Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State and coded as "IE-M". Geographically, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,280,020, with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Waterford. In the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches and ordained priests.
During the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty. Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Corcu Loígde overlords. Rulers from the Eóganachta included Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, Déisi Muman. By the 9th century, the Gaels had been joined by Norse Vikings who founded towns such as Cork and Limerick, for the most part incorporated into a maritime empire by the Dynasty of Ivar, who periodically would threaten Munster with conquest in the next century. Around this period Ossory broke away from Munster; the 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond, north of the River Shannon to Munster. Their leaders were the ancestors of the O'Brien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru the most noted High King of Ireland, several of whose descendants were High Kings.
By 1118, Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the O'Briens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the short-lived Kingdom of Ormond under the O'Kennedys. The three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. There was Norman influence from the 14th century, including by the FitzGerald, de Clare and Butler houses, two of whom carved out earldoms within the Lordship of Ireland, the Earls of Desmond becoming independent potentates, while the Earls of Ormond remained closer to England; the O'Brien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, joining the Kingdom of Ireland. The impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed. By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine the west; the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War.
The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel O'Connell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry. Noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth-century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of ancient goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn and Queen Mongfind; the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. Another legendary figure is Donn; the province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe. The tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster; the Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their ceremonial capital at the Rock of Cashel.
The majority of Irish ogham inscriptions are found in Munster, principally in areas occupied by the Iverni the Corcu Duibne. Europe's first linguistic dictionary in any non-Classical language, the Sanas Cormaic, was compiled by Munster scholars, traditionally thought to have been directed by the king-bishop Cormac mac Cuilennáin; the School of Ross in Munster was one of Europe's leading centres of learning in the Early Middle Ages. Several sports in Munster are organised on a provincial basis, or operate competitions along provincial lines; this includes traditionally popular sports such as hurling, Gaelic football, rugby union and soccer, as well as cricket and others. Munster is noted for its tradition of hurling. Three of the four most successful teams in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship are from Munster; the final of the Munster Senior Hurling Championship is one of the most important days in the Irish GAA calendar. Munster is the only province in Ireland that all of its counties have won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.
Traditionally, the dominant teams in Munster football are Kerry GAA and Cork GAA, although Tipperary GAA and Limerick GAA have won All-Ireland Senior Football Championships. Kerry in particular are the most successful county in the history of football. Rugby is a popular game in the cities of Limerick a
Ahenny is a small village and townland in County Tipperary, Ireland. It is notable for its ancient Irish high crosses. Close to the village is the early Christian foundation of Kilclispeen monastery and in the adjoining graveyard stand two celebrated Irish High Crosses: the Ahenny High Crosses. Ahenny is situated close to the border dividing counties Tipperary and Kilkenny and nestles on the slopes of Carrigadoon Hill overlooking the valley of the river Lingaun. Scattered remnants of a once thriving slate industry spanning the Tipperary-Kilkenny border-lands, act as reminders of modern Ahenny's roots. A number of megalithic tombs dot the landscape surrounding Ahenny, located in the ancient Kingdom of Ossory. Two kilometres east on Killmacoliver Hill is the Baunfree megalithic tomb,while two kilometres north, the passage tomb of Knockroe sits on a hill summit; the Knockroe passage tomb shares similarities with Newgrange and Loughcrew and is one of the most decorated tombs outside of the Boyne valley group.
Ten kilometres to the west is Slievenamon Hill, again with a Neolithic summit cairn. The river Lingaun rises on Slievenamon and flows east for some ten kilometres before turning south to flow through a valley between Carrigadoon and Kilmacoliver hills; this bend occurs some six kilometres north of Ahenny and it marks the boundary of Leinster from Munster, the boundary between County Tipperary and County Kilkenny. It lies at the intersection of three ecclesiastic dioceses: Ossory and Cashel; the Ossory group of high crosses are amongst the earliest examples of Celtic high crosses to be found in Ireland, with those in west Ossory considered the oldest. The west Ossory group of Celtic crosses includes Kilkieran -- two kilometres south-east. Eight kilometres further south is Tibberaghny. Killamery High Cross eight kilometres north of Ahenny completes this close group: although Kilree High Cross sixteen miles north-east of Ahenny is included; the Ahenny high crosses are early examples of Irish high crosses which still bear resemblance to their wooden predecessors.
Celtic knotwork and bosses imitate in stone. One of the Ahenny crosses bears a fine image of an Irish chariot, which along with other high crosses, was used as the main inspiration of a modern reconstruction
Twomileborris (civil parish)
Twomileborris is a civil parish in the barony of Eliogarty, County Tipperary. The river Liscaveen forms some of the parish of Ballymoreen; the parish comprises 7988 statute acres and is divided into nineteen townlands: According to Samuel Lewis, in 1837 the Church of Ireland living was a rectory in the diocese of Cashel, formed at a time earlier than extant records by uniting the vicarages of Boly or Galvoly and Drom with the chapelry of Leogh. There are two villages in the parish: Littleton; the English-language name Borrisleigh is derived from the Irish-language Buiríos Léith, as is the last word in the alternative English-language name for the parish, Two-Mile Burris
Borris is a townland comprising a little over 1,327 acres in the civil parish of Twomileborris in County Tipperary. At the time of the 1891 census, it had a population of 212; the village of Two-Mile Borris is located in the centre-west of the townland. The townland illustrates how Borrisleigh civil parish is an interesting complex of enclaves and exclaves, it is bounded on the north by two of the four exclaves that belong to the neighbouring townland of Noard while another forms an enclave within Borris, lying just to the south of the historic core of the village of Two-mile Borris. The current Ordnance Survey map of the area shows that the ancient perimeter of this small enclave is still present on the ground, as the boundary of a field which lies just to the west of the modern housing area called Fanning Park and to the east of the site of an old graveyard and the ruins of the castle. Borris townland has two small, exclaves of its own, they are surrounded by Garraun townland. The larger exclave has an area of just 1 acre 2 roods and 16 perches, while the smaller is only 3 roods and 26 perches in size.
In the early 19th-century, the boundaries of these two exclaves were still completely reflected in the field boundaries of the time. By the late 19th century much less of the boundaries were still reflected as field boundaries. By the early 21st century, what little remained of the boundaries of these two exclaves formed part of the boundary of a field lying just to the north-east of the new housing area called Dún na Rí; the western edge of this field contained what remained of the eastern boundary of the larger exclave. The north-eastern corner of this field marked the north-eastern corner of the smaller exclave and short stretches of the edges meeting at this corner reflected the northern and eastern boundaries of the exclave
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
The Golden Vale is an area of rolling pastureland in the civil province of Munster, southwestern Ireland. Covering parts of three counties, Limerick and Cork, it is the best land in Ireland for dairy farming, it has been called the Golden Vein. An early instance is an 1837 book by Jonathan Binns, a British government official, where he refers to the area as'"the golden vale"' and states "The land is of excellent quality, being part of the golden vein of Ireland—a district reaching from Tipperary towards Limerick; the extent of the golden vein is about fourteen miles long, by six or seven wide." Some subsequent writers prefer "vein". The Golden Vale is bordered in the east by the Galtee Mountains, with the Glen of Aherlow as a picturesque abutting valley; the Munster Blackwater valley is the Vale's southern part. Towns in the Golden Vale include Charleville, Mitchelstown and Tipperary. From Tipperary town, Aherlow and Cahir, south to Mitchelstown, Kildorrery and Charleville, this'square' could be considered the best land in Ireland.
In 1739, Walter Harris suggested the "Golden" name was a corruption of Gowlin, former name of a village now called Golden, from Irish: An Gabhailín "little fork ". The golden vale of Ivowen: between Slievenamon and Suir Eoghan Ó Néill 2001 ISBN 978-0-906602-91-1 The book of the Galtees and the Golden Vein: a border history of Tipperary, Limerick & Cork Paul J. Flynn, 1926
M8 motorway (Ireland)
The M8 motorway is an inter-urban motorway in Ireland, which forms part of the motorway from the capital Dublin to Cork city. The 149 km motorway commences in the townland of Aghaboe, County Laois and runs through the counties of Kilkenny and Limerick, terminating at the Dunkettle interchange in County Cork. First called for in the Road Needs Study, it was incorporated into the National Development Plan and still formed part of the Irish Government's Transport 21 plan for infrastructural development; the majority of the M8 was built between 2006 and 2010. On 28 May 2010, the motorway was completed and had replaced all of the single-carriageway N8 except for a short section of urban road in Cork City; the route starts in the townland of Aghaboe, County Laois, at a motorway-to-motorway interchange with the M7. From here it proceeds southwards, passing under the R434 and R433 roads until it runs parallel to the single-carriageway R639 road, bypassing Abbeyleix, Cullahill, Urlingford, Littleton and Jockey, New Inn, Skeheenarinky, Mitchelstown, Kilworth Mountain, Rathcormac and Glanmire.
Between its junction with the M7 and Dunkettle, the M8 passes through pasture in County Laois, over bogland and coniferous forest through County Kilkenny and County Tipperary. South of Cashel, it crosses the River Suir west of Cahir; the motorway travels south-west along the Galtee Mountains, passing Glengarra Wood and Mitchelstown Cave. East of the route, the Knockmealdown Mountains and the Comeraghs are starkly visible; the M8 crosses into County Cork south of Kilbeheny and proceeds south to the east of Mitchelstown, before skirting around the base of Kilworth Mountain through pastoral farmland and demesne parkland. At Moorepark, some 5 km north of Fermoy, the M8 is tolled for the next 17.5 kilometres. This tolled section incorporates an impressive 450m viaduct crossing of the River Blackwater. Toll plazas are located between junctions 16 and 17 and at the southbound exit of junction 15; the current toll for cars is €1.90. Many motorists lorry drivers, drive through Fermoy and Watergrasshill to avoid the toll.
In 2006 the Irish Road Haulage Association advised its members not to use the toll road, because they considered it to be too expensive. Traffic volumes through Watergrasshill increased by about 6,000 vehicles per day at the end of that year. By the end of 2008 increasing numbers of vehicles were opting to pay the toll; the M8 continues south, bypassing Watergrasshill, Sallybrook and Glanmire, before ending 450m north of the Jack Lynch Tunnel at the approach to the Dunkettle Interchange, which connects it with the N25 to Waterford, the N40 Cork South Ring Road and the N8 to Cork city centre. Despite having a nominal nineteen junctions, the motorway in fact only has eighteen, because the proposed junction 2 was never constructed; the M8 was constructed in eight stages between 1985 and 2010. Some of the sections which now form part of the M8 were opened as dual-carriageway and formed part of the N8, while other sections were opened as motorway. In chronological order, the various sections opened as follows: Glanmire Bypass - junctions 19 to 18.
The Glanmire Bypass opened as a 6.3 km dual carriageway on 3 April 1992, after a construction period of seven years, representing the first major improvement made to the Cork to Portlaoise corridor. Called for in the'Land Use and Transportation Study' Report of 1976, the bypass replaced the older road through Glanmire village and was envisaged as part of broader strategic roads upgrade to service an expanding Cork City. Other components of this plan, such as the N40 South Ring Road and the Jack Lynch Tunnel, were delivered and operational by 1999; the Glanmire Bypass was built by multiple contractors at a cost of 45 million punts. It was reclassified as a motorway in July 2009 and was incorporated into the rest of the M8 route on 28 August 2009; the Watergrasshill Bypass was the second section of grade separated dual carriageway to open on the Cork-Portlaoise route. It opened on 12 September 2003, at a cost of €144 million. Built by Mowlem and Bowen in partnership, the seven kilometre route replaced a winding and narrow section of the older N8 through Watergrasshill and Sallybrook villages.
The Watergrasshill Bypass was the cause of some controversy in October 2006 when its northern junction was incorporated into the tolled'Fermoy Bypass' section of the M8, as it had been untolled. As with the Glanmire Bypass, the Watergrasshill Bypass became a part of the M8 on 28 August 2009. Construction of the €48 million 6.7 km Cashel bypass began in May 2003 and it opened to traffic in October 2004 with a speed limit of 100 km/h. Classified as a standard dual carriageway section of the N8, the scheme was redesignated a motorway by Statutory Instrument on 17 July 2008; this change came into effect on September 24 in the same year and blue motorway signage replaced the green si