Church of St Mary and St David, Kilpeck
The Church of St Mary and St David is a Church of England parish church at Kilpeck in the English county of Herefordshire, about 5 miles from the border with Monmouthshire, Wales. It is famous for its Norman carvings, the church was built around 1140, and almost certainly before 1143 when it was given to the Abbey of Gloucester. It may have replaced an earlier Saxon church at the site. Around the 6th and 7th centuries the Kilpeck area was within the British kingdom of Ergyng, the possibility of the site holding Roman and even megalithic remains has been raised, but is unproven. The plan of the church, with a nave and semicircular apse, is typical for the time of its construction, the Norman period. It was originally dedicated to a St David, probably a local Celtic holy man, at the time the current church was built, the area around Kilpeck, known as Archenfield, was relatively prosperous and strategically important, in the heart of the Welsh Marches. The economic decline of the area after the 14th century may have helped preserve features which would have been removed elsewhere, however, it is unclear why the carvings were not defaced by Puritans in the 17th century.
The church was repaired in 1864,1898 and 1962. The carvings are all original and in their original positions and they have been attributed to a Herefordshire School of stonemasons, probably local but who may have been instructed by master masons recruited in France by Oliver de Merlimond. Hugh de Kilpeck, a relative of Earl Mortimer, employed the same builders at Kilpeck, the south door has double columns. The outer columns have carvings of a series of snakes, heads swallowing tails, in common with most of the other carvings, the meaning of these is unclear, but they may represent rebirth via the snakes seasonal sloughing of its skin. The inner right column shows birds in foliage, at the top of the columns is a green man. The inner left column has two warriors who, are in loose trousers, the outer sections of the arch above the doorway show creatures which can be interpreted as a manticore and a basilisk, and various other mythical and actual birds and beasts. The semicircular tympanum depicts a tree of life, for many years the south door was hidden by a wooden porch, but this was removed in 1868 to allow visitors to see the carvings as originally intended.
Although this has left the doorway exposed to the elements, the sandstone is exceptionally robust, in 1968 a narrow protruding strip of lead was let into the mortar above the arch to protect the carvings from water running down the wall above. Eighty-five corbels survive, one fewer than are illustrated by Lewis in 1842, the meaning of most is obscure, but some probably come from a bestiary, and they include a Sheela na Gig. Two green men appear as capitals on the decorated columns of the west window. In the centre of the table below the window
A lintel or lintol is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports. It can be an architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors and fireplaces, in worldwide architecture of different eras and many cultures, a lintel has been an element of post and lintel construction. Many different building materials have been used for lintels, in classical Western architecture and construction methods, by Merriam-Webster definition, a lintel is a load-bearing member and is placed over an entranceway. Called an architrave, the lintel is an element that is usually rested on stone pillars or stacked stone columns. An example from the Mycenaean Greece cultural period is the Treasury of Atreus in Mycenae and it weighs 120 tons, with approximate dimensions 8.3 ×5.2 ×1.2 m, one of the largest in the world. A lintel may support the chimney above a fireplace, or span the distance of a path or road, examples of the ornamental use of lintels are in the hypostyle halls and slab stelas in ancient Egypt and the Indian rock-cut architecture of Buddhist temples in caves.
Preceding prehistoric and subsequent Indian Buddhist temples were wooden buildings with structural load-bearing wood lintels across openings, the rock-cut excavated cave temples were more durable, and the non-load-bearing carved stone lintels allowed creative ornamental uses of classical Buddhist elements. Highly skilled artisans were able to simulate the look of wood, imitating the nuances of a wooden structure, the Hoysala Empire era was an important period in the development of art and architectural the South Indian Kannadigan culture. It is remembered primarily for its Hindu temples mandapa, lintels. The Maya civilization in the Americas was known for its sophisticated art, the Mayan city of Yaxchilan, on the Usumacinta River in present-day southern Mexico, specialized in the stone carving of ornamental lintel elements within structural stone lintels. The earliest carved lintels were created in 723 CE, at the Yaxchilan archaeological site there are fifty-eight lintels with decorative pieces spanning the doorways of major structures.
Among the finest Mayan carving to be excavated are three temple door lintels that feature scenes of a queen celebrating the kings anointing by a god
An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it. Arch may be synonymous with vault, but a vault may be distinguished as a continuous arch forming a roof, an arch is a pure compression form. It can span an area by resolving forces into compressive stresses and. This is sometimes referred to as arch action, as the forces in the arch are carried to the ground, the arch will push outward at the base, called thrust. As the rise, or height of the arch decreases, the outward thrust increases, in order to maintain arch action and prevent the arch from collapsing, the thrust needs to be restrained, either with internal ties or external bracing, such as abutments. The most common true arch configurations are the arch, the two-hinged arch. The fixed arch is most often used in reinforced concrete bridge and tunnel construction, because it is subject to additional internal stress caused by thermal expansion and contraction, this type of arch is considered to be statically indeterminate.
The two-hinged arch is most often used to long spans. This type of arch has pinned connections at the base, unlike the fixed arch, the pinned base is able to rotate, allowing the structure to move freely and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature. However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is statically indeterminate, the three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well. The additional connection at the mid-span allows the arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction. This type of arch is not subject to additional stress caused by thermal change. The three-hinged arch is said to be statically determinate. It is most often used for structures, such as large building roofs. Another advantage of the arch is that the pinned bases are more easily developed than fixed ones, allowing for shallow. Arches have many forms, but all fall into three categories, circular and parabolic.
Arches can be configured to produce vaults and arcades, Arches with a circular form, referred to as rounded arches, were commonly employed by the builders of ancient, heavy masonry arches. Ancient Roman builders relied heavily on the arch to span large
An archivolt is an ornamental molding or band following the curve on the underside of an arch. It is composed of bands of ornamental moldings surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening, the word is sometimes used to refer to the under-side or inner curve of the arch itself. The word originates in the Italian equivalents of the English words arch, university of Pittsburgh, Glossary of Medieval Art and Architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture and its characteristics include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the cathedrals, abbeys. It is the architecture of many castles, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, for this reason a study of Gothic architecture is largely a study of cathedrals and churches. A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th-century Europe and continued, largely for ecclesiastical and university structures, the term Gothic architecture originated as a pejorative description. Hence, François Rabelais, of the 16th century, imagines an inscription over the door of his utopian Abbey of Thélème, Here enter no hypocrites, slipping in a slighting reference to Gotz and Ostrogotz.
Authorities such as Christopher Wren lent their aid in deprecating the old medieval style, the Company disapproved of several of these new manners, which are defective and which belong for the most part to the Gothic. Gothic architecture is the architecture of the medieval period, characterised by use of the pointed arch. As an architectural style, Gothic developed primarily in ecclesiastical architecture, the greatest number of surviving Gothic buildings are churches. The Gothic style is most particularly associated with the cathedrals of Northern France. At the end of the 12th century, Europe was divided into a multitude of city states, norway came under the influence of England, while the other Scandinavian countries and Poland were influenced by trading contacts with the Hanseatic League. Angevin kings brought the Gothic tradition from France to Southern Italy, throughout Europe at this time there was a rapid growth in trade and an associated growth in towns. Germany and the Lowlands had large flourishing towns that grew in comparative peace, in trade and competition with other, or united for mutual weal.
Civic building was of importance to these towns as a sign of wealth. England and France remained largely feudal and produced grand domestic architecture for their kings and bishops, the Catholic Church prevailed across Europe at this time, influencing not only faith but wealth and power. Bishops were appointed by the lords and they often ruled as virtual princes over large estates. The early Medieval periods had seen a growth in monasticism, with several different orders being prevalent. Foremost were the Benedictines whose great abbey churches vastly outnumbered any others in France, a part of their influence was that towns developed around them and they became centers of culture and commerce
St Theobald's Church, Thann
The Collégiale Saint-Thiébaut in Thann, Haut-Rhin is one of the most ornate Gothic churches in the whole Upper Rhenish region. Of its 76 meters high spire, it is said that The spire of Strasbourg is the highest, in spite of its name, the church is actually dedicated to Saint-Ubald, of which it keeps a finger as a relic. It is listed as a Monument historique since 1841 by the French Ministry of Culture, the building was erected between 1332 and 1516. It was damaged during World War II, with a height of 16 m and a width of 8 m, the main portal of the western façade is one of the most outstanding features of the church. The portal is decorated on all sides by larger than life statues of saints displaying their attributes or acting out scenes. The whole represents one of the most ornate and elaborate examples of a Poor Mans Bible to be seen, the north side of the church presents a remarkable, if somewhat smaller portal, less ornate as for its sculptures but architecturally more elaborate. The outside walls of the church are decorated all around by a total of 87 statues of saints, another striking feature of the church is the multicolored tile roof, not unlikely to the neighbouring St.
Martin churchs in Colmar. The inside of the church is as richly ornate as the outside, the choir is the most decorated part, stained glass windows, stalls,12 statues of Apostles, Baroque paintings. Other parts of the church display statues, remains of frescoes, a font from the 16th century. The churchs organs pipes and mechanism had to be replaced in 2001, but Saint-Thiébaut still keeps its magnificent Gothic revival organ case of 1888
Banteay Srei or Banteay Srey is a 10th-century Cambodian temple dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. Located in the area of Angkor in Cambodia and it lies near the hill of Phnom Dei,25 km north-east of the main group of temples that once belonged to the medieval capitals of Yasodharapura and Angkor Thom. Banteay Srei is built largely of red sandstone, a medium that lends itself to the decorative wall carvings which are still observable today. The buildings themselves are miniature in scale, unusually so when measured by the standards of Angkorian construction and these factors have made the temple extremely popular with tourists, and have led to its being widely praised as a precious gem, or the jewel of Khmer art. Consecrated on 22 April 967 A. D, the foundational stela says that Yajnavaraha, grandson of king Harsavarman I, was a scholar and philanthropist who helped those who suffered from illness, injustice, or poverty. His pupil was the future king Jayavarman V. Originally, the temple was surrounded by a town called Īśvarapura, yajñavarāhas temple was primarily dedicated to the Hindu god Śiva.
Originally, it carried the name Tribhuvanamaheśvara—great lord of the threefold world—in reference to the Shaivite linga that served as its central religious image, some have speculated that it relates to the many devatas carved into the walls of the buildings. Bantãy Srĕi was subject to expansion and rebuilding work in the eleventh century. It remained in use at least until the fourteenth century according to the last known inscription K569, the temple was rediscovered only in 1914, and was the subject of a celebrated case of art theft when André Malraux stole four devatas in 1923. Until the discovery of the stela in 1936, it had been assumed that the extreme decoration indicated a date than was in fact the case. To prevent the site from water damage, the joint Cambodian-Swiss Banteay Srei Conservation Project installed a system between 2000 and 2003. Measures were taken to prevent damage to the walls from nearby trees. Unfortunately, the temple has been ravaged by pilfering and vandalism, when toward the end of the 20th century authorities removed some original statues and replaced them with concrete replicas, looters took to attacking the replicas.
A statue of Shiva and his shakti Uma, removed to the National Museum in Phnom Penh for safekeeping, was assaulted in the museum itself, Banteay Srei is built largely of a hard red sandstone that can be carved like wood. Brick and laterite were used only for the walls and some structural elements. The temple is known for the beauty of its sandstone lintels, a pediment is the roughly triangular space above a rectangular doorway or openings. At Banteay Srei, pediments are relatively large in comparison to the openings below, for the first time in the history of Khmer architecture, whole scenes of mythological subject-matter are depicted on the pediments. A lintel is a beam spanning the gap between two posts
The tympanum, the triangular area within the pediment, is often decorated with relief sculpture. The pediment is found in classical Greek temples, renaissance, a prominent example is the Parthenon, where it contains a tympanum decorated with figures in relief sculpture. This architectural element was developed in the architecture of ancient Greece, in Ancient Rome, the Renaissance, and architectural revivals, the pediment was used as a non-structural element over windows and aedicules. A variant is the segmental or arch pediment, where the normal angular slopes of the cornice are replaced by one in the form of a segment of a circle, both traditional and segmental pediments have broken and open forms. In the broken pediment the raking cornice is left open at the apex, the open pediment is open along the base – often used in Georgian architecture. A further variant is the Swan-necked pediment, where the cornice is in the form of two S-shaped brackets. The decorations in the tympanum frequently extend through these openings, in the form of Alto-relievo sculpture, tondo paintings and these forms were adopted in Mannerist architecture, and applied to furniture designed by Thomas Chippendale.
The terms open pediment and broken pediment are often used interchangeably, a pediment is sometimes the top element of a portico
Kathmandu Durbar Square
Kathmandu Durbar Square in front of the old royal palace of the former Kathmandu Kingdom is one of three Durbar Squares in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Several buildings in the Square collapsed due to an earthquake on 25 April 2015. Durbar Square was surrounded with spectacular architecture and vividly showcases the skills of the Newar artists, the Royal Palace was originally at Dattaraya square and was moved to the Durbar square. The Kathmandu Durbar Square held the palaces of the Malla and Shah kings who ruled over the city, along with these palaces, the square surrounds quadrangles, revealing courtyards and temples. It is known as Hanuman Dhoka Durbar Square, a derived from a statue of Hanuman. The preference for the construction of palaces at this site dates back to as early as the Licchavi period in the third century. Even though the present palaces and temples have undergone repeated and extensive renovations, names like Gunapo and Gupo, which are the names referred to the palaces in the square in early scriptures, imply that the palaces were built by Gunakamadev, a King ruling late in the tenth-century.
When Kathmandu City became independent under the rule of King Ratna Malla, when Prithvi Narayan Shah invaded the Kathmandu Valley in 1769, he favored the Kathmandu Durbar Square for his palace. Other subsequent Shah kings continued to rule from the square until 1896 when they moved to the Narayan Hiti Palace, the square is still the center of important royal events like the coronation of King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah in 1975 and King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah in 2001. Though there are no written archives stating the history of Kathmandu Durbar Square, as the first king of the independent Kathmandu City, Ratna Malla is said to have built the Taleju temple in the Northern side of the palace in 1501. Construction of the Karnel Chok is not clearly stated in any historical inscriptions, the Bhagavati Temple, originally known as a Narayan Temple, rises above the mansions surrounding it and was added during the time of Jagajaya Malla in the early eighteenth century. The Narayan idol within the temple was stolen so Prithvi Narayan Shah replaced it with an image of Bhagavati, the oldest temples in the square are those built by Mahendra Malla.
They are the temples of Jagannath, Kotilingeswara Mahadev and this three-roofed Taleju Temple was established in 1564, in a typical Newari architectural style and is elevated on platforms that form a pyramid-like structure. With a help of a hermit, he designed the temple to give it its present form and his successors Sadasiva, his son, Shiva Simha, and his grandson, Laksmi Narsingha, do not seem to have made any major additions to the square. In the time of Pratap Malla, son of Laksminar Simha and he was an intellectual, a pious devotee, and especially interested in arts. He called himself a Kavindra, king of poets, and boasted that he was learned in fifteen different languages, during the construction of his palace, he added a small entrance in the traditional and narrow Newari style. The door was decorated with carvings and paintings of deities. In front of the entrance he placed the statue of Hanuman thinking that Hanuman would strengthen his army, the entrance leads to Nasal Chok, the courtyard where most royal events such as coronation and yagyas, holy fire rituals, take place
Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the style was carried to France, England and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact. Italy of the 15th century, and the city of Florence in particular, was home to the Renaissance, the scholarly approach to the architecture of the ancient coincided with the general revival of learning. A number of factors were influential in bringing this about, Italian architects had always preferred forms that were clearly defined and structural members that expressed their purpose. Many Tuscan Romanesque buildings demonstrate these characteristics, as seen in the Florence Baptistery, Italy had never fully adopted the Gothic style of architecture. In the 15th century, Florence and Naples extended their power through much of the area that surrounded them and this enabled Florence to have significant artistic influence in Milan, and through Milan, France.
Successive Popes, especially Julius II, 1503–13, sought to extend the Pope’s temporal power throughout Italy, in the early Renaissance, Venice controlled sea trade over goods from the East. Trade brought wool from England to Florence, ideally located on the river for the production of fine cloth, by dominating Pisa, Florence gained a seaport, and maintained dominance of Genoa. In this commercial climate, one family in particular turned their attention from trade to the business of money-lending. The Medici became the chief bankers to the princes of Europe, becoming virtually princes themselves as they did so, along the trade routes, and thus offered some protection by commercial interest, moved not only goods but artists and philosophers. This commenced in the mid 15th century and gained momentum in the 16th century, the construction of the Sistine Chapel with its uniquely important decorations and the entire rebuilding of St Peters, one of Christendoms most significant churches, were part of this process.
In wealthy republican Florence, the impetus for church-building was more civic than spiritual, the unfinished state of the enormous cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary did no honour to the city under her patronage. The dome inspired further religious works in Florence, through Humanism, civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship. Some major ecclesiastical building works were commissioned, not by the church. During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas. The first treatise on architecture was De re aedificatoria by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450 and it was to some degree dependent on Vitruviuss De architectura, a manuscript of which was discovered in 1414 in a library in Switzerland. De re aedificatoria in 1485 became the first printed book on architecture, Sebastiano Serlio produced the next important text, the first volume of which appeared in Venice in 1537, it was entitled Regole generali darchitettura.
It is known as Serlios Fourth Book since it was the fourth in Serlios original plan of a treatise in seven books, in all, five books were published