her 1958 album Our Gal Sal. Aimed at young listeners, the song incorporates a recitation of the alphabet. Haley and the Comets recorded their own version for Decca Records in 1959. "Ahaka mana", Māori "Alef-Bet" by Debbie Friedman, a song used in American Hebrew school classrooms to teach the letters of the Hebrew Alphabet "Iroha", Japanese "Shiva Sutra", Sanskrit "Thousand Character Classic", Chinese and Korean "Zengő ABC" by Ferenc Móra, Hungarian "Алфавит мы уже знаем", Russian
Ah! vous dirai-je, maman
"Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" is a popular children's song in France, which has had numerous lyrics on different themes since its composition in the 18th century. This song was popularized in Twelve Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. According to Henri-Irénée Marrou, the origin of the melody is an anonymous pastoral song dating from 1740, with children's lyrics added recently; the melody was first published in 1761. In 1774, the earliest known printed publication of the lyrics together with the music was in volume two of Recueil de Romances by M. D. L. Published in Brussels, under the title "La Confidence naïve"; the French lyrics of the nursery rhyme exists in several variations, of which the following one is one of the most common versions. The lyrics of the nursery rhyme are a parody of the original lyrics, an anonymous love poem, "La Confidence naïve". ^* Variations of the male lover's name found around the same time are Sylvandre and Clitandre. Many songs in various languages have been based on the "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" melody.
In English, "Twinkle, Little Star", the "Alphabet Song" and "Baa, Black Sheep" are all based on this melody. The German Christmas carol "Morgen kommt der Weihnachtsmann" with words by Hoffmann von Fallersleben uses the melody, as does the Hungarian Christmas carol "Hull a pelyhes fehér hó", the Dutch "Altijd is Kortjakje ziek", the Spanish "Campanita del lugar", the Greek "Φεγγαράκι μου λαμπρό" and the Turkish "Daha Dün Annemizin". Several classical compositions have been inspired by this tune: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Twelve Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je maman" in G major Jean-Baptiste Cardon, Variations for harp on "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" Theodor von Schacht, 3rd movement of his clarinet concerto in B flat major Franz Liszt, Album Leaf: "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" Christian Heinrich Rinck and finale for organ on "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman", op. 90 Adolphe Adam, Bravura Variations from the opera Le toréador Camille Saint-Saëns, The Carnival of the Animals, 12th movement quotes the tune Ernst von Dohnányi, Variations on a Nursery Tune, Op. 25 Erwin Schulhoff, Ten Variations on "Ah! vous dirai-je, maman" and Fugue John Corigliano, The Mannheim Rocket Harl McDonald, Children's Symphony, 2nd theme of 1st movement
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. It tells of a young girl named Alice falling through a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar, anthropomorphic creatures; the tale plays with logic. It is considered to be one of the best examples of the literary nonsense genre, its narrative course, structure and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature in the fantasy genre. Alice was published in 1865, three years after Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat, on 4 July 1862, up the Isis with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell: Lorina Charlotte Liddell; the journey ended five miles away in the village of Godstow. During the trip Charles Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure; the girls loved it, Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her.
He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version no longer exists. The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest. To add the finishing touches he researched natural history for the animals presented in the book, had the book examined by other children—particularly the children of George MacDonald, he added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children. On 26 November 1864 he gave Alice the handwritten manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, with illustrations by Dodgson himself, dedicating it as "A Christmas Gift to a Dear Child in Memory of a Summer's Day". Some, including Martin Gardner, speculate there was an earlier version, destroyed by Dodgson when he wrote a more elaborate copy by hand, but before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,500-word original to 27,500 words, most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party.
Chapter One – Down the Rabbit Hole: Alice, a girl of seven years, is feeling bored and drowsy while sitting on the riverbank with her elder sister. She notices a talking, clothed White Rabbit with a pocket watch run past, she follows it down a rabbit hole when she falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through it she sees an attractive garden, she discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME," the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she has left on the table. She eats a cake with "EAT ME" written on it in currants. Chapter Two – The Pool of Tears: Chapter Two opens with Alice growing to such a tremendous size her head hits the ceiling. Alice is unhappy and, as she cries, her tears flood the hallway. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse, swimming as well, she tries to make small talk with him in elementary French but her opening gambit "Où est ma chatte?" offends the mouse and he tries to escape her.
Chapter Three – The Caucus Race and a Long Tale: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away by the rising waters. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again; the Mouse gives them a dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her cat. Chapter Four – The Rabbit Sends a Little Bill: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. Mistaking her for his maidservant, Mary Ann, he orders Alice to retrieve them. Inside the house she finds another little bottle and drinks from it; the horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard, to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals; the crowd hurls pebbles at her. Alice eats them, they reduce her again in size.
Chapter Five – Advice from a Caterpillar: Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter, she breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her normal height, she stumbles upon a small estate and us
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, played for children. The purposes of lullabies vary. In some societies they are used to pass down cultural tradition. In addition, lullabies are used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, regulation of behavior. One of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants; as a result, the music is simple and repetitive. Lullabies can be found in many countries, have existed since ancient times. Although not accepted as a standard etymology, it has been argued that the term "lullaby" derives from "Lilith-Abi". In the Jewish tradition, Lilith was a demon, believed to steal children's souls in the night. To guard against Lilith, Jewish mothers would hang four amulets on nursery walls with the inscription "Lilith – abei". Lullabies tend to share exaggerated melodic tendencies, including simple pitch contours, large pitch ranges, higher pitch.
These clarify and convey heightened emotions of love or affection. When there is harmony, infants always prefer consonant intervals over dissonant intervals. Furthermore, if there is a sequence of dissonant intervals in a song, an infant will lose interest and it becomes difficult to regain its attention. To reflect this, most lullabies contain consonant intervals. Tonally, most lullabies are simple merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies. In addition to pitch tendencies, lullabies share several structural similarities; the most frequent tendencies long pauses between sections. This dilutes the rate of material and appeals to infants' slower capacity for processing music. Rhythmically, there are shared patterns. Lullabies are in triple meter or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion." This mimics the movement. In addition, infants' preference for rhythm shares a strong connection with what they hear when they are bounced, their own body movements; the tempos of lullabies tend to be slow, the utterances are short.
Again, this aids in the infant's processing of the song. Lullabies never have instrumental accompaniments. Infants have shown a strong preference for unaccompanied lullabies over accompanied lullabies. Again, this appeals to infants' more limited ability to process information. Lullabies are used for their soothing nature for non-infants. One study found lullabies to be the most successful type of music or sound for relieving stress and improving the overall psychological health of pregnant women; these characteristics tend to be consistent across cultures. It was found that adults of various cultural backgrounds could recognize and identify lullabies without knowing the cultural context of the song. Infants have shown a strong preferences for songs with these qualities. Lullabies are used to pass down or strengthen the cultural roles and practices. In an observation of the setting of lullabies in Albanian culture, lullabies tended to be paired with the rocking of the child in a cradle; this is reflected in the swinging rhythmicity of the music.
In addition to serving as a cultural symbol of the infant's familial status, the cradle's presence during the singing of lullabies helps the infant associate lullabies with falling asleep and waking up. Studies conducted by Dr. Jeffery Perlman, chief of newborn medicine at New York–Presbyterian Hospital's Komansky Center for Children's Health, find that gentle music therapy not only slows down the heart rate of prematurely delivered infants but helps them feed and sleep better; this speeds their recovery. A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics under the aegis of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City found that the type of music matters. Therapeutically designed "live" music – and lullabies sung in person – can influence cardiac and respiratory function. Another study published in February 2011 in Arts in Psychotherapy by Jayne M. Standley of the National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy at Florida State University suggests that babies who receive this kind of therapy leave the hospital sooner.
Additional research by Jayne M. Standley has demonstrated that the physiological responses of prematurely delivered infants undergoing intensive care can be regulated by listening to gentle lullabies through headphones. In addition to slowing heart and respiration rates, lullabies have been associated with increased oxygen saturation levels and the possible prevention of life-threatening episodes of apnea and bradycardia. Gentle music can provide stimulation for premature infants to behave in ways that boost their development and keep them alive. Lullabies can serve as a low-risk source of stimulation and reinforcement for increasing nipple sucking rates, providing infants with the nutrition they require for growth and development. Lullabies are thus associated with encouraging the rapid development of the neurological system and with a shorter length of hospitalization. More recent research has shown that lullabies sung live can have beneficial effects on physiological functioning and development in premature infants.
The live element of a slow, repetitive entrained rhythm can regulate sucking behavior. Infants have a natural tendency to entrain to the sounds. Beat perception begins during fetal development in the womb and infants are born with an innate musical preference; the elem