Dunston, Tyne and Wear
Dunston is the most westerly part of the town of Gateshead on the south bank of the River Tyne, in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead, North East England. Dunston had a population of 18,326 at the 2011 Census. Dunston is served by Dunston railway station on the Tyne Valley Line. Dunston is split into two areas separated by the A1 dual carriageway. Much of the area south of the A1 is known as Dunston Hill. For electoral purposes, the northern section is grouped along with the Teams area to form Dunston and Teams ward, while the southern section is combined with parts of Whickham, forming Dunston Hill and Whickham East. To the west of Dunston is the site of Dunston Power Station, now demolished; the site is now home to Costco, with the MetroCentre, occupying the former site of the station's ash ponds. The Gateshead-based Go-Ahead Group has constructed a new bus depot to replace its Sunderland Road and Winlaton depots on the eastern part of the power station site. Another Dunston landmark was the Derwent Tower, a tower block, once the highest building in Gateshead.
It was designed by the Owen Luder Partnership and completed in 1973. A well-known structure that had appeared in two films, it was demolished in 2012, it had always proved unpopular with residents, fallen into a poor condition: Gateshead Council decided that the renovation costs would be prohibitive. As of 2016, the remainder of the late 1960s Tower Court development was being replaced by new housing and shops. Luder designed the maligned Trinity Centre Multi-Storey Car Park, in Gateshead town centre. On 6 June 1993 the IRA attacked a gas holder in the nearby area of Low Team; the damage was limited, no one was injured. Dunston has one sports team, association football club called Dunston UTS who play in the Northern League. Dunston is known for wooden coal staiths, first opened in 1893 as a structure for loading coal from the North Durham coalfield onto ships. In the 1920s, 140,000 tons of coal per week were loaded from the staiths, they continued to be used until the 1970s, they were a shipping point for coke produced at the nearby Norwood Coke Works, as well as pencil pitch manufactured at the Thomas Ness Tar Works using by-products from the Norwood plant and the Redheugh Gasworks.
Throughout their working life, motive power for shunting wagons on the staiths and in their extensive sidings known as the Norwood Coal Yard came in the form of locomotives from Gateshead MPD. The staiths' output declined with the contraction of the coal industry, they were closed and dismantled in 1980. Now redundant, the railway lines leading to the staiths were lifted allowing the demolition of several low bridges that had become a nuisance to bus operators by limiting the routes available to double-deckers in the area. For many years, the men who worked on the staiths, known as teemers and trimmers, had their own room in the nearby Dunston Excelsior Club. For anyone not employed in the club or on the staiths, access to the room was by invite only, the staithesmen held a reputation for unceremoniously ejecting anyone who fell foul of this rule; the staiths was restored and opened to the public as part of the Gateshead Garden Festival in 1990, following similar events in Liverpool, Stoke-on-Trent and Glasgow.
The Garden Festival was divided into five zones, Eslington, The Boulevard and Riverside. It was spread over a large area of Dunston and the lower Team Valley occupied by heavy industries. Though other parts of the Garden Festival site, such as Dunston and Norwood, in the Team Valley, gained an immediate spur for regeneration, The Boulevard was left as a green space. Riverside, centred around the staiths and the site of the former gasworks, was derelict and inaccessible for the remainder of the 1990s, although parts of the site have now been developed into new housing. Today, the staiths are reputed to be the largest wooden structure in Europe, are protected as a Listed Building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. In 2002, work began on a development of riverside houses designed by Wayne Hemingway. Known as Staiths South Bank, this development celebrates the area's heritage as well as improving the setting for the historic structure. In the early hours of 20 November 2003, a section of the staiths was destroyed by fire.
As a result, access onto the Staiths themselves is not possible, but the structure can be viewed from the new riverside walkway, constructed as part of the Staiths South Bank development. In 2005 Gateshead Council commissioned a study into possible options for the Staiths' restoration; the Staiths suffered further fire damage in July 2010. Following the award of a Heritage Lottery Fund grant of £420,000, restoration of the structure is expected to begin in the near future. Footballers Paul Gascoigne and Ray Hudson, the former lead singer of AC/DC Brian Johnson all spent their formative years in Dunston. Champion rower and boat-builder Harry Clasper was born in Dunston, Victoria Hopper, the celebrated Canadian-born British stage and film actress and singer, was raised in Dunston. Dunston In Pictures, Photo Gallery
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Rail is a British magazine on the subject of current rail transport in Great Britain. It is published every two weeks by Bauer Consumer Media and is available in the transport sections of many British newsagents, it is targeted at the enthusiast market, but covers business issues in depth. Rail is more than three decades old, was known as Rail Enthusiast from its launch in 1981 until 1988, it is one of only two railway magazines that increased its circulation in 2012. It has had the same cover design for at least a decade, with a capitalised italic red RAIL along the top of the front cover. Rail is customarily critical of railway institutions, including the Rail Delivery Group, the Office of Rail and Road, as well as, since it assumed greater railway powers, the Department for Transport. Rail's' continuing campaigns include one against advertising and media images showing celebrities and others walking between the rails and another against weeds on railways; the magazine's readership peaked in the late 1980s at around 45,000.
Since the market for railway magazines has declined, although more titles have appeared. To meet the change in the market, the magazine has repositioned itself from being purely enthusiast-based to being more business-oriented; this has met with some success. Rail organises conferences, including the annual National Rail Conference, the National Rail Awards and the Rail 100 Breakfast Club. Rail publishes a mix of news and features written by its own editorial staff and freelance contributors; the magazine takes a broadly supportive stance on High Speed 2 and began running a regular column dedicated to it in 2013. The magazine's Managing Editor is Nigel Harris. Other staff include Richard Clinnick. Other regular contributors include transport commentator Christian Wolmar, one of the most vociferous critics of the privatisation of railways in Britain. Many of Rail's' editorial staff appear on television and radio when a rail expert is needed to comment on a story. Comment Industry Insider Christian Wolmar The Fare Dealer Stop & Examine List of rail transport-related periodicals Modern Railways Railways Illustrated The Railway Magazine Today's Railways Official website
East Denton is an area in the City of Newcastle upon Tyne in the English county of Tyne and Wear. It was home to the prominent Montagu family in the 18th Century whose residence was East Denton Hall. To the east of the Hall a waggonway led from the Caroline Pit to the coal staiths by the river Tyne in Scotswood. East Denton Hall, dating from 1622 the official residence of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Hexham & Newcastle and is formally known as ‘Bishop’s House, East Denton Hall’
South Shields is a coastal town at the mouth of the River Tyne, about 3.7 miles downstream from Newcastle upon Tyne. In County Durham, the town has a population of 75,337, the third largest in Tyneside after Newcastle and Gateshead, it is part of the metropolitan borough of South Tyneside which includes the towns of Jarrow and Hebburn. South Shields is represented in Parliament by Labour MP Emma Lewell-Buck; the demonym of a person from South Shields is either a Sand dancer. The first evidence of a settlement within what is now the town of South Shields dates from pre-historic times. Stone Age arrow heads and an Iron Age round house have been discovered on the site of Arbeia Roman Fort; the Roman garrison built a fort here around AD 160 and expanded it around AD 208 to help supply their soldiers along Hadrian's Wall as they campaigned north beyond the Antonine Wall. Divisions living at the fort included Tigris bargemen, infantry from Iberia and Gaul, Syrian archers and spearmen; the fort was abandoned as the Roman Empire declined in the 4th century AD.
Many ruins still exist today and some structures have been rebuilt as part of a modern museum and popular tourist attraction. There is evidence, it is believed. Furthermore, Bede records Oswin giving a parcel of land to St Hilda for the foundation of a monastery here in c.647. In the 9th century, Scandinavian peoples made Viking raids on monasteries and settlements all along the coast, conquered the Anglian Kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, who hailed from Angelnen in Denmark, it is said in local folklore that a Viking ship was wrecked at Herd Sands in South Shields in its attempts to disembark at a cove nearby. Other Viking ships were uncovered in nearby Jarrow; the current town was developed as a fishing port. The name South Shields developed from the'Schele' or'Shield', a small dwelling used by fishermen. Another industry, introduced, was that of salt-panning expanded upon in the 15th century, polluting the air and surrounding land. In 1864, a Tyne Commissioners dredger brought up a nine-pounder breech-loading cannon.
At the outbreak of the war in 1642, the North and Ireland supported the King. In 1644 Parliament's Scottish Covenanter allies, in a lengthy battle, seized the town and its Royalist fortification, the fortification was close to the site of the original Roman fort, they seized the town of Newburn. These raids were done to aid their ongoing siege of the fortified Newcastle upon Tyne, in a bid to control the River Tyne, the North, the Shields siege helped cause their battalions to maneuver south to York. In the 19th century, coal mining, alkaline production and glass making led to a boom in the town; the population increased from 12,000 in 1801 to 75,000 by the 1860s, bolstered by economic migration from Ireland and other parts of England. These industries played a fundamental part in creating wealth both regionally and nationally. In 1832, with the Great Reform Act, South Shields and Gateshead were each given their own Member of Parliament and became boroughs, resulting in taxes being paid to the Government instead of the Bishops of Durham.
However, the rapid growth in population brought on by the expansion of industry made sanitation a problem, as evident by Cholera outbreaks and the building of the now-listed Cleadon Water Tower to combat the problem. In the 1850s'The Tyne Improvement Commission' began to develop the river, dredging it to make it deeper and building the large, impressive North and South Piers to help prevent silt build up within the channel. Shipbuilding a monopoly of the Freemen of Newcastle, became another prominent industry in the town, with John Readhead & Sons Shipyard the largest. During World War I, German Zeppelin airships bombed South Shields in 1916. During World War II, the German Luftwaffe attacked the town and caused massive damage to industries which supported the war effort, killing many innocent residents. A bomb shelter in the market place of South Shields, where the deceased were commemorated in a cobblestone of the British flag. Controversially removed and the bodies interred elsewhere. Throughout the late 20th century, the coal and shipbuilding industries were closed during the Thatcher political era, due to competitive pressures from more cost effective sources of energy and more efficient shipbuilding elsewhere in Eastern Europe and in South East Asia.
In the 21st century, the local economy includes port-related, ship repair and offshore industries, retail, the public sector and the ever-increasing role of tourism. This is illustrated by the new multi-million haven centre, dunes centre and seaside improvements in the coastal area and a new multimillion-pound library known as'The Word.' South Shields is situated in a peninsula setting, 247 miles north-northwest of London, where the River Tyne mee
Ryton, Tyne and Wear
Ryton is a semi-rural small town near the western border of the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead and Wear, being 5.8 miles west of Newcastle upon Tyne. In County Durham, it was once an independent town but it became incorporated into the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear and the Borough of Gateshead in 1974; the parish has been absorbed into the Gateshead MBC ward of Ryton and Stella. In 2011, the total population of this ward was 8,146. Ryton lies midway both in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead. Nearby settlements include Stargate, Clara Vale, Greenside and Hedgefield. Stargate is located on the outskirts of Ryton en route to Blaydon, it has a children's park, a fish shop, a Quarry, allotments and in the neighbouring town of Crookhill there is a primary school and a general store, which can be used as a post office. Ryton is located within Gateshead's Green Belt which contains areas west and southwest of Gateshead Town because the area of South Tyneside to the east is urbanised. Traditionally, Ryton's economy was built upon coal mining.
Some think that coal-mining was taking place in the area as early as Roman times, however it was not until 1239 when Henry III granted that coal may be mined outside the walls that mining became extensive. There are records of coal being shipped from Winlaton to London as early as 1367; the agricultural industry in Ryton included both pastoral farming and arable farming. Ryton's position south of the Scottish Borders and Hadrian's Wall made it a target for Scottish attacks in the area, it is said to have been burned by William Wallace in 1297. A further attack by David II of Scotland was recorded in 1346, during which the church was plundered; as well as its coal industry, Ryton contained the lead-smelting reverberatory furnaces of the Ryton Company, whose mines were on Alston Moor. By 1704, this business had been amalgamated into the London Lead Company. In 1800 the Stargate Pit was opened and on 30 May 1826, a coal dust and methane explosion there killed 20 men and 18 boys; this became known as the "Stargate Pit Disaster".
There is a memorial marker at Ryton's Holy Cross Church, another memorial stone at the pit itself. The Stargate Pit was reopened in 1840 and not closed until 1961. Ryton soon became a place of migration for the wealthy, who wanted to escape the urban sprawl of the Industrial Revolution in Gateshead and Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. A reminder of Ryton's affluent past is found in some of the old mansions at old Ryton village, a place rich in rural qualities because of its proximity to Ryton Willows on the banks of the River Tyne. After the decline of the coal industry during the second half of the twentieth century Ryton became suburbanised and is now used as a commuter village for those that work in the more urban areas of Tyneside. In local government, Ryton is located in the Ryton and Stella ward, in the outer west of the borough; the ward is served by three councillors. Gateshead Council is Labour controlled. Ryton is located within the parliamentary constituency of Blaydon, its current MP is Labour's Liz Twist.
The neighbouring village of Crawcrook is a nexus of coal mining nostalgia also. Remnants of several old pits across Ryton and Crawcrook, including Emma and Addison can still be found. Within a couple of hundred metres of both Crawcrook and Ryton main street there is rich countryside; the most impressive section of this countryside is Ryton Willows Local Nature Reserve located on the banks of the Tyne, just past Old Ryton Village. It consists of 43 hectares of grassland, ponds and locally rare species of flora and fauna; because of this it has been designated as a site of special scientific interest. Other areas of countryside include Addison and Hedgefield woods, it is at Addison woods. Further up the Tyne Valley, past the village of Crawcrook and into the border of Northumberland, there are rural market towns such as Prudhoe and Hexham. A affluent area of Gateshead, Ryton has experienced suburbanisation in recent years and is now used as a commuter area for those that work in the more urban areas of Tyneside.
Despite being a provincial suburb, Ryton remains a vibrant area, with a variety of local amenities. In the more central part of Ryton these include a Cooperative supermarket, a Sainsbury's Local store and a selection of independent shops such as Dominic Pizza's, Coffee Johnny's, a small gift shop and a deli as well as a chiropodist and various hair and beauty salons. Ryton boasts the only Thai Restaurant between Newcastle and Hexham with Yim Siam based at The Half Moon Inn in Old Ryton Village. There is a community library. North East Falconry is based in ryton with over 45 birds of prey. Ryton boasts several restaurants and six public houses, four of which are located away from Ryton Main Street, in Ryton Old Village; the nearby village of Crawcrook offers more services, including a doctor's surgery, two veterinary surgeries, another chiropodist, another dentist and a restaurant. Ryton has an extensive Edwardian park which includes children's playing equipment, a bowling green and an aviary.
Away from the town centre there is a country club hotel and two golf courses, Tyneside golf club at Ryton, Ryton golf club in nearby Clara Vale. Both are situated near the banks of the Tyne. Ryton is home to three schools, Ryton Infants School, Ryton Junior School and Thorp Academy, all of which occupy the same site in the town. Nearby Crawcrook offers two more primary schools. Crookhill primary
Blaydon is a town in the North East of England in the Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead - in County Durham. Blaydon, neighbouring Winlaton, which Blaydon is now contiguous with, form the postal town of Blaydon-on-Tyne; the Blaydon/Winlaton resident population in 2011 was 13,896. Between 1894 and 1974, Blaydon was an urban district which extended inland from the Tyne along the River Derwent for ten miles, included the mining communities of Chopwell and High Spen, the villages of Rowlands Gill, Blackhall Mill, Winlaton Mill and Stella, as well as Blaydon and Winlaton. During its existence, the Urban District's fourteen and a half square miles constituted the second largest administrative district by area, on Tyneside, after Newcastle upon Tyne; the town of Blaydon is an industrial area and is not more than two centuries old. Indeed, in the 1760s there was little here but a few cottages. In the latter part of the same century a smelting works was set up from which sprang the industrial growth of the area.
Though the town itself has a short history there has been activity in the area for many centuries. The earliest recorded evidence of human activity at Blaydon is a Neolithic polished stone axe found in the early 20th century. Finds and structures from prehistoric periods include a bronze spearhead and log-boat, both recovered from the River Tyne in the 19th century. A number of Bronze Age cists are recorded from several others from Bewes Hill. Little is recorded of medieval Blaydon, which appears to have been based upon the modern farm sites of High and Low Shibdon; the Blaydon Burn Belts Corn Mill, part of a row of 5 or 6 water corn mills stretching from Brockwell Wood to the River Tyne is known to have been present by the early 17th century, suggesting a healthy population at that time. It is that, as well as farming, many industrial activities such as mining and quarrying had begun in the medieval and post-medieval periods, well before the industrial period of the 18th to 20th centuries when Blaydon became an important industrial centre.
Known as the Battle of Newburn or Newburn Ford, this unknown battle has been elevated in importance by English Heritage. On 28 August 1640, 20,000 Scots defeated 5,500 English soldiers who were defending the ford over the Tyne four miles west of Newcastle; the Scots had been provoked by Charles I, who had imposed bishops and a foreign prayer book on their church. The Scots army, led by Alexander Leslie, fought its way to Newcastle and occupied the city for a year before Charles I paid it £200,000 to depart; the battle brought to an end the so-called'Eleven Years of Tyranny' by forcing Charles to recall Parliament. This was the last battle in Britain to feature the use of archers; the stimulus for industry at Blaydon and Blaydon burn, as elsewhere in the region, was the growth in coal mining and the coal trade from the early 18th century, when the Hazard and Speculation pits were established at Low Shibdon linked to the Tyne by wagonways. The 18th century Blaydon Main Colliery was reopened in the mid-19th century and worked until 1921.
Other pits and associated features included Blaydon Burn Colliery, Freehold pit and the Blaydonburn wagonway. Industries supported by the coal trade included chemical works, bottle works, sanitary pipe works, lampblack works, an ironworks, a smithy and brickworks - Cowen's Upper and Lower Brickworks were established in 1730 and were associated with a variety of features including a clay drift mine and coal/clay drops; the Lower works remains in operation. Blaydon Burn Coke Ovens of 19th-century origin, were replaced in the 1930s by Priestman Ottovale Coke and Tar Works, the first in the world to produce petrol from coal known as Blaydon Benzole. In addition to the workers’ housing developments associated with industrialisation, a number of grand residences were constructed for industrialists in the area, such as Blaydon Burn House, home of Joseph Cowen, owner of the brickworks; the remains of Old Dockendale Hall, an earlier grand residence of 17th century or earlier construction, was destroyed when the coke and tar works was built at Blaydon Burn.
In the 1930s, pupils at the now demolished Blaydon Intermediate School, under the leadership of English teacher Mr Elliott and art teacher Mr Boyce developed a technique for producing hardback books. Their productions were respected and favourably compared to other successful private printing presses of the time. In one volume produced by the school in 1935, entitled "Songs of Enchantment", the pupils were successful in convincing the famous poet Walter de la Mare to write a foreword in which he praised their enterprise and efforts; the post war era of the late 40s and 50s saw a rapid rise in demand for electricity and, in the North East, the extension of existing and construction of a number of new power stations was seen as a key part of the solution. For the Blaydon area, this meant the arrival of a new power station at Stella Haugh, known as the South Stella Power Station, which helped to meet the energy demands of the North East until its closure in 1991, it was demolished in 1992. The House of Commons constituency seat of Blaydon is held by MP Liz Twist.
The area has traditionally been a Labour stronghold and has been held by the Labour Party since 1935. The Labour candidate David Anderson received 51.5% of the vote in 2005, with the Liberal Democrat candidate, Peter Maughan, second at 37.9%. Blaydon ward elects three councillors to Gateshead Council; as of the May 2007 election, they are Kathryn Ferdinand and Steve Ronchetti. Modern Blaydon stands close to the Tyne with the A695, a key road from Gateshead to Hexham, passi