Cumberland Falls State Resort Park
Cumberland Falls State Resort Park is a park located just southwest of Corbin, Kentucky and is contained entirely within the Daniel Boone National Forest. The park encompasses 1,657 acres and is named for its major feature, the falls are one of the few places in the western hemisphere where a moonbow can frequently be seen on nights with a full moon. The park is the home of 44-foot Eagle Falls, Cumberland Falls was dedicated as a state park at 1,30 p. m. on August 21,1931. Following a $2 million renovation project in 2006, the received an upgraded rating from two diamonds to three diamonds from the American Automobile Association in 2007. Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park received the upgraded rating, the two facilities were the first state resort parks to achieve the three-diamond rating following AAAs revision of its rating system in 2001
Barren River Lake State Resort Park
Barren River Lake State Resort Park is a 1, 053-acre park located in Barren County and extending into parts of Allen County and Monroe County. Barren River Lake, its feature, is an artificial lake created with the building of a 146-foot-high dam by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers begun in 1960. It covers approximately 10,000 acres and has 141 miles of shoreline, the park was dedicated in 1965. Fishing is an attraction at this park. The largest hybrid striped bass ever taken in Kentucky was caught in Barren River Lake in 1991, the lake contains several other species of fish, including crappie, smallmouth bass, white bass, and big channel catfish. The lake includes a marina to support boating and water skiing, numerous trails provide hiking and biking opportunities. The most popular hiking trail is the 1-mile Lewis Hill Trail which is known as the Connell Nature Trail. Guided horseback rides are available seasonally, the park features an eighteen-hole golf course. The Trashmasters cleanup day is a popular event that helps keep the park clean.
Also, each June, the park plays host to Glasgows Highland Games, Barren River Lake State Resort Park Kentucky Department of Parks Glasgow Highland Games
National Military Park
The designation applies to sites where historic battles were fought on American soil during the armed conflicts that shaped the growth and development of the United States. There are 11 National Battlefields, nine National Military Parks, four National Battlefield Parks, the National Park Service does not distinguish among the four designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In 1890, Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was the first such site created by Congress, originally these sites were maintained by the War Department, but were transferred to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The different designations appear to represent Congressional attitudes at the time of authorization of each individual site, only Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site, which is small, still bears that designation, others have since been redesignated. As with all areas in the National Park System, these battle sites are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Jefferson Davis State Historic Site
The Jefferson Davis Monument State Historic Site is a Kentucky state park commemorating the birthplace of Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederate States of America, in Fairview, Kentucky. The sites focal point is a 351-foot concrete obelisk, in 1973, it was believed to be the fourth-tallest monument in the United States and the tallest concrete-cast one. Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. a Confederate general, first proposed the idea of a monument for Davis during a reunion of the Orphan Brigade of the Confederate Army in 1907. Construction began in 1917 but stopped in 1918 at a height of 175 feet due to building material rationing during World War I, construction resumed in January 1922 and was finished in 1924 at a cost of $200,000. The monuments base was set on bedrock and limestone was quarried on the site for use in its construction. The concrete walls are 8.5 feet thick at the base, the monument was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The obelisk was closed to the public from 1999 until May 2004 for renovations, at the top of the monument is an observation room with a window in each of the four walls.
Originally, this room could only be reached by climbing stairs which went around the interior of the monument, the Jefferson Davis State Historic Site is one of eleven historic sites in Kentucky which include small parks and are maintained by the Kentucky Department of Parks. The park covers 19 acres and includes open and covered picnic areas, at the visitors center museum, visitors can watch a video describing Davis life and the construction of the monument. Guided elevator tours of the monument are available daily, the center sells books and memorabilia about Davis, the American Civil War, and the surrounding area, as well as Kentucky handcrafts. The park is open from May 1 until October 31, the monument is the tallest unreinforced concrete structure in the world. No steel was used to reinforce the walls below its pyramidal top. As one pour was completed, large chunks of limestone were left projecting up to connect it to the next pour above and it is the tallest concrete obelisk in the world.
It is the second tallest obelisk in the world after the Washington Monument, the Crazy Horse Memorial, not yet completed, has a planned height of 563 feet. Elsewhere in the world, the Great Pyramid of Giza, Khafres Pyramid, Spring Temple Buddha, and Ushiku Daibutsu are taller monuments
A state forest is a forest that is administered or protected by some agency of a sovereign or federated state, or territory. The precise application of the term varies by jurisdiction, for example, In Australia, it is forest that is protected by state laws, rather than by the Government of Australia. In Poland, state-owned forests are managed by the State Forests agency In the United Kingdom, in the United States, it is a forest owned by one of the individual states. The purpose of a state forest varies between countries and the quality of the landscape it covers, in most places, state forests are divided into land for logging plantations, area for conservation, area for livestock grazing and area for visitor recreation. List of types of formally designated forests
Fort Donelson National Battlefield
The commanders received national recognition for their victories in February 1862, as they were the first major Union successes of the war. This struck a blow to the Confederacy early in the war. The main portion of the park, in Dover, Fort Heiman, in nearby Calloway County, was a Confederate battery in the Battle of Fort Henry. The most vulnerable area in the Confederate defensive line in the Western Theater was the state of Kentucky, the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers were potential avenues for a Union invasion of the South through Kentucky and into Tennessee and beyond. Since Kentucky had declared neutrality, the Confederacy could not build defensive works within the state without risking alienating the local population, the local population in western Kentucky was pro-Confederate. Kentuckys westernmost congressional district elected a secessionist and Lincoln proclaimed it to be in rebellion and they surveyed possible sites along the Cumberland River, noting the high ridges and deep hollows near the Kentucky border.
In mid-May, on the west bank of the not far below Dover, Anderson laid out the water battery of Fort Donelson. The new fort was named in honor of the Confederate General Daniel S. Donelson who, along with Colonel Bushrod Johnson of the Corps of Engineers, construction was begun by a large force of men brought from the nearby Cumberland Iron Works. The site was established as Fort Donelson National Military Park on March 26,1928, the national military park and national cemetery were transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service on August 10,1933. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966 and it was redesignated a national battlefield on August 16,1985. Public Law 108-367 increased the authorized boundary of the battlefield from 551.69 acres to 2,000 acres. On October 30,2006, Calloway County transferred the Fort Heiman site to the Park Service, Fort Heiman had been listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 12,1976.
The Cumberland River was dammed in the 1960s, this area is referred to as Lake Barkley. It covers a roughly similar to the original river while at flood stage. The Fort Donelson National Cemetery, at 15.34 acres in Stewart County, contains 670 Union dead, there are numerous veterans from wars. The cemetery is presently unavailable for additional burials, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Where the South Lost the War, An Analysis of the Fort Henry—Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole books,2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6. NPS Fort Donelson National Battlefield site Public Law 108-367 U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Fort Donelson Fort Donelson National Cemetery at Find a Grave
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park is a park located near Mount Olivet, Kentucky in Robertson and Nicholas counties. The park encompasses 148 acres and features a monument commemorating the August 19,1782 Battle of Blue Licks, the battle was regarded as the final battle of the American Revolutionary War. The earliest accounts of Blue Licks describe it as a place where animals gathered to lick the salt deposits flowing from the springs in the area. The Reverend James Smith provides this account in his 1795–97 diary, As you approach the Licks, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, you begin to perceive the change. Here immense herds of buffalo used formerly to meet and with their fighting, scraping etc. have worn away the ground to what it is at present, in 1782, British Captain William Caldwell led a force of Indians against the small Kentucky settlement of Bryans Station. Caldwell met stiff resistance, and after two days, retreated toward the Ohio River, in the battle that followed,60 of the 176 men who followed McGary were killed, Boones son Israel among them.
Reinforcements under George Rogers Clark eventually arrived and drove Caldwells forces from Kentucky for good, by the mid-19th century, the Blue Licks area had become a health resort, due in large part to the nearby saltwater springs that had been used for salt making since the 1770s. The mineral water found in the springs was rumored to cure everything from asthma to gout, by 1896, the areas last spring had gone dry. Efforts to locate another spring unearthed several geological and historical artifacts, a more extensive excavation of the area was conducted in 1945. However, a team from Morehead State University is to search the battlefield using modern equipment to explore for artifacts relating to the battlefields, enough success in this endeavor could mean the return of the battlefield to the Register. The park is located along the Licking River, and offers canoeing and fishing, the Licking River Trail offers a one-mile hike along the riverbank. Overnight stays are accommodated at the 32-room lodge or the 51-site campground, the park features a 15-acre nature preserve containing a cedar glade.
This glade was previously maintained as an area by the large numbers of herbivores, such as bison, elk. Today much of the glade has transitioned into forest, but the remnant areas are being maintained by controlled burns and these remnants are home to the federally endangered Shorts goldenrod and the state threatened Great Plains Ladies-tresses. The Pioneer Museum is the major attraction. It houses a variety of artifacts, from a tooth found during an excavation of the site to relics from the American Civil War. Exhibits focus on the natural and cultural history, including prehistoric animals and fossils, area Native Americans and 18th century pioneers. The museum was dedicated in 1931, saw renovations completed in 2007, the Battle of Blue Licks celebration is held annually in mid-August and features a re-enactment of the Battle of Blue Licks
Natural Bridge State Resort Park
Its namesake natural bridge is the centerpiece of the park. The natural sandstone arch spans 78 ft and is 65 ft high, the natural process of weathering formed the arch over millions of years. The park is approximately 2,300 acres of which approximately 1,200 acres is dedicated by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission as a nature preserve, in 1981 this land was dedicated into the nature preserves system to protect the ecological communities and rare species habitat. The first federally endangered Virginia big eared bats, Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus, the park was founded as a private tourist attraction in 1895 by the Lexington and Eastern Railroad. In 1910, Louisville and Nashville Railroad acquired the land when it purchased the Lexingon, there are over 20 miles of trails over uneven terrain from moderate to strenuous difficulty, including trails to Whites Branch Arch, Hensons Cave Arch, and other scenic areas. Some of the most famous sites are the arch itself, Lovers Leap, the parks 0.
5-mile Original Trail to the natural bridge dates from the 1890s. Other trails include the 7. 5-mile Sand Gap Trail and the 0. 75-mile Balanced Rock Trail, five miles of the 307-mile Sheltowee Trace National Recreation Trail run through the park, including the Whittleton Trail which connects the park to the Red River Gorge Geologic Area. Activities such as hiking off-trails, disturbing wildlife, or collecting plants are not legal in any Kentucky State Park, Fat Mans Squeeze, a narrow passage in the rock formation, leads to the bottom of the arch. Natural Bridge has several unique sandstone formations, including the Balanced Rock. This is a block of sandstone balanced on the edge of a cliff near the Natural Bridge. The Balanced Rock, is located on Trail #2, not far above Hemlock Lodge, in the early days of the Park, it was called the Sphinx because, when viewed from the correct angle, it crudely resembles the Sphinx in Egypt. Although it is now called the Balanced Rock, it is in fact a pedestal rock - a single piece of stone that has weathered in such a fashion that its midsection is narrower than its cap or its base.
This formation is one of the biggest and most perfectly formed examples of a pedestal rock east of the Rocky Mountains, Natural Bridge State Park is a member of the Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics, and offers guided backpacking trips and natural history educational programs. Annual events open to the public include Herpetology Weekend each May, Natural Arches Weekend each February, the Kentucky Natives Societys Wildflower Weekend in April consists of Kentucky plants and how they are essential to the well-being of our natural ecosystems commonwealth. We incorporate research and support efforts to identify and protect endangered, the State Park is famous for hosting traditional Appalachian square dances. The traditional Appalachian style dances are held on Friday and Saturday evenings throughout the warm starlit Ky summers on the dance floor. The dance draws hundreds of participants and spectators, showcasing dance groups and singer/performer talents from all over