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Two-nation theory (Pakistan)

The two-nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan. It states that Hindus are two separate nations by every definition; the two-nation theory was a founding principle of the Pakistan Movement, the partition of India in 1947. The ideology that religion is the determining factor in defining the nationality of Indian Muslims and Hindus was postulated by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who termed it as the awakening of Muslims for the creation of Pakistan; as a consequence, it spawned creation of many Hindu nationalist organisations, with causes including working towards making India a similar state for the majority of Hindus residing there. There are varying interpretations of the two-nation theory, based on whether the two postulated nationalities can coexist in one territory or not, with radically different implications. One interpretation argued for sovereign autonomy, including the right to secede, for Muslim-majority areas of the Indian subcontinent, but without any transfer of populations.

A different interpretation contends that Hindus and Muslims constitute "two distinct and antagonistic ways of life and that therefore they cannot coexist in one nation." In this version, a transfer of populations is a desirable step towards a complete separation of two incompatible nations that "cannot coexist in a harmonious relationship". Opposition to the theory has come from two sources; the first is the concept of a single Indian nation, of which Hindus and Muslims are two intertwined communities. After the formation of Pakistan, debates on whether Muslims and Hindus are distinct nationalities or not continued in India; the second source of opposition is the concept that while Indians are not one nation, neither are the Muslims or Hindus of the subcontinent, it is instead the homogeneous provincial units of the subcontinent which are true nations and deserving of sovereignty. In general, the British-run government and British commentators made "it a point of speaking of Indians as the people of India and avoid speaking of an Indian nation."

This was cited as a key reason for British control of the country: since Indians were not a nation, they were not capable of national self-government. While some Indian leaders insisted that Indians were one nation, others agreed that Indians were not yet a nation but there was "no reason why in the course of time they should not grow into a nation."Similar debates on national identity existed within India at the linguistic and religious levels. While some argued that Indian Muslims were one nation, others argued. Some, such as Liaquat Ali Khan argued that Indian Muslims were not yet a nation, but could be forged into one. According to the Pakistan's government official chronology, Muhammad bin Qasim is referred to as the first Pakistani. While Prakash K. Singh attributes the arrival of Muhammad bin Qasim as the first step towards the creation of Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah considered the Pakistan movement to have started when the first Muslim put a foot in the Gateway of Islam, it is believed in Pakistan that the movement for Muslim self-awakening and identity was started by Ahmad Sirhindi, who fought against emperor Akbar's religious syncretist Din-i Ilahi movement and is thus considered "for contemporary official Pakistani historians" to be the founder of the Two-nation theory, was intensified under the Muslim reformer Shah Waliullah who, because he wanted to give back to Muslims their self-consciousness during the decline of the Mughal empire and the rise of the non-Muslim powers like the Marathas and Sikhs, launched a mass-movement of religious education which made "them conscious of their distinct nationhood which in turn culminated in the form of Two Nation Theory and the creation of Pakistan."Akbar Ahmed considers Haji Shariatullah and Syed Ahmad Barelvi to be the forerunners of the Pakistan movement, because of their purist and militant reformist movements targeting the Muslim masses, saying that "reformers like Waliullah and Shariatullah were not demanding a Pakistan in the modern sense of nationhood.

They were, instrumental in creating an awareness of the crisis looming for the Muslims and the need to create their own political organization. What Sir Sayyed did was to provide a modern idiom in which to express the quest for Islamic identity."Thus, many Pakistanis describe modernist and reformist scholar Syed Ahmad Khan as the architect of the two-nation theory. For instance, Sir Syed, in a January 1883 speech in Patna, talked of two different nations if his own approach was conciliatory: Friends, in India there live two prominent nations which are distinguished by the names of Hindus and Mussulmans. Just as a man has some principal organs these two nations are like the principal limbs of India. However, the formation of the Indian National Congress was seen politically threatening and he dispensed with composite Indian nationalism. In an 1887 speech, he said: Now suppose that all the English were to leave India—then who would be rulers of India? Is it possible that unde

Hot hatch

Hot hatch is a high-performance version of a mass-produced hatchback car. The term originated in the mid-1980s. Front-mounted petrol engines, together with front-wheel drive, is the most common powertrain layout, however all-wheel drive has become more used since around 2010. Most hot hatches are manufactured in Asia. Usage of the term "hot hatchback" began in the United Kingdom in 1983, shortened to "hot hatch" in 1984; the term first appeared in The Times in 1985, is now and accepted as a mainstream, albeit informal, term. It was not a phrase used at the time; some sports cars have a rear hatch, however these body styles are not classified as hatchbacks, therefore they are not referred to as hot hatches. Due to the historical scarcity of hatchback cars in the United States, the term hot hatch is not used in the US. Since the 1990s and 2000s, the term warm hatch has been used to describe sporting hatchback models of lesser performance than a hot hatch. Examples include the Mini Cooper, Peugeot 207 GT Suzuki Swift Sport, Toyota Yaris SR.

The 1961 Mini Cooper was one of the first performance cars to use a small body and an FF layout, both key characteristics of a hot hatchback. However, the Mini was not produced in a hatchback body style and is therefore not considered a hot hatch; the car retrospectively considered to be the first hot hatch is the 1973 Simca 1100 Ti. Power was increased by 40% to 82 hp, which resulted in a 0 to 60 mph time of under 12 seconds and a top speed of 105 mph. Other upgrades included a front disk brakes and rear spoilers and alloy wheels; the second hot hatch to be introduced was the Renault 5 Alpine, which went on sale in May 1976. It could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph time of under 10 seconds; the car credited with establishing the popularity of hot hatches is the Volkswagen Golf GTI, announced at the 1975 Frankfurt Motor Show. and released in July 1976. The Golf GTI was designated to be sold only in West Germany, but from 1977 Volkswagen began exports of the GTI. Production of right-hand drive GTI's began in 1979.

The Renault 5 Alpine and Volkswagen Golf GTI, with the addition of a higher performance engine, sharper handling, distinctive body styling with additional spoilers and alloy wheels, helped create the birth of a huge market for small, practical hatchback cars with performance to match contemporary coupes such as the Ford Capri 2.0, Lancia Beta Coupe 2000 and Renault 17 TS. With top speeds above 110 mph, the Alpine and GTI enjoyed a short run of unparalleled sales success until the early 1980s; the 1979 Lotus Sunbeam set a new performance benchmark of hot hatches, with a power output of 150 bhp and a 0-60 mph time of 6.6 seconds. Despite being rear-wheel drive, the Sunbeam is considered a hot hatch; until the early 1980s, the Volkswagen Golf Mk1 GTI and the Renault 5 Alpine/Gordini dominated the retrospectively named hot hatch market segment in many European markets. From around 1984, the market for hatchbacks with sportier performance grew, many manufacturers added a hot hatch variant to their range.

Power increases were achieved through upgraded carburettors, fuel injection, supercharging or fitting larger engines. Other significant hot hatches of the 1980s include the Ford Escort RS Turbo, Opel Kadett GTE, Renault 11 Turbo, Lancia Delta HF Integrale, Citroën AX GT and Suzuki Swift GTi. By the end of the 1980s, the hot hatch was hugely popular in Europe, was pushing into other worldwide markets; the brief heyday of Group B rallying pushed the hot hatch genre to its limits, small numbers of ultra-high performance variants were manufactured to comply with the rally rules. These vehicles represented a brief, extreme branch of the hot hatch, included such notable vehicles as the Lancia Delta S4, MG Metro 6R4 and Peugeot 205 T16. European manufacturers continued to produce hot hatches through the 1990s, including the Ford Fiesta RS Turbo, Ford Escort RS Cosworth, Peugeot 106 Rallye / GTi, Peugeot 306 GTi-6 / Rallye, Renault Clio Williams, SEAT Ibiza GTi / GT 16v / Cupra, Volkswagen Golf GTI / VR6 and Ford Focus ST170.

Japanese manufacturers began to produce hot hatches, including the Honda Civic Type R, Nissan Pulsar GTI-R, Toyota Corolla GTi and Suzuki Swift GTi. Performance of hot hatches continued to increase through the 2000s, with an increasing number of models using turbocharged engines. During the 2000s manufacturers started to emphasise the sub-brand of their hot hatch derivatives such as Renault's Renault Sport, Opel's OPC, Vauxhall's VXR and Fiat's Abarth. European-built hot hatches from the 2000s include the Abarth Grande Punto, Alfa Romeo 147/156 GTA, Audi S3,Ford Fiesta ST/RS,Ford Focus ST/RS,Mazdaspeed 3,MG ZR, Mini Cooper S/JCW,Opel/Vauxhall Astra SRi Turbo/OPC/VXR, Peugeot 206/207 GTi, Renault Clio RS/Mégane RS,SEAT León Cupra/FR+SEAT Ibiza Cupra/FR and Volkswagen Golf GTI/Golf R. Asian-built hot hatches included the Honda Civic Type R and Proton Satria GTi. Further increases to power outputs saw the adoption of all-wheel drive

William Pallister Hubbard

William Pallister Hubbard was an American Republican politician from Wheeling, West Virginia who served as a United States Representative. The son of Congressman Chester D. Hubbard, he served as a member of the 60th and 61st United States Congresses. Hubbard attended Linsly School in Wheeling, he graduated from Wesleyan University, Connecticut in 1863. After studying law, he was admitted to the bar in 1864, he enlisted in the Union Army as a private in 1865 in the third West Virginia Cavalry. He had risen to the rank of first lieutenant. After earning a Masters of Arts degree in 1866, again at Wesleyen, he returned to Wheeling and commenced the practice of law in 1866, he married Ann E. Chamberlin of Louisiana in 1868, he was a clerk of the West Virginia House of Delegates from 1866 to 1870 served as a member of the House of Delegates in 1881 and 1882. He was chosen as a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1888 and 1912. At the 1912 Republican convention, Hubbard was a leading supporter of Theodore Roosevelt in his unsuccessful attempt to retake the White House.

He was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for Attorney General of West Virginia in 1888. Hubbard's candidacy for election in 1890 to the Fifty-second Congress was unsuccessful. From 1901 to 1903 he served as chairman of the commission to revise the tax laws of West Virginia, he was elected in 1906 from West Virginia's 1st District as a Republican to the Sixtieth and Sixty-first Congresses. He returned to his law practice in Wheeling. There he died at the age of 77, was buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Wheeling. United States congressional delegations from West Virginia This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov