Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Leopold was created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, Baron Arklow, he had haemophilia, which led to his death at the age of 30. Leopold was born on 7 April 1853 at Buckingham Palace, the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. During labour, Queen Victoria chose to use chloroform and thus sanctioned the use of anesthesia in childbirth developed by Professor James Young Simpson; the chloroform was administered by John Snow. As a son of the British sovereign, the newborn was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Leopold at birth, his parents named him Leopold after their common uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium. He was baptised in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace on 28 June 1853 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, his godparents were King George V of Hanover. Leopold inherited the disease haemophilia from his mother, Queen Victoria, was a delicate child.
There was speculation during his life that Leopold suffered mildly from epilepsy, like his grand-nephew Prince John. The Prince's intellectual abilities were evident as a boy. In 1872, Prince Leopold entered Christ Church, where he studied a variety of subjects and became president of the Oxford University Chess Club. On coming of age in 1874, he had been made a privy councillor and granted an annuity of £15,000, he left the university with an honorary doctorate in civil law in 1876 travelled in Europe. In 1880, he toured Canada and the United States with his sister, Princess Louise, whose husband John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, was Governor General of Canada, he was a prominent patron of chess, the London 1883 chess tournament was held under his patronage. Incapable of pursuing a military career because of his haemophilia and the need to avoid minor injuries, Leopold instead became a patron of the arts and literature and served as an unofficial secretary to his mother. "Leopold was the favourite son, through him her relations with the Government of the day were kept up."
He pursued vice-regal appointments in Canada and the Colony of Victoria, but his mother refused to appoint him, to his great unhappiness. Despite his inability to pursue an active military role, he had an honorary association with the 72nd Regiment, Duke of Albany's Own Highlanders, from 1881 served as the first Colonel-in-Chief of the Seaforth Highlanders, when that regiment was formed through the merger of the 72nd regiment with the 78th Regiment of Foot. A portrait of Prince Leopold in military uniform is held in the Royal Collection; the Seaforth Highlanders paraded at Prince Leopold's funeral, a fact recorded by William McGonagall in his poem "The Death of Prince Leopold". Prince Leopold was an active Freemason, being initiated in the Apollo University Lodge, whilst resident at Christ Church, he was proposed for membership by his brother, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, at the time the Worshipful Master of the Lodge, was initiated in a joint ceremony with Robert Hawthorne Collins, his friend and tutor, who became Comptroller of his Household.
He served as Master of the Lodge from 1876-1877, was the Provincial Grand Master for Oxfordshire, still holding that office at the time of his death. Prince Leopold was created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence and Baron Arklow on 24 May 1881. Prince Leopold, stifled by the desire of his mother, Queen Victoria, to keep him at home, saw marriage as his only hope of independence. Due to his haemophilia, he had difficulty finding a wife. Heiress Daisy Maynard was one of the women, he was acquainted with Alice Liddell, the daughter of the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford for whom Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, was godfather of Alice's second son, named after him. It has been suggested that he considered marrying her, though others suggest that he preferred her sister Edith. Leopold considered his second cousin Princess Frederica of Hanover for a bride. Other aristocratic women he pursued included Victoria of Baden, Princess Stéphanie of Belgium, Princess Elisabeth of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Karoline Mathilde of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg.
Leopold was fond of Mary Baring, daughter of Lord Ashburton, though she was fond of him too, at 19, she felt she was too young to marry. After rejection from these women, Victoria stepped in to bar what she saw as unsuitable possibilities. Insisting that the children of British monarchs should marry into other reigning Protestant families, Victoria suggested a meeting with Princess Helena Friederike, the daughter of Georg Viktor, reigning Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont, one of whose daughters had married King William III of the Netherlands. On 27 April 1882, Leopold and Helena were married, at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, his income was raised by parliament to £25,000. Leopold and Helena enjoyed a happy (although bri
Hackpen White Horse
Hackpen White Horse is a chalk hill figure of a white horse on Hackpen Hill, located below The Ridgeway on the edge of the Marlborough Downs, two miles south east of Broad Hinton, England. It is one of nine white horse hill figures located in Wiltshire, it is known as the Broad Hinton White Horse due to its near location to Broad Hinton. Cut by local parish clerk Henry Eatwell in 1838 to commemorate the coronation of Queen Victoria, the horse is 90' square feet and is said to be best viewed from B4041 road; the horse is scoured and maintained. The origin of the horse is uncertain, is sometimes said to be the only 19th century white horse to have little of its history known, it is regarded that the horse was cut in 1838 by Henry Eatwell, a parish clerk of Broad Hinton, assisted by a local pub landlord. It is said to commemorate the coronation of Queen Victoria; the horse is cut of chalk, is 90' square feet, making it the only square-dimension horse in England, faces WNW. Although the hill it resides on, Hackpen Hill, is high, it is a gentle slope when compared to the hills of most other Wiltshire horses.
Because the hill is gentle, the horse is banked up and raised from the surrounding grass to make it more visible. The head was elevated to help with the foreshortening; the best view of the horse is said to be from the nearby B4041 road, whilst the A361 road near Broad Hinton provides a clear view. At the top of the hill is a car park where the Ridgeway crosses the B4041 road, a footpath stretches from there down to the horse, making the horse accessible to the public. Many real horses roam the field, it has been suggested that the stones for Stonehenge and Avebury may have come from a field of sarsen stones just to the south east of its location. The expression "as different as chalk and cheese" is sometimes believed to refer to the land divided by Hackpen Hill; the hill forms the boundary between the high chalk downs to the south of it and the clay cattle country to the north, where cheese is a product of the milk from the cattle, so the two areas "are as different as chalk and cheese." Hackpen White Horse was not the only hillside shape cut to commemorate Queen Victoria.
The horse ties "neck-and-neck" with Broad Town White Horse as the closest white horse to Swindon. The horse is scoured. In either May or June 2000, John Wain cleaned it single-handedly, he flew David Brewer over the area to photograph the village of Broad Hinton and the white horse for brewers's book Images of a Wiltshire Downland Village: Broad Hinton and Uffcott. Wain cleaned it annually until Bevan Pope cleaned the horse single-handedly on 23 September 2004. Wain cleaned the horse again with the help of a group of friends on 1 February 2011 and 4 February 2012. On both occasions, they illuminated the newly cleaned horse. Although to illuminate a white horse has been sporadic tradition for other horses in Wiltshire, those occasions marked the first times it had been done for Hackpen White Horse. In March 2009, the horse was transformed into a "red horse" for the Comic Relief charity's Red Nose Day campaign; the White Horse pub, located half a mile away in Winterbourne Bassett, features an illustration resembling the horse as its logo.
The pub itself was named after the eight horses in Wiltshire. The horse has featured in several artworks, including a stained glass window made by Berry Stained Glass, Benoit Philppe's The Hackpen White Horse oil on canvas painting, a silver necklace created in 2015 by Devizes-based jeweller Daniel Pike. In 2005, the horse appeared in episode 1 of series 6 of Top Gear, and, in 2012, for a Pukka Pies sponsorship advert for ITV travel series Ade in Britain, Pukka Pies modified a photograph of the location to include a hill figure of one of their pies instead of the horse. Wiltshire white horsesWestbury White Horse Pewsey White Horse Devizes White Horse Broad Town White Horse Cherhill White Horse Marlborough White Horse Alton Barnes White HorseOther white horsesUffington White Horse Osmington White Horse Kilburn White Horse Woolbury White Horse
Mauritius "Post Office" stamps
The Mauritius "Post Office" stamps were issued by the British Colony Mauritius in September 1847, in two denominations: an orange-red one penny and a deep blue two pence. Their name comes from the wording on the stamps reading "Post Office", soon changed in the next issue to "Post Paid", they are among the rarest postage stamps in the world. They were engraved by Joseph Osmond Barnard, born in England in 1816, who stowed away on a ship to Mauritius in 1838; the designs were based on the current issue of Great Britain stamps, bearing the profile head of Queen Victoria and issued in two denominations in similar colours: one penny red brown and Two pence blue. Although these locally produced stamps have a distinct primitive character, they made Barnard’s “name immortal in the postal history of Mauritius”. Five hundred of each value were printed from a single plate bearing both values and issued on September 21, 1847, many of which were used on invitations sent out by the wife of the Governor of Mauritius for a ball she was holding that weekend.
The stamps were printed using the intaglio method, bear the engraver's initials "JB" at the lower right margin of the bust. The words "Post Office" appear in the left panel, but on the following issue in 1848, these words were replaced by "Post Paid". A legend arose that the words "Post Office" had been an error; the stamps, as well as the subsequent issues, are prized by collectors because of their rarity, their early dates and their primitive character as local products. Surviving stamps are in the hands of private collectors, but some are on public display in the British Library in London, including the envelope of an original invitation to the Governor's ball complete with stamp. Another example is included in the Royal Collection of Queen Elizabeth II, a third in private hands. Two other places where they can be seen, in Mauritius, are at the Postal Museum and at the Blue Penny Museum, both in Port Louis, the capital city; the two stamps can be seen at the Museum for Communication in Berlin and in the Postal Museum of Sweden in Stockholm.
A two pence blue is at display at the Museum for Communication in The Hague. In 1928, Georges Brunel published Les Timbres-Poste de l'Île Maurice in which he stated that the use of the words "Post Office" on the 1847 issue had been an error. Over the years, the story was embellished. One version was that the man who produced the stamps, Joseph Barnard, was a half-blind watchmaker and an old man who absent-mindedly forgot what he was supposed to print on the stamps. On his way from his shop to visit the postmaster, a Mr. Brownrigg, he passed a post office with a sign hanging above it; this provided the necessary jog to his memory and he returned to his work and finished engraving the plates for the stamps, substituting "Post Office" for "Post Paid". These stories are purely fictional. Adolphe and d'Unienville wrote that "It is much more that Barnard used'Post Office' because this was, still is, the legal denomination of the government department concerned"; the plates were approved and the stamps issued without any fuss at the time.
Joseph Barnard was an Englishman of Jewish descent from Portsmouth who had arrived in Mauritius in 1838 as a stowaway, thrown off a commercial vessel bound for Sydney. He was not a watch-maker. In addition, several rubber stamps used in Mauritius on letters prior to these stamps used the words "Post Office", as did the first two stamps issued by the United States in July 1847; the Mauritius "Post Office" stamps were unknown to the philatelic world until 1864 when Mme. Borchard, the wife of a Bordeaux merchant, found copies of the one and two pence stamps in her husband's correspondence, she traded them to another collector. Through a series of sales, the stamps were acquired by the famous collector Philipp von Ferrary, were sold at auction in 1921. Over the years, the stamps sold for increasing and astronomical prices. Mauritius "Post Office" stamps and covers have been prize items in collections of famous stamp collectors, including Sir Ernest de Silva, Henry J. Duveen, Arthur Hind, William Beilby Avery, Alfred F. Lichtenstein, Alfred H. Caspary, among other philatelic luminaries.
The future King George V paid £1,450 for an unused blue Two Pence "Post Office" at an auction in 1904, a world record price at the time. Adjusting by inflation rate it is about £153,000 in 2018; the next day one of his secretaries commented that "some damned fool" had paid a huge amount of money for one postage stamp, to which George replied, "I am that damned fool". By 2002, the "Mauritius blue" was estimated to be worth £2 million; the greatest of all Mauritius collections, that of Hiroyuki Kanai, included unused copies of both the One Penny and Two Pence "Post Office" stamps, the "Bordeaux" cover with both the one penny and two pence stamps, called "la pièce de résistance de toute la philatélie" or "the greatest item in all philately", numerous reconstructed sheets of the subsequent issues. Kanai’s collection was sold by the auctioneer David Feldman in 1993, the Bordeaux cover going for the equivalent of about $4 million; the subsequent issues are discussed in postal history of Mauritius.
The "Post Office" stamps have been reprinted from the original plates and, like many other postage stamps, both rare and common, have been forged many times. One of the "Post Offi
Victoria, Princess Royal
Victoria, Princess Royal was German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. She was the eldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, was created Princess Royal in 1841, she was the mother of German Emperor. Educated by her father in a politically liberal environment, she was betrothed at the age of sixteen to Prince Frederick of Prussia and supported him in his views that Prussia and the German Empire should become a constitutional monarchy on the British model. Criticised for this attitude and for her English origins, Victoria suffered ostracism by the Hohenzollerns and the Berlin court; this isolation increased after the arrival of Otto von Bismarck to power in 1862. Victoria was empress and queen of Prussia for only a few months, during which she had opportunity to influence the policy of the German Empire. Frederick III died in 1888 – just 99 days after his accession – from laryngeal cancer and was succeeded by their son William II, who had much more conservative views than his parents.
After her husband's death, she became known as Empress Frederick. The empress dowager settled in Kronberg im Taunus, where she built Friedrichshof, a castle, named in honour of her late husband. Isolated after the weddings of her younger daughters, Victoria died of breast cancer a few months after her mother in 1901; the correspondence between Victoria and her parents has been preserved completely: 3,777 letters from Queen Victoria to her eldest daughter, about 4,000 letters from the empress to her mother are preserved and catalogued. These give a detailed insight into the life of the Prussian court between 1858 and 1900. Princess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at London, she was her husband, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. When she was born, the doctor exclaimed sadly: "Oh Madame, it's a girl!" And the Queen replied: "Never mind, next time it will be a prince!". She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley.
The Lily font was commissioned for the occasion of her christening. Her godparents were Queen Adelaide, the King of the Belgians, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Duke of Sussex, the Duchess of Gloucester and the Duchess of Kent; as a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was born a British princess. On 19 January 1841, she was made Princess Royal, a title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. In addition, she was heir presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom, before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert Edward on 9 November 1841. To her family, she was known as "Vicky"; the royal couple decided to give their children as complete an education as possible. In fact, Queen Victoria, who succeeded her uncle King William IV at the age of 18, believed that she herself had not been sufficiently prepared for the government affairs. For his part, Prince Albert, born in the small Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, had received a more careful education, thanks to his uncle King Leopold I of Belgium.
Shortly after the birth of Victoria, Prince Albert wrote a memoir detailing the tasks and duties of all those involved with the royal children. Another 48-page document, written a year and a half by the Baron Stockmar, intimate of the royal couple, details the educational principles which were to be used with the little princes; the royal couple, had only a vague idea of the proper educational development of a child. Queen Victoria, for example, believed that the fact that her baby sucked on bracelets was a sign of deficient education. According to Hannah Pakula, biographer of the future German empress, the first two governesses of the princess were therefore well chosen. Experienced in dealing with children, Lady Lyttelton directed the nursery through which passed all royal children after Victoria's second year; the diplomatic young woman managed to soften the unrealistic demands of the royal couple. Sarah Anne Hildyard, the children's second governess, was a competent teacher who developed a close relationship with her students.
Precocious and intelligent, Victoria began to learn French at the age of 18 months, she began to study German when aged four. She learned Greek and Latin. From the age of six, her curriculum included lessons of arithmetic and history, her father tutored her in politics and philosophy, she studied science and literature. Her school days, interrupted by three hours of recreation, began at 8:20 and finished at 18:00. Unlike her brother, whose educational program was more severe, Victoria was an excellent student, always hungry for knowledge. However, she showed an obstinate character. Queen Victoria and her husband wanted to remove their children from court life as much as possible, so they acquired Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Near the main building, Albert built for his children a Swiss-inspired cottage with a small kitchen and a carpentry workshop. In this building, the royal children learned practical life. Prince Albert was involved in the education of their offspring, he followed the progress of his children and gave some of their lessons himself, as well as spending time playing with them.
Victoria is described as having "idolised" her father and having inherited his li
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, was a German princess and the mother of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. As the widow of Charles, Prince of Leiningen, from 1814 she served as regent of the Principality during the minority of her son from her first marriage, until her second wedding in 1818 to Prince Edward, son of King George III of the United Kingdom. Victoria was born in Coburg on 17 August 1786 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, she was the fourth daughter and seventh child of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf. One of her brothers was Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, another brother, Leopold future king of the Belgians, married, in 1816, Princess Charlotte of Wales, the only legitimate daughter of the future King George IV, heiress presumptive to the British throne. On 21 December 1803 at Coburg, a young Victoria married Charles, Prince of Leiningen, whose first wife, Henrietta of Reuss-Ebersdorf, had been her aunt.
The couple had two children, Prince Carl, born on 12 September 1804, Princess Feodora of Leiningen, born on 7 December 1807. Through her first marriage, she is a direct matrilineal ancestor to various members of royalty in Europe, including Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Felipe VI of Spain, Constantine II of Greece. After the death of her first spouse, she served as regent of the Principality of Leiningen during the minority of their son, Carl; the death in 1817 of Princess Charlotte of Wales, the wife of Victoria's brother Leopold, prompted a succession crisis. With Parliament offering them a financial incentive, three of Charlotte's uncles, sons of George III, were prepared to marry. One of them, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn proposed to Victoria and she accepted; the couple were married on 29 May 1818 at Amorbach and on 11 July 1818 at Kew, a joint ceremony at which Edward's brother, the Duke of Clarence King William IV, married Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. Shortly after their marriage, the Kents moved to Germany.
Soon after, Victoria became pregnant, the Duke and Duchess, determined to have their child born in England, raced back. Arriving at Dover on 23 April 1819, they moved into Kensington Palace, where Victoria gave birth to a daughter on 24 May 1819, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent Queen Victoria. An efficient organiser, Sir John Conroy's planning ensured the Kents' speedy return to England in time for the birth of their first child; the Duke of Kent died of pneumonia in January 1820, six days before his father, King George III. His widow the Duchess had little cause to remain in the United Kingdom, since she did not speak the language and had a palace at home in Coburg where she could live cheaply on the revenues of her first husband. However, the British succession at this time was far from assured – of the three brothers older than Edward, the new king, George IV, the Duke of York were both estranged from their wives, who were in any case past childbearing age; the third brother, the Duke of Clarence, had yet to produce any surviving children with his wife.
The Duchess of Kent decided that she would do better by gambling on her daughter's accession than by living in Coburg and, having inherited her second husband's debts, sought support from the British government. After the death of Edward and his father, the young Princess Victoria was still only third in line for the throne, Parliament was not inclined to support yet more impoverished royalty; the provision made for the Duchess of Kent was mean: she resided in a suite of rooms in the dilapidated Kensington Palace, along with several other impoverished members of the royal family, received little financial support from the Civil List, since Parliament had vivid memories of the late Duke's extravagance. In practice, a main source of support for her was her brother, Leopold; the latter had a huge income of fifty thousand pounds per annum for life, representing an annuity allotted to him by the British Parliament on his marriage to Princess Charlotte, which had made him seem to become in due course the consort of the monarch.
After Charlotte's death, Leopold's annuity was not revoked by Parliament. In 1831, with George IV dead and the new king, William IV, over 60 and still without legitimate issue, the young princess's status as heir presumptive and the Duchess's prospective place as regent led to major increases in British state income for the Kents. A contributing factor was Leopold's designation as King of the Belgians, upon which he surrendered his British income. Together in a hostile environment, John Conroy's relationship with the Duchess was close, with him serving as her comptroller and private secretary for the next nineteen years, as well as holding the unofficial roles of public relations officer, counsellor and political agent. While it is not clear which of the two was more responsible for devising the Kensington System, it was created to govern young Victoria's upbringing; the intention was for the Duchess to be appointed regent upon Victoria's ascension and for Conroy to be created Victoria's private secretary and given a peerage.
The Duchess and Conroy continued to be unpopular with the royal family and, in 1829, the Duke of Cumberland spread rumours that they were lovers in an attempt to discredit them. The Duke of Clarence referred to Conroy as "King John", while the Duchess of Clarence wrote to the Duchess of Kent to advise that she was isolating herself from the royal family and that she must not grant Conroy too much power; the Duchess of Kent was protective, raised Victoria la
Clock Tower, Brighton
The Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower in the centre of Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. Built in 1888 in commemoration of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, the distinctive structure included innovative structural features and became a landmark in the popular and fashionable seaside resort; the city's residents "retain a nostalgic affection" for it though opinion is divided as to the tower's architectural merit. English Heritage has listed the clock tower at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance; the small fishing village of Brighthelmston was transformed into a fashionable seaside resort and thriving commercial centre after local doctor Richard Russell's treatise explaining the health-giving effects of drinking and bathing in seawater became a fad in the late 18th century. Royal patronage ensued—the Prince Regent moved into a farmhouse which became the lavish Royal Pavilion—and speculative residential and commercial development, encouraged by transport improvements, attracted large numbers of day-trippers and new residents throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.
By the 1780s, North Street had become established as an important shopping street, its status as the commercial heart of Brighton grew over the next century. It first developed as a route in the 14th century, when it formed the medieval village's northern boundary, ran from west to east from the end of the main route from London towards the Royal Pavilion and the seafront. West Street, the ancient western boundary of the settlement, ran southwards towards the beach and seafront; the western section of North Street was renamed Western Road in the 1830s to match the rest of that road, built as an access route to the high-class Brunswick Town estate but became the town's main shopping street by the 1860s. The roads were widened in the second half of the 19th century, by 1880 the junction of North Street, Western Road, West Street and Queen's Road was a major landmark with a small, old waiting shelter in the middle; the site was ideal for redevelopment, in 1881 a competition was held for a replacement building.
Architects Henry Branch and Thomas Simpson were recorded as the winners, but their plans were never executed and the site stood vacant until 1888. Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee in 1887, many towns built Jubilee clock towers to commemorate the occasion. A local advertising contractor, James Willing, decided to commission one for Brighton, he donated £2,000. The town organised an architectural competition, won by a London-based architect, John Johnson; the tower was completed at the start of 1888 and was unveiled on 20 January 1888 on Willing's 70th birthday. Local inventor Magnus Volk—responsible for Britain's oldest surviving electric railway, an eccentric sea-based railway line, a pioneering electric car and Brighton's first telephone link—designed a time ball for the clock tower soon after it opened; the hydraulically operated copper sphere moved up and down a 16-foot metal mast every hour, based on electrical signals transmitted from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The feature was disabled after a few years.
The tower was the focal point of several bursts of anti-Victorian sentiment in Brighton in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The tower is acknowledged as one of Brighton's main landmarks, it has been described as "the hub of modern Brighton"; the "nostalgic affection" felt by the city's population towards the structure, the difficulty of demolishing or removing it without great expense, have ensured its survival despite demands for its destruction. Criticism by architectural historians has sometimes been intense, although others have praised the tower. Nikolaus Pevsner and Ian Nairn dismissed it as "worthless", it has been likened to "a giant salt-cellar"; the Clock Tower was listed at Grade II by English Heritage on 26 August 1999. This status is given to "nationally important buildings of special interest"; as of February 2001, it was one of 1,124 Grade II-listed buildings and structures, 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove. The Clock Tower is a Classical-style structure with Baroque touches.
It rises to 75 feet, the mast for Volk's time ball adds a further 16 feet. The four clock faces have a diameter of 5 feet. James Willing and 1887 are inscribed on the clock faces; the square base is of pink granite. On each side, the tapering columns rise part way up the shaft and are topped by pediments with open bases, below, elaborately carved scrollwork and a protuberance designed to resemble the gunwale of a ship. Incised lettering on each ship indicates where they are pointing: clockwise from north, they show to the station, to kemp town, to the sea and to hove. Below these, each side has an arched recess containing a medallion-style mosaic portrait of a member of the Royal F
Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria
The Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated on 20 June 1887 on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession on 20 June 1837. It was celebrated with a banquet to which princes were invited. On 20 June 1887 the Queen had breakfast outdoors under the trees at Frogmore, where Prince Albert had been buried, she travelled by train from Windsor station to Paddington to Buckingham Palace for a royal banquet that evening. Fifty foreign kings and princes, along with the governing heads of Britain's overseas colonies and dominions, attended, she wrote in her diary: Had a large family dinner. All the Royalties assembled in the Bow Room, we dined in the Supper-room, which looked splendid with the buffet covered with the gold plate; the table was a large horseshoe one, with many lights on it. The King of Denmark took me in, Willy of Greece sat on my other side; the Princes were all in uniform, the Princesses were all beautifully dressed. Afterwards we went into the Ballroom; the following day, she participated in a procession in an open landau through London to Westminster Abbey escorted by Colonial Indian cavalry.
During prayers for the Queen at the Abbey, a beam of sunlight fell upon her bowed head, which the future Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii observing noted as a mark of divine favor. On her return to the Palace, she was cheered by the crowd. In the ballroom she distributed. In the evening, she put on a gown embroidered with silver roses and shamrocks and attended a banquet. Afterwards she received a procession of Indian princes, she was wheeled in her chair to sit and watch fireworks in the palace garden. At the Jubilee she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters. A commemorative bust of Victoria was commissioned from the sculptor Francis John Williamson. Many copies were made, distributed throughout the British Empire. A special Golden Jubilee Medal was instituted and awarded to participants of the jubilee celebrations. Writer and geographer John Francon Williams published The Jubilee Atlas of the British Empire to commemorate Victoria's Jubilee and her Jubilee year; the Queen of the United Kingdom The German Crown Princess and Crown Prince, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince and Princess Wilhelm of Prussia, the Queen's grandson and granddaughter-in-law The Hereditary Princess and Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen, the Queen's great-granddaughter Prince Henry of Prussia, the Queen's grandson Princess Viktoria of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Sophia of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Margaret of Prussia, the Queen's granddaughter The Prince and Princess of Wales, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Albert Victor of Wales, the Queen's grandson Prince George of Wales, the Queen's grandson Princess Louise of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Maud of Wales, the Queen's granddaughter The Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's son-in-law Princess and Prince Louis of Battenberg, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the Queen's granddaughter and grandson-in-law Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, the Queen's grandson Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine, the Queen's granddaughter The Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the Queen's grandson Princess Marie of Edinburgh, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Queen's granddaughter Princess and Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Prince Albert of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's grandson Princess Helena Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter Princess Marie Louise of Schleswig-Holstein, the Queen's granddaughter The Marchioness and Marquess of Lorne, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke and Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn, the Queen's son and daughter-in-law Princess Margaret of Connaught, the Queen's granddaughter Prince Arthur of Connaught, the Queen's grandson The Duchess of Albany, the Queen's daughter-in-law Princess and Prince Henry of Battenberg, the Queen's daughter and son-in-law The Duke of Cambridge, the Queen's first cousin The Grand Duchess and Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin and her husband The Hereditary Grand Duke and Hereditary Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Queen's first cousin once removed and his wife The Duchess and Duke of Teck, the Queen's first cousin and her husband Princess Mary of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Adolphus of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Francis of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Prince Alexander of Teck, the Queen's first cousin once removed Princess Frederica of Hanover and Baron Alphons von Pawel-Rammingen, the Queen's first cousin once removed and her husband The Hon. Aubrey FitzClarence, great-grandson of King William IV The Prince and Princess of Leiningen, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Princess Alberta of Leiningen, the Queen's half-great-niece The Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew Prince and Princess Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, the Queen's half-nephew and half-niece-in-law Countess Feodora Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-niece Count Edward Gleichen, the Queen's half-great-nephew Countess Victoria Gleichen, t