Type (biology)

In biology, a type is a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon. In older usage, a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. A taxon is a scientifically named grouping of organisms with other like organisms, a set that includes some organisms and excludes others, based on a detailed published description and on the provision of type material, available to scientists for examination in a major museum research collection, or similar institution. According to a precise set of rules laid down in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, the scientific name of every taxon is always based on one particular specimen, or in some cases specimens. Types are of great significance to biologists to taxonomists. Types are physical specimens that are kept in a museum or herbarium research collection, but failing that, an image of an individual of that taxon has sometimes been designated as a type.

Describing species and appointing type specimens is part of scientific nomenclature and alpha taxonomy. When identifying material, a scientist attempts to apply a taxon name to a specimen or group of specimens based on his or her understanding of the relevant taxa, based on having read the type description, preferably based on an examination of all the type material of all of the relevant taxa. If there is more than one named type that all appear to be the same taxon the oldest name takes precedence, is considered to be the correct name of the material in hand. If on the other hand the taxon appears never to have been named at all the scientist or another qualified expert picks a type specimen and publishes a new name and an official description; this process is crucial to the science of biological taxonomy. People's ideas of how living things should be grouped shift over time. How do we know that what we call "Canis lupus" is the same thing, or the same thing, as what they will be calling "Canis lupus" in 200 years' time?

It is possible to check this because there is a particular wolf specimen preserved in Sweden and everyone who uses that name – no matter what else they may mean by it – will include that particular specimen. Depending on the nomenclature code applied to the organism in question, a type can be a specimen, a culture, an illustration, or a description; some codes consider a subordinate taxon to be the type, but under the botanical code the type is always a specimen or illustration. For example, in the research collection of the Natural History Museum in London, there is a bird specimen numbered 1886.6.24.20. This is a specimen of a kind of bird known as the spotted harrier, which bears the scientific name Circus assimilis; this particular specimen is the holotype for that species. That species was named and described by Jardine and Selby in 1828, the holotype was placed in the museum collection so that other scientists might refer to it as necessary. Note that at least for type specimens there is no requirement for a "typical" individual to be used.

Genera and families those established by early taxonomists, tend to be named after species that are more "typical" for them, but here too this is not always the case and due to changes in systematics cannot be. Hence, the term name-bearing type or onomatophore is sometimes used, to denote the fact that biological types do not define "typical" individuals or taxa, but rather fix a scientific name to a specific operational taxonomic unit. Type specimens are theoretically allowed to be aberrant or deformed individuals or color variations, though this is chosen to be the case, as it makes it hard to determine to which population the individual belonged; the usage of the term type is somewhat complicated by different uses in botany and zoology. In the PhyloCode, type-based definitions are replaced by phylogenetic definitions. In some older taxonomic works the word "type" has sometimes been used differently; the meaning was similar in the first Laws of Botanical Nomenclature, but has a meaning closer to the term taxon in some other works: Ce seul caractère permet de distinguer ce type de toutes les autres espèces de la section.

… Après avoir étudié ces diverses formes, j'en arrivai à les considérer comme appartenant à un seul et même type spécifique. Translation: This single character permits distinguish this type from all other species of the section... After studying the diverse forms, I came to consider them as belonging to the one and the same specific type. In botanical nomenclature, a type, "is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached." In botany a type is either an illustration. A specimen is a real plant and kept safe, "curated", in a herbarium. Examples of where an illustration may serve as a type include: A detailed drawing, etc. depicting the plant, from the early days of plant taxonomy. A dried plant was difficult to transport and hard to keep safe for the future. Skilled botanical artists were sometimes employed by a botanist to make a faithful and detailed illustration; some such illustrations have become the best record a


Securicor plc was one of the United Kingdom's largest security businesses. It was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index but merged with Group 4 Falck in 2004; the Company was founded by Edward Shortt, a former Liberal Cabinet Minister, in 1935 as Nightwatch Services: its guards rode bicycles and wore old police uniforms. However, in 1939 it was taken over by Lord Willingdon and Henry Tiarks who developed it into a leading security business, it changed its name to Security Corps in 1951 and shortened it to Securicor in 1953. In 1960 it was acquired by Associated Hotels which itself dated back to 1923. In 1984 one of its security guards, John James McWilliams, was murdered while working in London. Securicor, along with co-founder British Telecom, was involved with the creation of mobile phone operator Cellnet in 1985. Securicor sold its share in the company to British Telecom in 1999, resulting in the formation of BT Cellnet, spun off as O2. In 2004 Securicor merged with Group 4 Falck to become Group 4 Securicor

Charles Bosseron Chambers

Charles Bosseron Chambers was a painter and teacher. Known as the "Norman Rockwell of Catholic art", his religious paintings have become collectible, he is best known for the Light of the World, the most popular religious print in America during the first half of the 20th Century. Charles Bosseron Chambers was born in St. Louis, Missouri on May 1882, his father, an Irish captain in the British Army, was a convert to Catholicism. He was brought up in a devout Catholic household; the youngest of several children, Charles was sent to local schools and was graduated from Saint Louis University. He adopted the middle name “Bosseron” to reflect his French heritage. Chambers studied art for six years under Louis Schultz of the Berlin Royal Academy and with Aleis Hrdliczka at the Royal Academy of Vienna, he studied for six years with Johannes Schumacher in Dresden, spent some time in Italy. Due to his mother's failing health, the family moved to Palm Beach, Florida where he began his art career. Chambers is considered a society painter, having done portraits of many of the leading socialites of the early 20th century such as Henry Flagler, actor Joseph Jefferson, members of the Vanderbilt family and others.

In 1916 Chambers moved to Manhattan with his wife Anne, the niece of Archbishop Patrick Feehan of Chicago and established himself in the Carnegie Studios, Carnegie Hall, where he had a private studio. Chambers was a member of the Society of Illustrators, in New York City, the Salmagundi Club, an important art club in the city. In April 1921 his work was exhibited at the Babcock Galleries on 49th St. in 1923 he illustrated Sir Walter Scott's Quentin Durward for Scribners. In November 1935, a number of portraits were on display at the Macbeth Gallery on E. 57th St. His work can now be seen at the Missouri Historical Society in St. Louis and at the Osceola Club in St. Augustine, among other places. Between 1920 and 1950 millions of Chambers religious paintings were reproduced and displayed. While he continued to accept commissions for society portraits, it was his work in the religious field, holy cards and magazine covers that brought him national recognition and a steady source of income. Charles Bosseron Chambers died in New York in 1964.

Chambers worked in oil painting, water colors, charcoal drawings. Known as the "Norman Rockwell of Catholic art", his religious paintings have become collectible, his most famous being Jesus portrayed as a young boy in "Light of the World." In 1919 Chambers was commissioned to do paintings for the side altars in the newly built St. Ignatius Church in Rogers Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. There, Chambers produced a painting of St. Joseph holding the infant Christ. A detail of that painting, the face of four year old model Gilbert DeMille, son of the custodian at St. Ignatius School, became the Light of the World. Between 1920 and 1940, millions of copies were sold; the print can be seen over the priest's desk in the 1948 film The Miracle of the Bells. Chambers painted the fourteen Stations of the Cross in the Church. According to a popular account, one day, Chambers stopped by the Church of the Holy Innocents on 37th St. for Mass. Afterwards he observed a young man praying before a life-size crucifix and made a quick sketch.

In speaking to the man, Chambers learned that he was a Frenchman who had drifted away from religion since coming to New York, but was now heading back to fight in World War I, had prayed for a return to the faith. Chambers produced an oil painting from the sketch. According to the American Art News, "His remarkable picture, The Return, which shows a soldier at the foot of a crucifix, enveloped in a certain divine mystery and depth of sentiment and convincing, has been reproduced by one of the largest publishing companies in color and sepia, having decided success." After the war, Chambers was able to make contact with the soldier, who told him that having survived the war, he had entered a monastery. The refurbished crucifix, now termed "The Return Crucifix", is still at Holy Innocents, located in the rear right corner of the church. There is a stained glass rendition of Chamber's painting in the choir loft. "Light of the World" "The Return" "The Return" -sepia St. Joseph and the Child Jesus, St. Ignatius Church