1.
Surface (mathematics)
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In mathematics, a surface is a generalization of a plane which needs not be flat, that is, the curvature is not necessarily zero. This is analogous to a curve generalizing a straight line, there are several more precise definitions, depending on the context and the mathematical tools that are used for the study. Often, a surface is defined by equations that are satisfied by the coordinates of its points and this is the case of the graph of a continuous function of two variables. The set of the zeros of a function of three variables is a surface, which is called an implicit surface, if the defining three-variate function is a polynomial, the surface is an algebraic surface. For example, the sphere is an algebraic surface, as it may be defined by the implicit equation x 2 + y 2 + z 2 −1 =0. A surface may also be defined as the image, in space of dimension at least 3. In this case, one says that one has a parametric surface, for example, the unit sphere may be parametrized by the Euler angles, also called longitude u and latitude v by x = cos cos y = sin cos z = sin . Parametric equations of surfaces are often irregular at some points, for example, all but two points of the unit sphere, are the image, by the above parametrization, of exactly one pair of Euler angles. For the remaining two points, one has cos v =0, and the longitude u may take any values, also, there are surfaces for which there cannot exits a single parametrization that covers the whole surface. Therefore, one often considers surfaces which are parametrized by several parametric equations and this allows defining surfaces in spaces of dimension higher than three, and even abstract surfaces, which are not contained in any other space. On the other hand, this excludes surfaces that have singularities, in classical geometry, a surface is generally defined as a locus of a point or a line. A ruled surface is the locus of a moving line satisfying some constraints, in modern terminology, a surface is a surface. In this article, several kinds of surfaces are considered and compared, a non-ambiguous terminology is thus necessary for distinguish them. Therefore, we call topological surfaces the surfaces that are manifolds of dimension two and we call differential surfaces the surfaces that are differentiable manifolds. Every differential surface is a surface, but the converse is false. For simplicity, unless stated, surface will mean a surface in the Euclidean space of dimension 3 or in R3. A surface, that is not supposed to be included in another space, is called an abstract surface, the graph of a continuous function of two variables, defined over a connected open subset of R2 is a topological surface. If the function is differentiable, the graph is a differential surface, a plane is together an algebraic surface and a differentiable surface
2.
Cartesian coordinate system
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Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axis, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes. In general, n Cartesian coordinates specify the point in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n and these coordinates are equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually perpendicular hyperplanes. The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Using the Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes can be described by Cartesian equations, algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape. For example, a circle of radius 2, centered at the origin of the plane, a familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering. They are the most common system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design. Nicole Oresme, a French cleric and friend of the Dauphin of the 14th Century, used similar to Cartesian coordinates well before the time of Descartes. The adjective Cartesian refers to the French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes who published this idea in 1637 and it was independently discovered by Pierre de Fermat, who also worked in three dimensions, although Fermat did not publish the discovery. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Many other coordinate systems have developed since Descartes, such as the polar coordinates for the plane. The development of the Cartesian coordinate system would play a role in the development of the Calculus by Isaac Newton. The two-coordinate description of the plane was later generalized into the concept of vector spaces. Choosing a Cartesian coordinate system for a one-dimensional space – that is, for a straight line—involves choosing a point O of the line, a unit of length, and an orientation for the line. An orientation chooses which of the two half-lines determined by O is the positive, and which is negative, we say that the line is oriented from the negative half towards the positive half
3.
Two-dimensional space
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In physics and mathematics, two-dimensional space is a geometric model of the planar projection of the physical universe. The two dimensions are commonly called length and width, both directions lie in the same plane. A sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n =2, the set of all locations is called two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space. Each reference line is called an axis or just axis of the system. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. The idea of system was developed in 1637 in writings by Descartes and independently by Pierre de Fermat. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Later, the plane was thought of as a field, where any two points could be multiplied and, except for 0, divided and this was known as the complex plane. The complex plane is called the Argand plane because it is used in Argand diagrams. These are named after Jean-Robert Argand, although they were first described by Norwegian-Danish land surveyor, Argand diagrams are frequently used to plot the positions of the poles and zeroes of a function in the complex plane. In mathematics, analytic geometry describes every point in space by means of two coordinates. Two perpendicular coordinate axes are given which cross each other at the origin and they are usually labeled x and y. Another widely used system is the polar coordinate system, which specifies a point in terms of its distance from the origin. In two dimensions, there are infinitely many polytopes, the polygons, the first few regular ones are shown below, The Schläfli symbol represents a regular p-gon. The regular henagon and regular digon can be considered degenerate regular polygons and they can exist nondegenerately in non-Euclidean spaces like on a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. There exist infinitely many non-convex regular polytopes in two dimensions, whose Schläfli symbols consist of rational numbers and they are called star polygons and share the same vertex arrangements of the convex regular polygons
4.
Parameter
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A parameter, generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system. That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, parameter has more specific meanings within various disciplines, including mathematics, computing and computer programming, engineering, statistics, logic and linguistics. Mathematical functions have one or more arguments that are designated in the definition by variables, a function definition can also contain parameters, but unlike variables, parameters are not listed among the arguments that the function takes. When parameters are present, the definition actually defines a family of functions. A parameter could be incorporated into the name to indicate its dependence on the parameter. For instance, one may define the base b of a logarithm by log b = log log where b is a parameter that indicates which logarithmic function is being used. It is not an argument of the function, and will, for instance, in some informal situations it is a matter of convention whether some or all of the symbols in a function definition are called parameters. However, changing the status of symbols between parameter and variable changes the function as a mathematical object, for instance, the notation for the falling factorial power n k _ = n ⋯, defines a polynomial function of n, but is not a polynomial function of k. Indeed, in the case, it is only defined for non-negative integer arguments. Sometimes it is useful to all functions with certain parameters as parametric family. Examples from probability theory are given further below, a variable is one of the many things a parameter is not. The dependent variable, the speed of the car, depends on the independent variable, change the lever arms of the linkage. Will still depend on the pedal position and you have changed a parameter A parametric equaliser is an audio filter that allows the frequency of maximum cut or boost to be set by one control, and the size of the cut or boost by another. These settings, the level of the peak or trough, are two of the parameters of a frequency response curve, and in a two-control equaliser they completely describe the curve. More elaborate parametric equalisers may allow other parameters to be varied and these parameters each describe some aspect of the response curve seen as a whole, over all frequencies. A graphic equaliser provides individual level controls for various frequency bands, if asked to imagine the graph of the relationship y = ax2, one typically visualizes a range of values of x, but only one value of a. Of course a different value of a can be used, generating a different relation between x and y, thus a is a parameter, it is less variable than the variable x or y, but it is not an explicit constant like the exponent 2. More precisely, changing the parameter a gives a different problem, in calculating income based on wage and hours worked, it is typically assumed that the number of hours worked is easily changed, but the wage is more static
5.
Point (geometry)
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In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space. More specifically, in Euclidean geometry, a point is a primitive notion upon which the geometry is built, being a primitive notion means that a point cannot be defined in terms of previously defined objects. That is, a point is defined only by some properties, called axioms, in particular, the geometric points do not have any length, area, volume, or any other dimensional attribute. A common interpretation is that the concept of a point is meant to capture the notion of a location in Euclidean space. Points, considered within the framework of Euclidean geometry, are one of the most fundamental objects, Euclid originally defined the point as that which has no part. This idea is easily generalized to three-dimensional Euclidean space, where a point is represented by a triplet with the additional third number representing depth. Further generalizations are represented by an ordered tuplet of n terms, many constructs within Euclidean geometry consist of an infinite collection of points that conform to certain axioms. This is usually represented by a set of points, As an example, a line is a set of points of the form L =. Similar constructions exist that define the plane, line segment and other related concepts, a line segment consisting of only a single point is called a degenerate line segment. In addition to defining points and constructs related to points, Euclid also postulated a key idea about points, in spite of this, modern expansions of the system serve to remove these assumptions. There are several inequivalent definitions of dimension in mathematics, in all of the common definitions, a point is 0-dimensional. The dimension of a space is the maximum size of a linearly independent subset. In a vector space consisting of a point, there is no linearly independent subset. The zero vector is not itself linearly independent, because there is a non trivial linear combination making it zero,1 ⋅0 =0, if no such minimal n exists, the space is said to be of infinite covering dimension. A point is zero-dimensional with respect to the covering dimension because every open cover of the space has a refinement consisting of a open set. The Hausdorff dimension of X is defined by dim H , = inf, a point has Hausdorff dimension 0 because it can be covered by a single ball of arbitrarily small radius. Although the notion of a point is considered fundamental in mainstream geometry and topology, there are some systems that forgo it, e. g. noncommutative geometry. More precisely, such structures generalize well-known spaces of functions in a way that the operation take a value at this point may not be defined
6.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
7.
Dimension
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In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus a line has a dimension of one only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it – for example. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is three-dimensional because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces, in classical mechanics, space and time are different categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception of the world is a space but not the one that was found necessary to describe electromagnetism. The four dimensions of spacetime consist of events that are not absolutely defined spatially and temporally, Minkowski space first approximates the universe without gravity, the pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of general relativity describe spacetime with matter and gravity. Ten dimensions are used to string theory, and the state-space of quantum mechanics is an infinite-dimensional function space. The concept of dimension is not restricted to physical objects, high-dimensional spaces frequently occur in mathematics and the sciences. They may be parameter spaces or configuration spaces such as in Lagrangian or Hamiltonian mechanics, in mathematics, the dimension of an object is an intrinsic property independent of the space in which the object is embedded. This intrinsic notion of dimension is one of the ways the mathematical notion of dimension differs from its common usages. The dimension of Euclidean n-space En is n, when trying to generalize to other types of spaces, one is faced with the question what makes En n-dimensional. One answer is that to cover a ball in En by small balls of radius ε. This observation leads to the definition of the Minkowski dimension and its more sophisticated variant, the Hausdorff dimension, for example, the boundary of a ball in En looks locally like En-1 and this leads to the notion of the inductive dimension. While these notions agree on En, they turn out to be different when one looks at more general spaces, a tesseract is an example of a four-dimensional object. The rest of this section some of the more important mathematical definitions of the dimensions. A complex number has a real part x and an imaginary part y, a single complex coordinate system may be applied to an object having two real dimensions. For example, an ordinary two-dimensional spherical surface, when given a complex metric, complex dimensions appear in the study of complex manifolds and algebraic varieties. The dimension of a space is the number of vectors in any basis for the space. This notion of dimension is referred to as the Hamel dimension or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other notions of dimension
8.
Universe
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The Universe is all of time and space and its contents. It includes planets, moons, minor planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, the size of the entire Universe is unknown. The earliest scientific models of the Universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of gravitation, Sir Isaac Newton built upon Copernicuss work as well as observations by Tycho Brahe. Further observational improvements led to the realization that our Solar System is located in the Milky Way galaxy and it is assumed that galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the Universe has neither an edge nor a center. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the Universe had a beginning, the majority of mass in the Universe appears to exist in an unknown form called dark matter. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the Universe, under this theory, space and time emerged together 13. 799±0.021 billion years ago with a fixed amount of energy and matter that has become less dense as the Universe has expanded. After the initial expansion, the Universe cooled, allowing the first subatomic particles to form, giant clouds later merged through gravity to form galaxies, stars, and everything else seen today. Some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which the Universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist, the Universe can be defined as everything that exists, everything that has existed, and everything that will exist. According to our current understanding, the Universe consists of spacetime, forms of energy, the Universe encompasses all of life, all of history, and some philosophers and scientists suggest that it even encompasses ideas such as mathematics and logic. The word universe derives from the Old French word univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum, the Latin word was used by Cicero and later Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used. Another synonym was ὁ κόσμος ho kósmos, synonyms are also found in Latin authors and survive in modern languages, e. g. the German words Das All, Weltall, and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything, the cosmos, the world, the prevailing model for the evolution of the Universe is the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang model states that the earliest state of the Universe was extremely hot and dense, the model is based on general relativity and on simplifying assumptions such as homogeneity and isotropy of space. The Big Bang model accounts for such as the correlation of distance and redshift of galaxies, the ratio of the number of hydrogen to helium atoms. The initial hot, dense state is called the Planck epoch, after the Planck epoch and inflation came the quark, hadron, and lepton epochs. Together, these epochs encompassed less than 10 seconds of time following the Big Bang, the observed abundance of the elements can be explained by combining the overall expansion of space with nuclear and atomic physics. As the Universe expands, the density of electromagnetic radiation decreases more quickly than does that of matter because the energy of a photon decreases with its wavelength
9.
Plane (geometry)
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In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far. A plane is the analogue of a point, a line. When working exclusively in two-dimensional Euclidean space, the article is used, so. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory and graphing are performed in a space, or in other words. Euclid set forth the first great landmark of mathematical thought, a treatment of geometry. He selected a small core of undefined terms and postulates which he used to prove various geometrical statements. Although the plane in its sense is not directly given a definition anywhere in the Elements. In his work Euclid never makes use of numbers to measure length, angle, in this way the Euclidean plane is not quite the same as the Cartesian plane. This section is concerned with planes embedded in three dimensions, specifically, in R3. In a Euclidean space of any number of dimensions, a plane is determined by any of the following. A line and a point not on that line, a line is either parallel to a plane, intersects it at a single point, or is contained in the plane. Two distinct lines perpendicular to the plane must be parallel to each other. Two distinct planes perpendicular to the line must be parallel to each other. Specifically, let r0 be the vector of some point P0 =. The plane determined by the point P0 and the vector n consists of those points P, with position vector r, such that the vector drawn from P0 to P is perpendicular to n. Recalling that two vectors are perpendicular if and only if their dot product is zero, it follows that the plane can be described as the set of all points r such that n ⋅ =0. Expanded this becomes a + b + c =0, which is the form of the equation of a plane. This is just a linear equation a x + b y + c z + d =0 and this familiar equation for a plane is called the general form of the equation of the plane
10.
Euclidean space
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In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces. It is named after the Ancient Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria, the term Euclidean distinguishes these spaces from other types of spaces considered in modern geometry. Euclidean spaces also generalize to higher dimensions, classical Greek geometry defined the Euclidean plane and Euclidean three-dimensional space using certain postulates, while the other properties of these spaces were deduced as theorems. Geometric constructions are used to define rational numbers. It means that points of the space are specified with collections of real numbers and this approach brings the tools of algebra and calculus to bear on questions of geometry and has the advantage that it generalizes easily to Euclidean spaces of more than three dimensions. From the modern viewpoint, there is only one Euclidean space of each dimension. With Cartesian coordinates it is modelled by the coordinate space of the same dimension. In one dimension, this is the line, in two dimensions, it is the Cartesian plane, and in higher dimensions it is a coordinate space with three or more real number coordinates. One way to think of the Euclidean plane is as a set of points satisfying certain relationships, expressible in terms of distance, for example, there are two fundamental operations on the plane. One is translation, which means a shifting of the plane so that point is shifted in the same direction. The other is rotation about a point in the plane. In order to all of this mathematically precise, the theory must clearly define the notions of distance, angle, translation. Even when used in theories, Euclidean space is an abstraction detached from actual physical locations, specific reference frames, measurement instruments. The standard way to such space, as carried out in the remainder of this article, is to define the Euclidean plane as a two-dimensional real vector space equipped with an inner product. The reason for working with vector spaces instead of Rn is that it is often preferable to work in a coordinate-free manner. Once the Euclidean plane has been described in language, it is actually a simple matter to extend its concept to arbitrary dimensions. For the most part, the vocabulary, formulae, and calculations are not made any more difficult by the presence of more dimensions. Intuitively, the distinction says merely that there is no choice of where the origin should go in the space