Type 001A aircraft carrier

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Type 001A aircraft carrier
停泊于大连港的001A.jpg
Type 001A aircraft carrier after launch at Dalian (2017)
History
China
Builder: Dalian Shipbuilding Industry
Cost: US$4.5 billion[1]
Laid down: November 2013
Launched: 26 April 2017
Completed: 25 April 2018
Commissioned: End of 2018–2019 (estimated)[2]
Status: Sea trials[3]
General characteristics (as designed)
Class and type: Type 001A
Type: Aircraft carrier
Displacement:
  • 55,000 tons (when completed)[4][5]
  • 70,000 tons full load[6]
Length: 315 m (1,033 ft)[7]
Beam: 75 metres (246 ft)[7]
Propulsion: Conventional steam turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 31 knots (36 mph; 57 km/h)[7]
Armament:
  • 3 × Type 1130 CIWS
  • 3 × HQ-10 (18 Cell Missile system)
Aircraft carried:
Type 001A aircraft carrier
Simplified Chinese 001A型航空母舰
Traditional Chinese 001A型航空母艦
Literal meaning 001A-type aircraft mothership

The Type 001A aircraft carrier or CV-17 aircraft carrier[8] is a first generation Chinese aircraft carrier that was launched on 26 April 2017 for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) of China. It is the country's second aircraft carrier after the completion of Liaoning, and the first built domestically.

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

The carrier was constructed by the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation in Dalian, China.[9] According to the state media service Xinhua, initial work on the vessel began in November 2013, and construction of its hull in a drydock began in March 2015,[9] the Chinese government did not publicly confirm the ship's existence until construction was well underway. Satellite imagery for the defense analysis industry showed the aircraft carrier in the early stages of hull assembly by March 2015. Public photos of a hull with military characteristics at the Dalian shipyard surfaced on the internet the next month;[10][11] in October 2015, the first definite signs of the vessel's role appeared when construction of a hangar deck began on the hull.[11] In December 2015, a Chinese defense ministry spokesman confirmed that the ship was an aircraft carrier, stating that the design and construction work was under way.[12]

The hull was completed by May 2016, when the ski jump takeoff ramp was installed,[13] the ship's island superstructure was fabricated in two parts: the nine-deck forward half, containing the bridge and main mast, was installed by September of that year, while the aft half, with the funnel and air intakes, was installed in the weeks that followed.[14][15] By the end of that year, the ship was substantially structurally complete.[16]

The Type 001A carrier was launched on 26 April 2017,[17][18] the name of the carrier was not revealed at the launch ceremony, although earlier reports had speculated the aircraft carrier will be named Shandong after the province of the same name.[17]

Outfitting[edit]

Following the launch, the carrier was fitted-out and underwent early tests of the propulsion system.[19] After fitting-out was completed in November 2017, dockside system trials began.[20] On 17 April 2018, the ship's engines were started for the first time, and it left dock for its first round of sea trials on 23 April 2018.[21]

At the time of its launch, the ship was not expected to be delivered to PLAN until 2020; however, successful early tests put the project ahead of schedule and media reports indicated that it could enter the navy fleet as early as late 2018.[19] While its predecessor Liaoning has been used largely as a training ship since it entered active service in 2012, the Type 001A is expected to be used in regular military operational service.[22]

Sea trial[edit]

The Type 001A begins sea trial in April 2018, roughly one year after the launch,[23] the preparation begins in April, with on board construction equipment being removed by shipbuilders. [24][25][26][27] The engine is spotted running and radar plates on top of the superstructure begin to rotate indicating the naval equipment is being tested.[28][29] Western analyst predicts that if the sea trial goes accordingly, the commission could be set one year ahead of schedule,[2] on May 13th, the aircraft carrier left the dock to begin sea trials in the East China Sea. The sea trials include performance test for the aircraft carriers and phase-in adjustments for on-board facilities. [30][31][32][33]

Design[edit]

Admiral Kuznetsov, on which the Type 001A is based, at sea in 1996

The aircraft carrier's design is based on the Soviet Union's Kuznetsov class, as China's first carrier, Liaoning, was constructed from an incomplete Kuznetsov-class vessel and the 001A is a refined version of Liaoning.[14] It is slightly modified and upgraded compared to Liaoning, with improved radar[15] and increased storage capacity for ammunition and fuel, allowing it to carry more aircraft than Liaoning (estimated to be between 30 and 40 jets and helicopters).[13][22] It measures about 315 metres (1,033 ft) long, with a displacement of about 55,000 tonnes (70,000 loaded).[17][22] The ship is powered by conventional oil-fired boilers driving eight steam turbines derived from the Soviet-designed examples installed on Liaoning,[14][21] it retains the ski jump takeoff, which limits its air wing to helicopters and Shenyang J-15 fighter jets. Future more advanced Chinese carriers, such as the Type 002 aircraft carrier, are planned to use an Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) that allows the launch of heavier aircraft as well as more advanced stealth aircraft such as the Shenyang J-31 or the Chengdu J-20.[34][13][16][35]

Senior international defense research analyst Timothy Heath from RAND Corporation described the general design of the aircraft carrier is similar to Type 001, but expert analysis of pictures and satellite images of the new homegrown vessel reveals the design for deck and superstructure has been altered. The new deck can possibly accommodate up to eight additional aircraft compare to previous design, which by comparison, the Kuznetsov and Liaoning can currently carry around 30 warplanes, including fixed wing aircraft and helicopters. The superstructure on Type 001A is also smaller and integrated with redesigned radars and bridge, for example, fleet command and flight control tower are now on separate floor for better efficiency, a layout that never seen on original Russian design.[36][37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://ukdefencejournal.org.uk/china-launches-first-home-built-aircraft-carrier/
  2. ^ a b "Chinese newest aircraft carrier may start sea trials this week — and could join the fleet a year ahead of schedule, amid a growing rivalry with the US". Business Insider. 25 April 2018. 
  3. ^ https://edition.cnn.com/2018/05/12/asia/china-aircraft-carrier-trial-intl/index.html
  4. ^ Pike, John (2 September 2017). "Kuznetsov Class - Project 1143.5". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  5. ^ "Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov". RusNavy.com. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  6. ^ "China, Sending a Signal, Launches a Home-Built Aircraft Carrier". The New York Times. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Chan, Minnie (12 April 2017). "10 things you should know about China's first home-built aircraft carrier". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 29 April 2017. 
  8. ^ Kyle Mizokami (1 January 2016). "China Is Now Building Its Second Aircraft Carrier". Popular Mechanics. 
  9. ^ a b "China launches second aircraft carrier". Xinhua. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  10. ^ "China may be building first indigenous carrier". Jane's Defence Weekly. IHS. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  11. ^ a b "China's First Homemade Carrier Moves Forward". Popular Science. 27 October 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  12. ^ "China Begins Building Second Aircraft Carrier". The Wall Street Journal. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c "China's New Carrier Gets A Ski Ramp". Popular Science. 20 May 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  14. ^ a b c "Further progress made on China's Type 001A carrier". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  15. ^ a b "China Adds An Island Tower To Its Aircraft Carrier". Popular Science. 6 October 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  16. ^ a b "Analysis: Chinese aircraft carrier program progressing substantially into the new year". Defense News. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  17. ^ a b c "China, Sending a Signal, Launches a Home-Built Aircraft Carrier". The New York Times. 25 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  18. ^ LaGrone, Sam (26 April 2017). "VIDEO: China Launches First Domestic Aircraft Carrier". USNI News. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  19. ^ a b "China's first home-grown aircraft carrier could join the navy ahead of schedule". South China Morning Post. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  20. ^ "China's first domestically built aircraft carrier completes outfitting". China Daily. 23 November 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  21. ^ a b "China's first home-grown Type 001A aircraft carrier begins maiden sea trial". South China Morning Post. 23 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  22. ^ a b c "China Launches First Home-Built Aircraft Carrier, Boosting Naval Power". The Wall Street Journal. 26 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  23. ^ "China prepares aircraft carrier for sea trial". 
  24. ^ "Will China's New Aircraft Carrier Start Sea Trials This Week?". The Diplomat. 23 April 2018. 
  25. ^ "China's first home-grown Type 001A aircraft carrier begins maiden sea trial". South China Morning Post. 23 April 2018. 
  26. ^ "China's new carrier set for sea trials: experts". Global Times. 23 April 2018. 
  27. ^ "Here's what we know about China's newest aircraft carriers". News.AU. 23 April 2018. 
  28. ^ "China's first homegrown aircraft carrier is a sign of the country's military aspirations". CNBC. 25 April 2018. 
  29. ^ "China's first home-built aircraft carrier Type 001A readies for maiden journey at sea". ABC News. 25 April 2018. 
  30. ^ "First made-in-China aircraft carrier starts sea trials". Global Times. 13 May 2018. 
  31. ^ "First made-in-China aircraft carrier starts sea trials". Straits Times. 13 May 2018. 
  32. ^ "China's first domestically built aircraft carrier begins maiden sea trial". South China Morning Post. 13 May 2018. 
  33. ^ "Pictures Of First China-Made Aircraft Carrier 'Type 001A' As Sea Trials Begin". South China Morning Post. 13 May 2018. 
  34. ^ China's making major progress with its aircraft carrier tech. Popular Science. 16 August 2017.
  35. ^ Dominguez, Gabriel (7 December 2017). "Future Chinese carriers to deploy J-20, J-31 stealth fighters, says report". Jane's Information Group. 
  36. ^ "China's Navy Takes a Bow". Stratfor. 4 May 2018. 
  37. ^ "China's first homegrown aircraft carrier heads out for sea trial". CNN. 13 May 2018.