Mink Mile is an upscale shopping district in the neighbourhood of Yorkville in Toronto, Canada, along Bloor Street between Yonge Street and Avenue Road. Mink Mile commands an average rent of $310 per square foot, making it the most expensive place in Canada to lease retail space and the third most expensive retail space in North America; this stretch of Bloor was named in 2008 the seventh most expensive shopping street in the world by Fortune Magazine, claiming tenants can make $1,500 to $4,500 per square foot in sales. The Mink Mile has been recognized as one of the most luxurious shopping streets in North America, being compared to New York's Fifth Avenue, Chicago's Magnificent Mile, Los Angeles' Rodeo Drive. Demand remained high on the Mink Mile, according to real estate firm and Wakefield. In 2005, retail space rents were $110 per square foot; the 2010 Cushman and Wakefield report indicate rents of $198 per square foot, while the Q407 Toronto Retail Report in 2010 mentions deals reaching $300 per square foot, making the Mink Mile the third most expensive retail street in North America.
This has led to higher rents on nearby Cumberland St. and Yorkville Ave. with several new developments asking $125 per square foot. Expensive Indian fashion boutique INDIVA, which moved to a smaller boutique on Yorkville Ave. claims that the monthly rent at their previous location was $85,000. Many independent retailers struggle to meet these demands, many in past years have closed or relocated to other streets. However, it is estimated. In recent years, mid-market retailers have begun to locate along the Mink Mile. In 2005, Winners and La Senza opened stores followed by Club Monaco, J. Crew, Banana Republic, French Connection, Aldo, American Apparel, Roots Canada Ltd, Nike, Roots, Sephora, Gap and H&M. Discount retailer, Labels 4 Less opened their own store, to the disappointment of many of its neighbours. Begun in 2008, the Bloor-Yorkville Business Improvement Area and the City of Toronto updated the streetscape from Church Street to Avenue Road, creating an enhanced pedestrian experience with widened sidewalks, mature trees, flower gardens, modern lighting and public art.
The project was completed in 2013. Several international luxury retailers have shops in the area including Hermès, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Hugo Boss, Cartier, Dolce & Gabbana, Cole Haan, Porsche Design, Tiffany & Co. Coach, Victorinox Swiss Army and a 50,000 square foot Harry Rosen flagship. Holt Renfrew has its flagship department store on 50 Bloor Street and a Men's store at 100 Bloor Street. There are other midrange and upscale stores, such as Max Mara, Moncler, J. Crew, Banana Republic, Brooks Brothers, The Gap, Roots Canada, Sephora, H&M, Club Monaco. Cumberland Terrace Manulife Centre Hudson's Bay Centre Holt Renfrew Centre Robson Street
The St. Regis Toronto
The St. Regis Toronto is a mixed-use skyscraper in Toronto, Canada, it was built by Markham-based Talon International Development Inc., owned by Canadian businessmen Val Levitan and Alex Shnaider. It is owned by InnVest Hotels LP. After it opened in 2012 as the Trump International Hotel and Tower Toronto, the hotel was controversial for its affiliation with American real estate developer Donald Trump, elected President of the United States. In 2017, this affiliation led to calls from the public for the hotel to drop its Trump branding following the U. S. President’s Executive Order 13769, which restricted people from a number of predominantly Muslim countries from traveling to the United States; the Trump Organization, a company owned by the Trump family, used to hold the management contract for the hotel and was a minority shareholder in the project. The management contract was bought out by JCF Capital in June 2017, the hotel portion of the building was purchased by InnVest Hotels LP, a subsidiary of Bluesky Hotels and Resorts.
The hotel management shifted to Marriott International, where it operated on an unbranded basis as the Adelaide Hotel Toronto. The hotel underwent a comprehensive renovation plan and joined Marriott's St. Regis Hotels & Resorts brand as The St. Regis Toronto on November 28, 2018; the tower is located in the Financial District, at 325 Bay Street, on the southeast corner of Bay and Adelaide streets. It is the third tallest skyscraper in Canada, the tallest mixed-use building in the city and fourth tallest structure in the city; the tower has 65 storeys, 57 occupiable floors, is 276.9 m tall, is clad with a steel and stone facade. The building includes 109 residential condominium suites; the top two floors of the hotel section house a 5,486 m2 spa. The tower was designed by Zeidler Partnership Architects and is the tallest mixed-use building in Canada. Floors 2-31 occupy the hotel. Residential suites range in size from 207 m2, were designed with upscale fixtures and 3.4 to 4 m ceilings. Suite prices started at C$1.2 million.
There are 4-6 suites per floor. Residents have a separate entrance and elevators from hotel guests. Builders planned to connect the building to Toronto's underground PATH network, however this plan was dropped because of the high costs associated with tunnelling under the city. Developer Harry Stinson intended to create a friendly rivalry with Trump for the tallest mixed-use building in Canada with the Sapphire Tower; as a result, the planned heights of both projects were revised several times in an attempt to outdo each other, Stinson's skyscraper would have been 17 metres taller in its last design. However, the Sapphire Tower failed to gain approval of city council, in part because it would have cast a shadow over Toronto City Hall's Nathan Phillips Square, its development company filed for bankruptcy in 2007. At that time, the Trump Tower's design was scaled back and the height was reduced because of the real estate market slowdown; the building was built on a vacant lot, used only for parking, between Scotia Plaza and The National Club.
Lewis Builds Corporation, a construction and development manager in downtown Toronto, was the construction manager for this project. On March 23, 2007, Talon International Development Incorporated of Markham announced that it had reached an agreement with international bank Raiffeisen Zentralbank Österreich AG to arrange C$310 million in construction financing for its Trump International Hotel & Tower development. Construction began with the removal of the sales centre in September 2007; the official groundbreaking was on October 12, 2007. The hotel portion of the tower was planned to be completed in late 2011; the tower was projected to be completed in early 2012. The building topped out in early September 2011, the spire was raised on September 24, 2011; the hotel opened for business on January 31, 2012, its grand opening occurred on April 16, 2012. Work on the top of the building continued until completion in July 2012 with the activation of two high-intensity aircraft warning lights. In May 2017, The Wall Street Journal reported that Russian state-owned Vnesheconombank provided financing for the construction of the hotel in 2010.
According to the Panama Papers, in 2010, Shnaider sold at least half of Midland Group's ownership in the Zaporizhstal steel mill to buyers financed by VEB, who were themselves acquired by the bank. Shnaider used proceeds from the sale to meet cost overruns at the Tower. Shnaider's lawyer told The Wall Street Journal that $15 million from the sale to the Russian bank went into the tower, recanted; the tower has been controversial since its opening because of lower than expected occupancy rates in the "hotel-condo" portion of the building that led to a legal battle between real estate investors and Talon International Development. As of October 2016, the following units had been sold to investors: Investors wanted to opt out of purchase agreements because they believe the sales tactics used by Talon regarding financial projections were misleading; the Ontario Securities Commission investigated the matter in 2012 and decided not to take action, but several investors sued Talon, its principals and Trump for various claims, including recovery of their deposits, damages for loss of opportunity and consequential damages, negligent misrepresentation and conspiracy.
Talon counter-sued the investors who did not pay the remaining purchase price by December 13, 2012. In July 2015, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice dismissed two test cases, while finding that income estimates
The Minto Midtown is a residential complex on Yonge Street in Toronto in the Davisville neighbourhood near Yonge and Eglinton consisting of two towers and Quantum 2 developed by Minto Developments Inc. The proposed project--which exceeded existing height and zoning limits--met with substantial neighborhood and city opposition, until Minto appealed to the Ontario Municipal Board and worked out a deal with the City of Toronto. Quantum is 37 storeys and was completed in 2007. Quantum 2 is 52 storeys and was completed in 2008; the initial conceptual design was done by Owings & Merrill. The construction of the towers, the tallest in the neighbourhood, was controversial. In March 2000, the developer bought the land to be developed and submitted an application for the project in December of the same year, which included the plan for the two towers and demolition of a ten-storey building; the project was in excess of the existing height and density limits. However, chief planner was considering zoning changes to increase development in the area.
The local ward councilor, Michael Walker, kicked the developer out of his office when approached with the proposal and remained steadfastly against the project. Walker had the backing of a number of neighborhood groups the North Toronto Tenants Network. Other councilors were amenable to the proposal. After delays and the City's plans to reject the project, Minto appealed to the Ontario Municipal Board a pro-development board. Minto reached an agreement with city council, by reducing the height by several storeys, providing Can $1.2 Million for social housing, Can$200,000 for transit connections. The OMB Decision set a new standard for development; the buildings still sparked strong response from a community group named the North Toronto Tenants Network. The OMB ruled in favour of Minto; the debate over the towers proved central in the 2003 municipal election. Incumbent city councillor Anne Johnston had helped broker the compromise, she was opposed by Karen Stintz, who took a strong stand against the development and intensification.
In a result that surprised many, longtime incumbent Johnston lost by 2,321 votes. This development has achieved Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold certification, making it the largest multi-residential LEED certified condominium in North America in 2009. List of tallest buildings in Toronto
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The L Tower is a residential skyscraper in Toronto, Canada designed by architect Daniel Libeskind. The project, which broke ground in mid-October 2009, was expected to be complete in mid-2015, but saw many delays. One cause for delay was a stop-work order caused by safety concerns about the crane at the top of the building; the crane was an eyesore for many residents. Despite the crane, the building still won the eighth place Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2017. In the 2000s, the Sony Centre was expected to be demolished and the land sold, however Hummingbird Centre CEO Dan Brambilla convinced the city to preserve the site and approve the condo development. In February 2018, former members of a number of condominium boards—including L Tower—were accused of misusing funds, resulting in litigation. Two members of the L Tower's condominium board resigned as a result; the building is being developed by three builders: Cityzen and Castlepoint Numa of Toronto, Fernbrook Homes of Concord, Ontario. The Sony Plaza is an open space elevated above the intersection of Front streets.
It is being designed by Claude Cormier and Associates. Canadian artist Harley Valentine is creating a triptych of sculptures to be installed in the Sony Plaza. Called Dream Ballet in hommage to the National Ballet of Canada's four-decade residence at the site, the three sculptures depict abstracted ballet dancers in various dynamic positions. In 2017 the L Tower was awarded an Emporis Skyscraper Award in the number 8 spot in the category of best new skyscraper. In February 2018, former members of a number of condominium boards—including L Tower—were accused of misusing funds, resulting in litigation. Two members of the L Tower's condominium board resigned as a result. List of tallest buildings in Toronto List of tallest buildings in Canada Sony Centre for the Performing Arts
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Yorkville is a neighbourhood and former village in Toronto, Canada. It is bounded by Bloor Street to the south, Davenport Road to the north, Yonge Street to the east and Avenue Road to the west, is considered part of "The Annex" neighbourhood officially. Established as a separate village in 1830, it was annexed into Toronto in 1883. Yorkville is diverse, comprising residential areas, office space, an array of shopping options. Within the Yorkville district is one of Canada's most exclusive shopping districts, anchored by the Mink Mile along Bloor Street. In 2006, Mink Mile was the 22nd most expensive street in the world, with rents of $208 per square foot. Yorkville had rents of $300 per square foot in 2008, making it the third most expensive retail space in North America. In 2008, the Mink Mile was named the seventh most expensive shopping street in the world by Fortune Magazine, claiming tenants can pull in $1,500 to $4,500 per square foot in sales. Founded in 1830 by entrepreneur Joseph Bloore and William Botsford Jarvis of Rosedale, the Village of Yorkville began as a residential suburb.
Bloore operated a brewery north-east of today's Church Street intersection. Jarvis was Sheriff of the Home District; the two purchased land in the Yorkville district, subdividing it into smaller lots on new side streets to those interested in living in the cleaner air outside of York. The political centre of Yorkville was the Red Lion Hotel, an inn, used as the polling place for elections, it is here that William Lyon Mackenzie was voted back into the Legislature for 1832 and a huge procession took him down Yonge Street. The village grew enough to be connected by an omnibus service in 1849 to Toronto. By 1853, the population of the village had reached 1,000, the figure needed to incorporate as a village and the Village of Yorkville was incorporated. Development increased and by the 1870s, Potter's Field, a cemetery stretching east of Yonge Street along the north side of Concession Road was closed, the remains moved to the Necropolis and Mount Pleasant cemetery. By the 1880s, the cost of delivering services to the large population of Yorkville was beyond the Village's ability.
It petitioned the Toronto government to be annexed. Annexation came on February 1, 1883, Yorkville's name changed from "Village of Yorkville" to "St. Paul's Ward" and the former "Yorkville Town Hall" became "St. Paul's Hall"; the character of the suburb did not change and its Victorian styled homes, quiet residential streets, picturesque gardens survived into the 20th century. In 1923, Toronto Hebrew Maternity and Convalescent Hospital was opened at 100 Yorkville Avenue and a year the name was changed to Mount Sinai Hospital; the facade of this building still stands housed retailer Chanel. In the 1960s, Yorkville flourished as Toronto's bohemian cultural centre, it was the breeding ground for some of Canada's most noted musical talents, including Joni Mitchell, Neil Young and Gordon Lightfoot, as well as then-underground literary figures such as Margaret Atwood, Gwendolyn MacEwen and Dennis Lee. Yorkville was known as the Canadian capital of the hippie movement. In 1968, nearby Rochdale College at the University of Toronto was opened on Bloor Street as an experiment in counterculture education.
Those influenced by their time in 1960s-70s Yorkville include cyberpunk writer William Gibson. Its domination by hippies and young people led MPP Syl Apps to refer to it as "a festering sore in the middle of the city" and call for its "eradication." Joni Mitchell captured a colorful impression of the nightlife scene on Yorkville Avenue in her song Night in the City. After the construction of the Bloor-Danforth subway, the value of land nearby increased as higher densities were allowed by the City's official plan. Along Bloor Street, office towers, the Bay department store and the Holt Renfrew department store displaced the local retail; as real estate values increased, the residential homes north of Bloor along Yorkville were converted into high-end retail, including many art galleries, fashion boutiques and antique stores, popular bars and eateries along Cumberland Street and Yorkville Avenue. Many smaller buildings were demolished and office and hotels built in the 1970s, with high-priced condominium developments being built in subsequent decades.
Along Bloor Street is located the "Mink Mile" shopping district. The street is lined on both sides of the street with office buildings with retail stores in the bottom one or two floors; the main streets of Avenue Road and Bay Street north of Bloor are developed. North of Bloor, on Yorkville and Cumberland streets, between the main arteries, the character changes to smaller buildings containing art galleries, first-floor retail and restaurants. Further north still are single-family detached and semi-detached homes dating to the 19th century. Yorkville has upscale shopping and the first five star hotel in Canada. Upscale boutiques include Burberry, Gucci, MAC Cosmetics, Hugo Boss, Hermès, Louis Vuitton, Holt Renfrew, Tiffany & Co. Escada, Ermenegildo Zegna, Harry Rosen, Calvin Klein, Cole Haan, Vera Wang, Ferrari, Williams-Sonoma and Olufsen, Betsey Johnson, Max Mara, Bulgari, Coach, Guerlain and others; the Holt Renfrew store on Bloor is the luxury retailer's flagship and largest store with four floors and boutiques.
Many flagships of other companies are located here as well, such as Harry Rosen, Town Shoes, Gucci and Chanel Browns Shoes opened on Bloor, with merchandise, much more expens