In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada is a federal institution tasked with acquiring and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible. It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018; the Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada. In 2004, Library and Archives Canada combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada, it was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act, proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.
Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage. LAC's stated mandate is: to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations. LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability". LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, more than a petabyte of digital content; some of this content the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online. Many items are only available in physical form; as of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items". The collection includes: the proclamation of the Canadian Constitution Act, which bears marks left by raindrops during a ceremony on Parliament Hill in April 1982 when Queen Elizabeth II signed it.
Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients. The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person; the building was opened on June 20, 1967. With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, the role of this building is decreasing. There are administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records; the Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, the official opening took place on June 4, 1997, it is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.
In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium. A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection; the collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives. The film material is sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation; the state-of-the-art facility, opened on June 21, 2011, is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures. A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored; the facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.
In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022. LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to news about LAC services and resources. A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period. In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution, after consultation in
Dire Straits were a British rock band formed in London in 1977 by Mark Knopfler, David Knopfler, John Illsley, Pick Withers. They were active from 1977 to 1988 and again from 1991 to 1995; the band became one of the world's best-selling music artists, with album sales of over 100 million. Their first hit single "Sultans of Swing", from their self-titled debut album released in 1978, reached the top ten in the US chart and became a top ten hit in the UK the following year; the band released several hit singles in the 1980s, such as "Romeo and Juliet", "Private Investigations", "Twisting by the Pool", "Money for Nothing", "Walk of Life". Their most commercially successful album was Brothers in Arms, which has sold more than 30 million copies and was the first album to sell a million copies on the compact disc format. Dire Straits' sound was drawn from a wide variety of musical influences including jazz and country, as well as the blues-rock of J. J. Cale and Eric Clapton, their stripped-down sound contrasted with punk rock and demonstrated a roots rock influence that emerged from pub rock.
According to the Guinness Book of British Hit Albums, Dire Straits have spent over 1,100 weeks on the UK albums chart, ranking fifth all-time. Brothers in Arms is the eighth-best-selling album in UK chart history, their career spanned 15 years. They split up in 1988, reformed in 1991, disbanded again in 1995 after Mark Knopfler launched his solo career full-time. There were several changes in personnel over both periods, with Mark Knopfler and Illsley the only members who remained throughout the band's career. Dire Straits won four Grammy Awards, three Brit Awards, two MTV Video Music Awards, various other music awards; the band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2018. Brothers Mark and David Knopfler, from Newcastle in northeast England, friends John Illsley and Pick Withers, both from Leicester in the east midlands of England, formed the band in London in 1977. Withers a 10-year music business veteran, was the most seasoned of the quartet, having been a session drummer for Dave Edmunds, Gerry Rafferty, Magna Carta and others through the 1970s, as well as having been part of the group Spring which recorded an album for RCA in 1971.
At the time of the band's formation, Mark Knopfler was working as a teacher at art college, John Illsley was studying at Goldsmiths' College, David Knopfler was a social worker. Mark Knopfler and Withers had both been part of the pub rock group Brewers Droop at different points in around 1973. Known as the Café Racers, the name Dire Straits was given to the band by a musician flatmate of Withers thought up while they were rehearsing in the kitchen of a friend, Simon Cowe, of Lindisfarne. In 1977, the group recorded a five-song demo tape which included their future hit single, "Sultans of Swing", as well as "Water of Love" and "Down to the Waterline". After a performance at The Rock Garden in 1977, they took a demo tape to MCA in Soho but were turned down, they went to DJ Charlie Gillett, who had a radio show called "Honky Tonk" on BBC Radio London. The band wanted advice, but Gillett liked the music so much that he played "Sultans of Swing" on his show. Two months Dire Straits signed a recording contract with the Vertigo division of Phonogram Inc.
In October 1977, the band recorded demo tapes of "Southbound Again", "In the Gallery" and "Six Blade Knife" for BBC Radio London. The group's first album, Dire Straits, was recorded at Basing Street studios in Notting Hill, London in February 1978, at a cost of £12,500. Produced by Muff Winwood, the album was first released in the United Kingdom on Vertigo Records a division of Phonogram Inc; the album came to the attention of A&R representative Karin Berg, working at Warner Bros. Records in New York City, she felt that it was the kind of music audiences were hungry for, but only one person in her department agreed at first. Many of the songs on the album reflected Mark Knopfler's experiences in Newcastle and London. "Down to the Waterline" recalled images of life in Newcastle. That same year, Dire Straits began a tour as opening band for Talking Heads after the re-released "Sultans of Swing" started to climb the UK charts; this led to a United States recording contract with Warner Bros. Records.
They received more attention in the US, but arrived at the top of the charts in Canada and New Zealand. Dire Straits went top 10 in every European country; the following year, Dire Straits embarked on their first North American tour. They played 51 sold-out concerts over a 38-day period. "Sultans of Swing" scaled the charts to number four in the United States and number eight in the United Kingdom. The song became a fixture in the band's live performances. Bob Dylan, who had seen the band play in Los Angeles, was so impressed that he invited Mark Knopfler and drummer Pick Withers to play on his next album, Slow Train Coming. Recording sessions for the group's second album, Communiqué, took place in December 1978 at Compass Point Studios in Nassau, Bahamas. Released in June 1979, Communiqué was produced by Jerry Wexler and Barry Beckett and went to No. 1 on the German album charts, with the debut album Dire S
St Ives, New South Wales
St Ives is a suburb on the Upper North Shore of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia 18 kilometres north of the Sydney Central Business District in the local government area of Ku-ring-gai Council. St Ives Chase is a separate suburb, to the north; the St Ives area was first explored by Governor Arthur Phillip and a party of men in 1788 where they set up a campsite at Bungaroo, close to what is now Hunter Avenue. The area produced a small scale timber felling industry. There are still some examples of the thirty metre and higher trees in nearby Pymble in the Dalrymple Hay forest and near Canisius College. Native turpentine trees were once abundant and provided useful timber for cabinet making, it was once known for its apple orchards but due to residential demand, there is no longer any commercial fruit growing in the area. During the Second World War there were significant numbers of troops barracked in the area, which provided the impetus to build Archbold Road as a supplementary and emergency route to the city.
Since 1950 the suburb has expanded from the central shopping areas and the arterial main roads to include hilltop and valley areas bordering on the surrounding Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park to the north, now the area known as St Ives Chase, Garigal National Park to the east and the south east. St Ives Post Office opened on 10 November 1885 and the first public school opened on 6 May 1889; the school was formally opened by Mr. J. P. Burns, M. L. A. on Saturday 8 June. After inspecting the "neat and well-designed school and teacher's residence" the party had a luncheon to mark the occasion. St Ives was slow to develop due to the perceived remoteness from the city. Settlement increased in the late 1890s, when St Ives was populated by market gardeners, a small dairy, orchard workers and related industries; the suburb since the end of the Second World War has seen its most rapid period of expansion and a steady growth in families moving to the area. St Ives Shopping Village is a medium-sized shopping centre opened in the 1960s.
The centre has over 110 stores, its main tenants are Harris Farm Markets, Romeo's IGA and Woolworths. Village Green is a popular park in St Ives. Village Green is directly opposite of St Ives Shopping Village; the park is bordered on Memorial Avenue, Village Green Parade and Cowan Road. The park includes sporting baseball fields, tennis courts and a skate park. Sydney Grammar School St Ives Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives North Public School St Ives High School Corpus Christi Catholic Primary School Brigidine College Masada College St Ives Rugby Club, who play at Hassell Park or'Fortress Hassall'. St Ives Wahroonga Cricket Club. Pymble Golf Club, Cowan Road, St Ives. St Ives Soccer Club, who play at Warrimoo Oval, St Ives Chase. St Ives Saints Australian Football Club. Northside Monash Soccer Club, who play at Mimosa Oval. North St Ives Scouts whose hall lies adjacent to St Ives Chase. St Ives Radio Control Car Club, racing at St Ives Showgrounds. Dalrymple-Hay Nature Reserve is situated on the east side of Mona Vale Road and covers 10.7 hectares.
It consists of a blackbutt open forest and is used as a recreation area by locals, in spite of having problems with weeds and die-back. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate. St Ives Netball Club. St Ives Softball Club. Ku-ring-gai Wildflower Garden is located on the north side of Mona Vale Road, it includes a Senses Track and extensive walking tracks. At the 2016 census, St Ives recorded a population of 17,300. Of these: The median age was 42 years. Children aged 0 – 14 years made up 20.8% of the population and people aged 65 years and over made up 19.7% of the population. 51.8% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were South Africa 8.6%, China 7.1%, England 6.3%, Hong Kong 2.0% and New Zealand 2.0%. 69.0% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 8.7%, Cantonese 3.7%, Korean 2.4%, Persian 1.7% and Spanish 0.9%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 28.6%, Anglican 17.6%, Catholic 17.3% and Judaism 9.7%.
82.9% of households were family households and 16.2% were single person households. Of occupied private dwellings in St Ives, 70.1% were separate houses, 20.2% were flats or apartments and 9.5% were semi-detached. Andrew Denton, television presenter Georgie Parker, television personality Kimberley Starr, novelist Karl Stefanovic, television presenter Wayne Pearce, former Rugby league great Basil van Rooyen, former South-African F1 racecar driver Paula Duncan, actress Andy Harper, football commentator Adam Kellerman, paralympic wheelchair tennis player Slim Dusty, singer-songwriter, guitarist Megan Connolly, actress St Ives High School St Ives North Public School St Ives Park Public School St Ives Football Club Joan Rowland. "St Ives". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 29 September 2015. Zeny Edwards. "St Ives Boundary Tree". Dictionary of Sydney. Retrieved 6 October 2015
Universal Music Publishing Group
Universal Music Publishing Group is a North American music publishing company and is part of the Universal Music Group, a subsidiary of Vivendi Group. It was known as MCA Music Publishing until its mother company Seagram was dismantled. Universal Music Publishing is the world's second largest music publishing company, behind Sony/ATV Music Publishing. UMPG's catalogue consists with offices in over 30 countries. In 1998, Seagram acquired PolyGram for $10.4 billion. PolyGram's music business was merged into Seagram's MCA Records, forming a new company named Universal Music Group; the merger included both record labels' music publishers. PolyGram catalog included Dick James Music, Welk Music, Cedarwood Publishing, Sweden Music. MCA had been in the music publishing business since 1964. In 2006, Universal Music Publishing Group acquired Bertelsmann Music Publishing from Bertelsmann Music Group for €1.63 billion, back the third largest publishing group in the world, making Universal Music the largest music publisher in the world.
As part of the acquisition of BMG Music Publishing, Universal divested the catalogues of Zomba UK, Rondor UK, 19 Music and BBC to a new company named Imagem. On January 1, 2015, Jody Gerson was named the Chairman and CEO of Universal Music Publishing Group, becoming the first female to run a major music publishing company. On December 3, 2015, she was named Executive of the Year by Billboard Magazine in its Women in Music issue. Sony/ATV Music Publishing overtook Universal Music Publishing as the world's largest music publisher in 2013 after acquiring EMI Music Publishing. UMPG administers the 60,000 title Rondor Music Catalog and owns or administers a multitude of others including: Interscope and Def Jam Music, DHX Media, All Nations Music, Charlie Daniels, Casa Ricordi, Matraca Berg, DreamWorks Animation, HBO, Warner Bros. Sesame Street, Disney Music Group, Forerunner Music, Epitaph Records, Greenwich/Barry, Momentum Publishing, John Philips. UMPG owns or administers the works of Leonard Bernstein and Henry Mancini, Dsign Music.
Universal Music Publishing Group US Universal Music Publishing Group UK Universal Music Publishing Group Australia Universal Music Publishing Group Italy Universal Music Publishing Group Germany Universal Music Publishing Group Netherlands Universal Music Publishing Group Spain Universal Music Publishing Group Sweden Universal Publishing Production Music
Love over Gold
Love over Gold is the fourth studio album by British rock band Dire Straits, released on 20 September 1982 by Vertigo Records internationally and by Warner Bros. Records in the United States; the album featured two singles: "Private Investigations," which reached number 2 on the UK Singles Chart, "Industrial Disease," which reached number 9 on Billboard's Hot Mainstream Rock Tracks chart in the United States. The album reached number 1 on album charts in Australia, Italy, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, number 19 in the United States. Love over Gold was certified gold in the United States, platinum in France and Germany and double-platinum in Canada and the United Kingdom. Following the end of the On Location Tour on 6 July 1981 in Luxembourg, Mark Knopfler began writing songs for Dire Straits' next album. Alan Clark and Hal Lindes, who joined the band for the On Location Tour, would be involved with the new album. Love over Gold was recorded at the Power Station in New York from 8 March to 11 June 1982.
Knopfler produced the album, with Neil Dorfsman as his engineer—the first in a long line of collaborations between the two. Knopfler used several guitars during the sessions, including four Schecter Stratocasters—two red, one blue, one sunburst—a black Schecter Telecaster, an Ovation classical guitar on "Private Investigations" and "Love over Gold," a custom Erlewine Automatic on "Industrial Disease" and his 1937 National steel guitar on "Telegraph Road." Knopfler used Ovation twelve- and six-string acoustic guitars during the recording. Several songs were written and recorded during the Love over Gold sessions that were not released on the album. "Private Dancer" was planned for the album, with all but the vocal tracks being recorded. Knopfler decided that a female voice would be more appropriate and handed the song to Tina Turner for her comeback album, Private Dancer. "The Way It Always Starts" ended up on Knopfler's soundtrack to the film Local Hero, with vocals sung by Gerry Rafferty. "Badges, Stickers and T-Shirts" was cut from the album and released in the UK as a B-side to "Private Investigations."
It was subsequently released in the United States as the fourth track on the ExtendedancEPlay EP. Love over Gold was released on 20 September 1982 on vinyl cassette. "Private Investigations" was released as the lead single from the album in Europe, It reached the number 2 position in the United Kingdom. "Industrial Disease" was released as a single in the United States, reaching the 75 position on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1983. The album was remastered and released with the rest of the Dire Straits catalog in 1996 by Vertigo Records internationally, in 2000 by Warner Bros. records in the United States. The remastered CD features altered cover art; the image of lightning is somewhat zoomed in and made brighter, making for a more purple color. It's the only remastered Dire Straits CD with altered cover art. In a retrospective review for AllMusic, Stephen Thomas Erlewine gave the album four out of five stars, noting that the addition of a new rhythm guitarist "expands its sounds and ambitions." Erlewine added, "Since Mark Knopfler is a skilled, tasteful guitarist, he can sustain interest throughout the languid stretches, but the long, instrumental passages aren't as effective as the group's tight blues-rock, leaving Love over Gold only a fitfully engaging listen."In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone magazine, David Fricke gave the album four out of five stars, calling the album a "statement of purpose" and "an ambitious, sometimes difficult record, exhilarating in its successes and, at the least, fascinating in its indulgences."
Fricke continued: Two drastically different moods dominate the new album. One is fiery; that dichotomy is explicit in "Private Investigations," a long, unorthodox ballad in which Knopfler plays a private detective hardened by a life of combing through other people's dirty laundry. Over a discreet synthesizer ring, gurgling marimba and a delicately plucked acoustic guitar, he grumbles into his whisky glass like Bob Dylan in a trench coat: "You get to meet all sorts in this line of work. John Illsley sounds a quiet warning with a stalking bass line before the song erupts in dramatic bursts of guitar gunfire and tragic-sounding piano playing; this wracking schizophrenia between the heart and the heartless, the loving and the pain, has always informed Knopfler's songs and arrangements. Love Over Gold, finds Knopfler casting further than for ways to articulate the frustrations that color his romantic streak. Fricke praised the album's centerpiece, "Telegraph Road," which he characterized as a "challenge to the average pop fan's attention span" with its "historic sweep and intimate tension."
The theme of the building of America and the dashing of one man's dreams "enable Knopfler to deploy a variety of surprising instrumental voices, from the synthesized sunrise whistle at the beginning to the baroque piano motif in the middle." Fricke concluded that "in a period when most pop music is conceived purely as product, Love over Gold dares to put art before airplay."In 1986, Love over Gold had sold 4.4 million copies in Europe, whereas the album had only reached gold status in the United States by that stage. All songs were written by Mark Knopfler. Dire Straits Alan Clark – synthesizers, organ John Illsley – bass Mark Knopfler – v