Wujal Wujal is a small Aboriginal community on the north and south sides of the Bloomfield River in northern Queensland, Australia. It has an area of 19.94 square kilometres of land. At the 2006 census, Wujal Wujal had a population of 326, it is located 30 kilometres north of Cape Tribulation and 60 kilometres south of Cooktown. Access to the community is via sealed road from Cooktown, or by the Bloomfield Track, an unsealed road from Cape Tribulation, only suitable for four wheel drive vehicles; this is due to the gradient of the terrain and the many streams and rivers that make up the Daintree drainage basin which cross the path at regular intervals. During high waterflow the road from Cape Tribulation is impassable; the rare Bloomfield River Cod is found only in the Bloomfield River and is named after this community. The community of Wujal Wujal is located in the Cape York region with the surrounding environment and cultural tourism attracting many people to the region. Wujal Wujal is part of the traditional homelands of the Eastern Kuku Yalanji.
The name ‘Wujal Wujal’ or ‘many falls’ is derived from the local language. There are several Indigenous languages spoken within this community; the Bloomfield River mission was established on land belonging to the Kuku-Yalanji people. The first recorded Europeans to visit the Bloomfield River were Royal Navy Lieutenant Commander Frederick Bedwell and Captain Phillip Parker King on board the HMS Mermaid on a hydrological survey of the east coast of Australia. In June 1819, HMS Mermaid anchored in Weary Bay and:"Mr. Bedwell was sent to examine the opening, called Blomfield's Rivulet …Near the entrance upon the bank of the inlet several huts were noticed, near them Mr. Bedwell found a canoe. In 1872, William Hann was commissioned by the Queensland Government to explore Cape York Peninsula to assess its mineral and land resources. On their return, the party reached the coast at Weary Bay and followed the Bloomfield River upstream. Hann was responsible for discovering and naming the Palmer and Daintree rivers.
One of Hann’s party discovered gold on the Palmer River. After hearing of the discovery, James Venture Mulligan led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligan reported that the sandbars of the river glittered with gold, which started a huge gold rush to the district. By late 1873, the first government officials and prospectors came ashore at the Endeavour River accompanied by a detachment of Native Police. In 1874, Cooktown was established. Within 4 months and the Palmer River goldfield had a population of about 3,000 people, many of whom were Chinese immigrants. By 1880, the population of Cooktown had grown to about 7,000. Conflict between the Europeans and local Aboriginal people began immediately. In October 1873, 93 miners set out from the Endeavour River to blaze a track to the Palmer River. There were several skirmishes along the way, culminating in a pitched battle between about 150 Aboriginal warriors and the expedition members at their camp near the Normanby River; the site of this encounter was subsequently named ‘Battle Camp’.
A contemporary newspaper published the following account of the battle from one of the expedition members:"Blacks surprised us at daybreak, about 150, all were armed. They were unable to penetrate the thick scrub; the Native Police officer reported that they had found the Aborigines "exceedingly daring appearing in most threatening attitudes" and had to disperse them on three or four occasions". In 1875, a prospecting party on the Bloomfield River was attacked and driven back to Cooktown by Aboriginal people; the Native Police established a camp at Laura in 1875. A further detachment under the command of Sub-Inspector O’Connor arrived in January 1876; the first pastoralists in the Bloomfield River district were Frederick Bauer. Bauer established the Bloomfield River Sugar Company on the north side of the river with imported Malay labour; the town of Ayton was established around the sugar mill. The Kuku Yalanji people continued to resist the invasion of their lands by the miners and timber getters.
Frontier violence in the region was a frequent occurrence during the 1870s, resulting in hundreds of casualties. During the 1880s there was a gradual change in north Queensland in the government policy of taking the country by lethal force. Instead, Aboriginal people were removed off their country on to missions, where they would not trouble the settlers and provided a cheap source of labour; this policy change resulted in a decision to establish two Aboriginal reserves in the Cooktown district. In 1885, Lutheran missionary Johann Flierl was travelling to New Guinea to establish a mission, when he was unexpectedly delayed in Cooktown. While there, he negotiated with the Queensland Government to establish a mission close to Cooktown at Cape Be
Kowanyama is a town on the Gulf of Carpentaria side of Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. At the 2006 census, Kowanyama had a population of 1,017; the town resides within the Kowanyama Local Government Area which covers a land area of 2,516.1km². The aboriginal people who live in this community include Kokominjena and Kunjen groups, amongst others. In their overarching Yir-Yoront language, Kowanyama means "The place of many waters." The community is situated on the banks of the Magnificent Creek, a tributary of the Mitchell River, 20 kilometres inland from the coastline of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Kowanyama is accessed by an all-weather airstrip, as well as unsealed roads in the dry season from Pormpuraaw to the north, Normanton to the south and Cairns to the east. In 1905, Trubanamen Mission was established inland on Topsy Creek, now known as the old mission. Aboriginal peoples of the region were drawn from their ancestral lands into the mission settlement. In 1916, Mitchell River Mission was founded on the present site of Kowanyama and the Trubanamen site abandoned.
Some peoples continued to occupy their traditional lands, moving into Kowanyama as late as the 1940s. More than 1000 people now live in Kowanyama, making it one of the largest communities on the Cape York Peninsula. Kowanyama's Aboriginal people continue to identify with their ancestral countries and with the languages, songs and histories associated with those countries. Language groups associated with countries in the Kowanyama region are Yir Yoront, Yirrk Thangalkl, Koko Bera, Uw Oykangand, Olkola. In 1964, a cyclone destroyed the mission; the Queensland government funded the rebuilding. Kowanyama Post Office opened by 1967. In 1967 the Anglican church were no longer able to sustain their activities in the area as a Church Mission; the Department of Aboriginal and Islander Affairs, a government department, under the Act continued running the affairs of the community. In July 1987, the State Government of Queensland implemented legislation for a DOGIT over the lands in the Mitchell River delta, an area of 250 km².
The deed covered the traditional lands of the people of Kowanyama. Like other DOGIT communities of the time, Kowanyama had a town Council elected by Aboriginal people living in the community; the newly formed Kowanyama Council assumed responsibility for implementing certain conditions of the DOGIT. Seven elected aboriginal residents hold three-year terms in office. Since the 1990s, many Kowanyama people have been returning to their ancestral lands through the Homelands Movement. Homelands within the Kowanyama DOGIT include Scrubby Bore, Red Lilly, Ten Mile, Stewart Place, Old Rodeo Ground, Duck Hole, Wonya Bore, Kokomenjen Island, Wallaby Island, Joe's Lagoon, Yangr Bore, Fish Hole, Robert Demaine great elder and Thilpi. Other homelands, including the Oriners Pastoral Lease and the Sefton Pastoral Lease, were independently purchased by the Kowanyama Council and are located outside the DOGIT boundary. A Community Justice Group operates within Kowanyama; this group is made up of respected members in the community.
They meet to make recommendations to Council. The community has a Council of Elders, who are consulted by the Kowanyama Council when making community decisions; the elders operate in conjunction with the Lands Office. The Kowanyama Aboriginal Land and Natural Resources Management Office works to promote and facilitate aboriginal management of the natural and cultural resources of Kowanyama country by the people of Kowanyama. Through community consultation and direction, KALNRMO has developed a community development agenda for the Kowanyama region, including: Homelands development Land and Fisheries Management'Tourism and Visitor management Kowanyama Ranger Service Native Title Claims Cultural Resource documentationThrough the initiatives of KALNRMO, the Kowanyama community is regarded as a leader in indigenous land management issues. Since 1987, Kowanyama has effected substantial local control over fishing in the Mitchell River Delta, including the closure of some waters to non-Aboriginal fishing under state fisheries legislation.
This action, funded through the enterprise income of the Kowanyama Aboriginal Council, has provided Aboriginal people access to the River’s fish stocks for their cultural and economic needs. In this way, Aboriginal people can fish and hunt. KALNRMO employs four field rangers; the Kowanyama Rangers implement land management strategies in many areas of the DOGIT, and, in addition to tourism and visitor management, patrol closed and open waters. The Rangers observe fisheries regulations for illegal commercial or recreational fishing in closed waters. Beginning in 2007, the Rangers monitor threatened turtle populations and participate in the Carpentaria Ghost Nets Programme to remove debris discarded into the Gulf of Carpentaria by commercial fishermen from Australia and Indonesia; the Kowanyama State School has 210 students from pre-prep to year 10. Since the beginning of 2014, the school has started to enrol students in a year 11 and 12 pathways program; the Kowanyama State School opened in January 1904.
Kowanyama has a small supermarket that sells fresh foods and frozen foods, hardware items. The store is similar to a medium-sized IGA store; the store is operated by Department of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Partnerships, the manager is able to obtain any goods that are not kept for sale. The store prices are somewhat higher than provincial towns, which reflect the high costs of transport and storage; the "Coffee Shop" does
Hope Vale, Queensland
Hope Vale is a town within the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and a locality split between the Aboriginal Shire of Hope Vale and the Shire of Cook, Australia. It is an Aboriginal community. At the 2011 census, Hopevale had a population of 974 people. Hope Vale is on Cape York Peninsula about 46 kilometres northwest of Cooktown by road, about 10 kilometres off the Battlecamp Road that leads to Lakefield National Park and Laura; the Cape Bedford Mission was established by Johann Flierl, a missionary of the Lutheran Church in 1886, with the settlement at Elim on the beach. Owing to fears that the German-influenced Aboriginal people might cooperate with the advancing Japanese in World War II, the total population of 286 was evacuated south to various communities by the military in May 1942; the German Lutheran missionaries were sent to internment camps. Most of the people were sent to Woorabinda, near Rockhampton, in Queensland, where a large number perished from disease and malnutrition. Hope Vale was re-established as a Lutheran mission in September 1949.
Aboriginal people from the Hope Valley and Cape Bedford Missions settled there. A work crew was allowed to return in 1949 and the first families came home in 1950. Hopevale Post Office opened on 1 May 1965 and closed in 1990. Hopevale is no longer run as a mission by its own elected community council. In 1986 it received a "deed of grant in trust" which "granted title to 110,000 ha of land, Aboriginal Reserve Land held by the Under Secretary as trustee, to the community council to act as trustees of the land for the benefit of the residents." The Aboriginal Land Act 1991 transferred into Indigenous ownership all previous reserve land under DOGIT titles. "The Warra people of the Hopevale Community of Eastern Cape York Peninsula in Queensland received acknowledgement of their native title rights in December 1997. The determination recognised rights of exclusive possession, occupation use and enjoyment over 110,000 ha. "Hopevale is home to several clan groups who speak Guugu Yimidhirr and other related languages, as well as English.
Due to a lack of reliable water supplies at Elim, the community was shifted about 20 kilometres inland to its present site. Notable former residents of Hopevale are Queensland rugby league player Matt Bowen and lawyer and activist Noel Pearson. Pearson has criticised the level of violence in the community. On 21 July 2008 the Hope Vale community opened the Indigenous Knowledge and Technology Centre, in the Jack Bambie building at 5 Muni Street; this centre provides training venue and public Internet access. The Hope Vale community has a strong choral singing tradition since its evacuation to Woorabinda; the ensemble has performed at the Queensland Music Festival on three occasions—in 2005, 2007 and 2009. Marie Yamba Aboriginal Mission, a Mission situated south of Proserpine that commenced in 1897 and finished in 1902 with 24 Aboriginals being moved to Hope Vale Mission. Pohlner, Peter. 1986. Gangarru. Hopevale Mission Board, Queensland. ISBN 1-86252-311-8 Poland, Wilhelm. Loose leaves. Originally published as three booklets by The Mission Institute of Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, 1905-1912.
Reprint: Lutheran Publishing House, Adelaide. 1988. ISBN 0-85910-468-0 Roth, W. E. 1897. The Queensland Aborigines. 3 Vols. Reprint: Facsimile Edition, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, W. A. 1984. ISBN 0-85905-054-8. Sutton, Peter. Languages of Cape York: Papers presented to a Symposium organised by the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.. ISBN 0-85575-046-4. Wynter, Jo and Hill, John. 1991. Cape York Peninsula: Pathways to Community Economic Development; the Final Report of The Community Economic Development Projects Cook Shire. Cook Shire Council. Aboriginal Co-Ordinating Council Media Facility. 2002. The Woorabinda Story: 7 Years in Exile. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Cairns. 20 April 2005. The Morning Show with Pat Morrish. Radio Broadcast. Bambie, Herman. 2000. Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 204. Bennett and Gordon, Wilfred. 2007. ‘Social Capital and the Indigenous Tourism Entrepreneur’.
In: J. Buultjens and D. Fuller Striving for Sustainability: Case Studies in Indigenous Tourism, pp. 333–70. Lismore, NSW, Australia: Southern Cross University Press. Brad, Jen. 1994. Milbi Thagaalbigu Balgaayga. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Callaghan, editor. Mangal-Bungal Clever with Hands: Baskets and stories woven by some of the women of Hopevale, Cape York Peninsula. Hopevale Community Learning Centre Aboriginal Corporation. ISBN 978-0-646-46701-6 Costello, David Bringing Them Home Oral History Project. Hope Vale, 26 October, Oral History, TRC 5000/ 187. Deeral, Eric no date. Lest we Forget: Home at Last. Hopevale: Guugu Yimithirr Cultural Centre. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16750, CD. Dekker, John. 8 June 1970. Guugu-Yimidhirr Words of Life. Global Recordings: catalogue number C16751, CD. Evans, Kay E. 1972. ‘Marie Yamba and Hope Vale: The Lutheran Missions to the North Queensland Aborigines, 1886-1905’ Queensland Heritage 2.6:26-35.
Gordon and Haviland, John. 1980. "Milbi: Aboriginal Tales from Queensland's Endeavour River. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Gordon and Bennett, Judy (July 2007 first print no
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, is the largest town on the Cape. At the 2011 census, Weipa had a population of 3,334, it exists because of the enormous bauxite deposits along the coast. The Port of Weipa is involved in exports of bauxite. Over the last decade or so there have been occasional shipments of live cattle from the port. Weipa is just south of Duyfken Point, a location now agreed to be the first recorded point of European contact with the Australian continent. Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon, on his ship the Duyfken, sighted the coast here in 1606; this was 164 years. In 1895 Presbyterian missionary Reverend Nicholas John Hey established a mission at the junction of Embley River and Spring Creek which he called Weipa, believed to derive from the Anhathangayth word meaning fighting ground. In 1932 the mission relocated 28 kilometres to Jessica Point continuing under the same name. Restrictive legislation was enacted by the state of Queensland in 1911, making the Protector the legal guardian of every Aborigine and half-caste child, the right to confine any such person within any reserve or Aboriginal institution, the right to imprison any Aborigine or half-caste for 14 days if, in the Protector's judgement, they were guilty of neglect of duty, gross insubordination or wilful preaching of disobedience.
It gave powers to the police to confine Aborigines to reserves to "protect them from corruption". This latter power was given by Comalco in 1957 to justify the removal of Weipa Aborigines. In 1932 the community had to relocate to its present site, at Jessica Point now called Napranum because of malaria, it is about 12 kilometres south of the present town of Weipa. At this time most of the people were Awngthim but soon different tribes and clans were brought from Old Mapoon, other communities. In 1955 a geologist, Henry Evans, discovered that the red cliffs on the Aboriginal reserve remarked on by the early Dutch explorers and Matthew Flinders, were enormous deposits of bauxite – the ore from which aluminium is made – and to a lesser extent tungsten; the "Comalco Act of 1957" revoked the reserve status, giving the company 5,760 square km of Aboriginal reserve land on the west coast of the Peninsula and 5,135 square km on the east coast of Aboriginal-owned land. Mining commenced in 1960; the mission became a government settlement in 1966 with continued attempts by Comalco to relocate the whole community elsewhere.
The company built a new town for its workers on the other side of the bay. Weipa has a tropical savanna climate, with hot temperatures above 30 °C throughout the year. Three distinct seasons exist; the wet season, which runs from January to April, is characterised by heavy downpours on an daily basis. Monsoon lows and tropical cyclones cause more extreme rainfall, up to 200 mm in 24 hours; the dry season, running from May to September, features dry days. The build-up season, running from October to December, is oppressively hot and humid, with frequent days over 35 °C. Dewpoints in the wet season average 24 °C. Rainfall during the build-up is infrequent, but when it does occur, it falls in brief, heavy downpours associated with severe thunderstorms; these seasons are not always set, however. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 10.2 °C to 38.4 °C. The highest daily rainfall recorded was 327.8 mm during the passage of Tropical Cyclone Oswald in January 2013. The present town was constructed by Comalco, a large aluminium company, which began making trial shipments of bauxite to Japan in 1962.
A railway was constructed to transport the ore from the mine at Andoom to the dump of the export facility at Lorim Point. The bauxite mine is the world's largest with planned expansions increasing the margin over other mines in 2010. There are two schools in Weipa; the Western Cape College is a government co-educational school. It is on the corner of Eastern Avenues in Rocky Point. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 1,073 students with 93 teachers. St Joseph's Parish School is a Roman Catholic co-educational primary school at 2 Boundary Road, Rocky Point. Opened in 2016, the school only offered enrolment in years P-3 but expects in 2018 to be able to offer enrolment across all primary levels. Weipa has a visitor's centre, swimming pool, bowling green, golf club and squash courts. There are basketball courts as well as football fields. Weipa Town Authority operates a public library at Hibberd Drive in Weipa. At Nanum the shopping precinct has a Woolworths supermarket, coffee shop, travel agent, clothing shop, post office, newsagency / sports shop and butchers.
There is a chemist and fishing store and within walking distance is a gift shop and whitegoods store, credit union and government social security office. At Evans Landing there are a
Yungaburra is a town located on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, not far from Cairns. In the 2011 census, Yungaburra had a population of 1,116 people; the name'Yungaburra' comes from the local Yidiny word janggaburru, denoting the Queensland silver ash. The landscape around Yungaburra has been shaped by millennia of volcanic activity; the most recent eruptions were 10,000 years ago. Notable geological features nearby include: Seven Sisters and Mount Quincan are volcanic cones. Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine are lakes inside volcanic craters. Mount Hypipamee Crater is a diatreme. Tinaroo Dam submerged the old town of Kulara is visible, on whose cricket-pitch, when drought conditions drastically lower the water-level, locals play cricket matches. Prior to European settlement the area around Yungaburra was inhabited by about sixteen different indigenous groups, among them the Ngatjan, with the custodians being Yidinji people and neighbouring Ngajanji people; the Queensland police and native troops carried out extensive massacres in the area to rid it of blacks.
In one incident in 1884, at Skull Pocket just north of the town, a group of Yidinji were surrounded at night, at dawn mowed down after they fled on hearing the first shot. The children were stabbed to death by native troopers. In the early 1880s the area around Allumbah Pocket was used as an overnight stop for miners travelling west from the coast. In 1886 the land was surveyed, in 1891 settlers moved in. In 1910 the railway arrived, the town was renamed Yungaburra, to avoid confusion with another town called Allumbah. By 1911 indigenous numbers had fallen to 20% of the pre-settlement population due to disease, conflict with settlers and loss of habitat. At the 2006 census, Yungaburra had a population of 932; the population of Yungaburra is 1,034 persons as of 30 June 2009. In 2006, The Atherton Tableland region was damaged by the Category 4 Cyclone Larry. Of the 19 heritage listed sites in Yungaburra, only the roofs of the community hall, police station and one of the bush cottages were badly damaged, as were the front of the Yungaburra Butchery and Gem Gallery sign.
The town was restored quickly. Yungaburra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 27 Atherton Road: Bank of New South Wales 6-10 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Court House 7-9 Cedar Street: 7-9 Cedar Street, Yungaburra 12 Cedar Street: Residence 15-17 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Post Office 16-20 Cedar Street: Williams' House 19 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Community Centre 32 Cedar: Billy Madrid's House 34 Cedar Street: Barber's Shop, Yungaburra Curtain Fig Tree Road: Curtain Fig Tree 7 Eacham Road: St Marks Anglican Church 25-33 Eacham Road: Cairns Plywood Pty Ltd Sawmill Complex 20 Gillies Highway: Eden House Restaurant 2 Kehoe Place: Butchers Shop 6-8 Kehoe Place: Lake Eacham Hotel 7 Mulgrave Road: Allumbah 4 Oak Street: Residence 1 Penda Street: St Patricks Catholic Church on the shores of Lake Tinaroo, the Afghanistan Avenue of Honour Yungaburra's economy today revolves around tourism, the town contains a primary school, post office, library/telecentre and a range of businesses and services for the use of residents and visitors.
Other facilities include a bowling club. The town has 18 Heritage Listed buildings, is the largest National Trust village in Queensland; the Yungaburra Markets, held on the fourth Saturday of each month, are one of the largest in Far North Queensland, each year around the end of October, Yungaburra holds the two-day Yungaburra Folk Festival, featuring concerts from Australian folk musicians. Yungaburra is the site of the war memorial to soldiers lost, opened 22 June 2013. There is a network of walking tracks around the town including Peterson's Creek. Allumbah Pocket is a picnic area on Peterson's Creek, it is the centre for a series of walking tracks along the creek. Tracks lead to Frawley's Pool, a popular swimming hole and picnic area further to Yungaburra's historical train bridge. In the opposite direction there is a track to the platypus viewing deck. Aside from this all of the tracks are easy and short enough for anyone to do; the site is dedicated to Geoff Tracy, a local renowned environmentalist who died in 2004.
Yungaburra has access to the southern arm of Lake Tinaroo, popular for fishing, sailing, water-skiing and camping. The other main places to get to Tinaroo are the township of Tinaroo; the Curtain Fig Tree, just out of Yungaburra, is a giant rainforest fig tree with roots hanging down, giving it the appearance of curtains. There is a short boardwalk around the tree. Lake Barrine and Lake Eacham are crater lakes, formed from volcanoes. Lake Eacham is popular for swimming and Lake Barrine has a teahouse and gift shop as well as cruises around the lake however is unsuitable for swimming due to the cruise boats. Both lakes have walking tracks around them. Lake Barrine's track is Lake Eacham's is 3 kilometres. There are a number of places to dine, from takeaway to fine dining. Yungaburra State School is a government primary school at 4 Maple Street. In 2017 the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 13 non-teaching staff; the nearest public secondary school is Atherton State High School. Yungaburra has a library at Maud Kehoe Park operated by the Tablelands Regional Council.
The Yungaburra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall on the corner of Cedar Street and the Gillies Highway. Notable people from or who have lived in Yungaburra include: George Alfred
Cooktown is a town and locality in the Shire of Cook, Australia. Cooktown is located about 2,000 kilometres north of Brisbane and 328 kilometres north of Cairns, by road. Cooktown is about 857 kilometres south of Cape York by road. At the time of the 2016 census, Cooktown had a population of 2,631. Cooktown is at the mouth of the Endeavour River, on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland where James Cook beached his ship, the Endeavour, for repairs in 1770. Both the town and Mount Cook which rises up behind the town were named after James Cook. Cooktown is one of the few large towns in the Cape York Peninsula and was founded on 25 October 1873 as a supply port for the goldfields along the Palmer River, it was called "Cook's Town" until 1 June 1874. In the local Guugu Yimithirr language the name for the region is Gangaar Aboriginal pronunciation:, which means " Rock Crystals." Quartz crystals were used in various Aboriginal ceremonies across the continent and are found in the vicinity. The site of modern Cooktown was the meeting place of two vastly different cultures when, in June 1770, the local Aboriginal Guugu Yimithirr tribe cautiously watched the crippled sailing ship – His Majesty's Bark Endeavour – limp up the coast seeking a safe harbour after sustaining serious damage to its wooden hull on the Endeavour Reef, south of Cooktown.
The Guugu Yimithirr people saw the Endeavour beach in the calm waters near the mouth of their river, which they called "Wahalumbaal". The captain of the Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook, wrote: "... it was happy for us that a place of refuge was at hand. The British crew spent seven weeks on the site of present-day Cooktown, repairing their ship, replenishing food and water supplies, caring for their sick; the extraordinary scientist, Joseph Banks, Swedish naturalist Daniel Solander, who accompanied Cook on the expedition, collected and documented over 200 new species of plants. The young artist Sydney Parkinson illustrated the specimens and he was the first British artist to portray Aboriginal people from direct observation. After some weeks, Joseph Banks met and spoke with the local people, recording about 50 Guugu Yimithirr words, including the name of the intriguing animal the natives called gangurru. Cook recorded the local name as "Kangooroo, or Kanguru"; the first recorded sighting of kangaroos by Europeans was on Grassy Hill, which rises above the place where the ship was beached.
Cook climbed this hill to work out a safe passage for the Endeavour to sail through the surrounding reefs, after it was repaired. "The visit on the 19th of July 1770 ended in a skirmish after Cook refused to share the turtles he kept on the Endeavour with the local inhabitants. They set fire to the grass around Cook's camp twice, killing a suckling pig. After Cook wounded one of the men with a musket, they ran away. Cook and some others followed them and caught up with them on a rocky bar near Furneaux Street, now known as Reconciliation Rocks. A “little old man” appeared from the group of Indigenous Australians and they were reconciled; this was an important historic event as it is believed that this is the first recorded reconciliation between Europeans and Indigenous Australians ever."Cook named the river the "Endeavour" after his ship, and, as they sailed north, he hoisted the flag known as the "Queen Anne Jack" and claimed possession of the whole eastern coast of Australia for Britain. He named Cape York Peninsula after the then-Duke of Albany.
"In 1886 the people of Cooktown were anxious to recover the brass guns of the Endeavour which were thrown overboard, in order to place them as a memento in their town. The next recorded European expedition to the area was nearly 50 years when another botanist, Allan Cunningham, accompanying Captain Phillip Parker King, visited the remarkable region in 1819-20, he collected numerous botanical specimens for the British Museum and Kew Gardens. In 1872, William Hann discovered gold in southwest of Cooktown, his findings were reported to James Venture Mulligan who led an expedition to the Palmer River in 1873. Mulligan's expedition found quantities of alluvial gold and thus began the gold rush, to bring prospectors to the Endeavour River from all over the world; the Queensland government responded to Mulligan's reports, soon a party was dispatched to advise whether the Endeavour River would be a suitable site for a port. Shortly after, a new township was established at the site of the present town, on the southern bank of the river and Cooktown Post Office opened on 1 January 1874.
The Palmer goldfields and its centre, were growing quickly. The recorded output of gold from 1873 to 1890 was over half a million ounces. Cooktown was the port through which this gold was exported and supplies for the goldfields brought in. Word of the gold spread, Cooktown was soon thriving, as prospectors arrived from around the world. Population estimates vary but there were around 7,000 people in the area and about 4,000 permanent residents in the town by 1880. At that time, Cooktown boasted a large number of hotels and guest houses. There were 47 licensed pubs within the town boundaries in 1874 although this nu
Port Douglas is a town and a locality in the Shire of Douglas, Australia 70 km north of Cairns. In the 2016 census, Port Douglas had a population of 3,504 people; the town's population can double, with the influx of tourists during the peak tourism season from May to September. The town is named in honour of a former Premier of John Douglas. Port Douglas developed based on the mining industry. Other parts of the area were established with timber cutting occurring in the area surrounding the Daintree River and with settlement starting to occur on lots around the Mossman River by 1880. Previous names for the town included Island Point, Port Owen and Salisbury; the town is situated adjacent to two World Heritage areas, the Great Barrier Reef and the Daintree Rainforest. Port Douglas was No. 3 on Australian Traveller magazine's list of 100 Best Towns In Australia. The town is within the federal electorate of Leichhardt, within the state electorate of Cook. At the local level, it is in the local government area of Shire of Douglas.
The Port Douglas township was established in 1877 after the discovery of gold at Hodgkinson River by James Venture Mulligan. Port Douglas Post Office opened on 1 September 1877, it grew and at its peak Port Douglas had a population of 12,000 and 27 hotels. With the construction of the Mulligan Highway it serviced towns as far away as Herberton. Port Douglas State School opened on 11 November 1879, but closed in 1962, it was reopened on 23 January 1989. When the Kuranda Railway from Cairns to Kuranda was completed in 1891, the importance of Port Douglas dwindled along with its population. A cyclone in 1911 which demolished all but two buildings in the town had a significant impact. At its nadir in 1960 the town, by little more than a fishing village, had a population of 100; the Port Douglas War Memorial was unveiled on 10 February 1923 by Mrs Tresize. In the late-1980s, tourism boomed in the region after investor Christopher Skase financed the construction of the Sheraton Mirage Port Douglas Resort.
Its permanent population was 3,205 at the time of the 2011 census. Port Douglas has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Macrossan Street: FDA Carstens Memorial Wharf Street: St Mary's by the Sea 6 Dixie Street: Port Douglas Wharf 25 Wharf Street: Port Douglas Court House Museum In the 2016 Census, there were 3,504 people in Port Douglas. 56.6% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 6.3% and New Zealand 5.9%. 76.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion, so described 41.1% and Catholic 17.4%. On 5 July 1943, a RAAF Vultee Vengeance crash landed on the beach near Port Douglas. In November 1996 United States President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton chose the town as their only holiday stop on their historic visit to Australia; when dining at a local restaurant they witnessed a couple's wedding certificate. On a return visit on 11 September 2001, Clinton was again dining at a local restaurant, when he was advised of the September 11 attacks.
He returned to the United States the following day. On 4 September 2006, television personality and conservationist Steve Irwin died at Batt Reef, off Port Douglas, after a stingray barb pierced his heart during filming of a documentary called The Ocean's Deadliest. Irwin was filmed snorkelling directly above the stingray when it lashed him with its tail, killing him immediately; the event was reported in Australia and overseas. The annual Port Douglas Carnivale is held in May and runs for 10 days over two weekends, beginning with a parade attracting over 10,000 people. In October Porttoberfest is held; the Great Barrier Reef Marathon Festival is held during October. Port Douglas was a popular location to view the 14 November 2012 solar eclipse that occurred at 6:38 am. Thousands travelled to Port Douglas to see the phenomenon; the music video for Kylie Minogue's 1988 single "It's No Secret" was filmed in Port Douglas. Port Douglas has a tropical monsoon climate according to Köppen climate classification, with hot summers and warm winters, with heavy rainfall occurring from January–March, the wettest month of the year being February.
The average temperature of the sea ranges from 23.7 °C in July to 29.5 °C in January. Kitesurfing is popular at the southern end of Four Mile Beach during the winter months when trade winds blow from the South. Port Douglas is near the Great Barrier Reef. Numerous companies run daily trips from the marina to the outer reef and the Low Isles for scuba diving and snorkelling. Port Douglas is well known for its many restaurants, golf courses, five star resorts; the Port Douglas Community Hall houses the Port Douglas Library, 11-29 Mowbray Street, operated by the Douglas Shire Council. The Library opened in 2010. Another branch library is located in Mossman; the Port Douglas branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the CWA Hall at 8 Blake Street. Port Douglas State School is a government primary school for girls at Endeavour Street. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 281 students with 12 non-teaching staff. For secondary school, Port Douglas is within the catchment of Mossman State High School.
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