Type 091 submarine
The first submarine in the class was commissioned in 1974 and the fifth and final boat of the class was commissioned in 1991. The Han class have operated in local waters. However since the 1990s, Hans have been used more aggressively, a Han shadowed a U. S. carrier battle group in the mid-1990s. In November 2004, a Han made an incursion into Japanese territorial waters, the incursion was through the Ishigaki, Okinawa island group, a lightly populated group of islands very near Taiwan. China apologized for the incursion saying for technical reasons, it ventured into Japanese waters, the Han class have gone through major upgrades and numerous refits since their commissioning. The boats have six 533 mm torpedo tubes and carry 20 torpedoes, they can carry 36 mines in their tubes. The Han class is capable of firing sub-launched variants of the C-801 anti-ship missile as well as a range of indigenous, all remaining hulls have been refitted with new sonars, with Type H/SQ2-262B sonar manufactured by No.613 Factory replacing the original Type 603 sonar on board.
Anechoic tiles were added to reduce noise levels, the submarine is inhibited by an inability to launch missiles while submerged. This creates a disadvantage against opponents that have well-developed anti-submarine warfare systems. Their design and weapons appear to be inadequate for confronting modern warships and it is believed that long refits have often meant that these submarines have spent more time in port than out at sea, greatly affecting their operational capacity. Boat 401 has had its nuclear reactor removed and disposed of, the submarine will be fitted out and serve as a museum exhibit. Type 093 submarine Type 09-1 Han Class
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability, the term most commonly refers to a large, crewed vessel. It is used historically or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine. The noun submarine evolved as a form of submarine boat, by naval tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than as ships. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, Submarines were first widely used during World War I, and now figure in many navies large and small. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection, Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, and for undersea archaeology, most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure, usually located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes.
In modern submarines, this structure is the sail in American usage, a conning tower was a feature of earlier designs, a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, and various hydrodynamic control fins, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate significantly from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water, Submarines have one of the widest ranges of types and capabilities of any vessel. Submarines can work at greater depths than are survivable or practical for human divers, modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle and its unclear whether he ever carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel and it was propelled by means of oars.
By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England, in 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion. His design used leather bags that could fill with water to submerge the craft, a mechanism was used to twist the water out of the bags and cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemens Magazine reported that a design had initially been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. By this point of development, further improvement in design stagnated for over a century, until new industrial technologies for propulsion. The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person and it was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, and the first to use screws for propulsion
Type 052 destroyer
The Type 052 Luhu-class is one of the first modern multi-role guided missile destroyers built by China. There are currently two units in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Navy Surface Force. It was succeeded by the Type 051B, designed by the China Warship Design Institute, both ships were built at Jiangnan Shipyard - No.112 Harbin was the first Luhu destroyer followed by No.113 Qingdao. The chief designer was academician Mr. Pan Jingfu, the class is said to be the first indigenous Chinese warship design approaching modern standards, a significant improvement over the earlier Luda class. The Luhu class made use of foreign technologies that were accessible to the PRC prior to the Tiananmen Square incident of 1989. These included French-made radars and fire-control systems and the General Electric LM2500 gas turbine engines from the US, the Type 052 became the first Chinese destroyer design to use gas turbine engines, and the first equipped with a integrated combat system. Even with incorporation of Western technology, the lack of adequate shipborne air defense systems has had great impact on PLAN operations.
The HQ-7 SAM system is reported to be equipped with 8 ready to fire missiles, the same system is used on the upgraded 051G Luda Destroyer. In spite of the advances, the 052 Luhu-class destroyers still suffer in some such as electronic warfare. The operational capability of the Luhu-class destroyers has been called into question by naval analysts, ship visits in 1997 allowed US Naval officers to board and inspect Luhu Destroyer No.112 Harbin and to take numerous photographs. The Chinese attempted to address problems with the introduction of an improved Luhu design. This follow-on, essentially an enlarged Luhu, features some improved electronics from foreign suppliers as well as more advanced weapons, however, in some cases, the designers appear to have opted for less capable indigenous designs to ease the system integration issues suffered by the Luhu-class destroyers. The PLAN was reportedly unhappy with the design of the Luhai-class destroyers, the second unit had French Thomson-CSF DUBV 23/43 HMS/VDS, which were subsequently replaced by domestic copy SJD-9 sonar system.
The combat data systems for the first unit was ZKJ-3, a Chinese equivalent of the Italian IPN-10 combat data system, ZKJ-3 is developed from the export version of IPN-10, SADOC2. SADOC2 was sold to China in 1985 and it differs from IPN-10 in that it lacks the data link the latter has, incorporation of a domestic data link is the main improvement of Chinese ZKJ-3, making it the Chinese equivalent of IPN-10. These combat data systems were replaced by more advanced follow-on equipment such as ZKJ-4A/B series during upgrades. Experience gained in handling these foreign systems has helped subsequent development of similar Chinese systems, both of the Type 052 destroyers were upgraded in 2011. The four Type 76A guns were replaced by two Type 730 CIWS on top of the helicopter hangar, the Crotale/HHQ-7 short-range SAM may have been replaced by the newer model which provides better interception against sea-skimming AShMs
Chinese aircraft carrier programme
Since the 1970s, the Peoples Liberation Army Navy has expressed interest in operating an aircraft carrier as part of its blue water aspirations. In 2011, Peoples Liberation Army Chief of the General Staff Chen Bingde confirmed that China was constructing at least one aircraft carrier, in September 2012, Chinas first aircraft carrier, was commissioned. Four years later, in November 2016, it was reported that Liaoning is now combat ready, China has confirmed that it is constructing a second carrier that will be built entirely with indigenous Chinese designs. Similar to Liaoning, Chinas second carrier will use a ski jump for takeoff. Since 1985, China has acquired four retired aircraft carriers for study, the Australian HMAS Melbourne, reports stated that up to two 60, 000-ton Type 001A aircraft carriers based on Varyag were due to be started by 2015. Sukhoi Su-33s were the aircraft that seemed most likely to be flown from these carriers, however, it seems that Chinas own multirole fighter, the Shenyang J-15, would instead be the candidate planes flown from them.
Chinese shipyards have gained exposure to carrier design with the acquisition of retired hulls such as the Australian HMAS Melbourne acquired in 1985. The carrier was not dismantled for many years and according to reports she was not completely broken up until 2002. Through various ventures, China has purchased the ex-Soviet carriers Minsk and these carriers have become floating amusement parks for tourists. There had been plans to purchase foreign second-hand carriers in the past. For example, a deal between China and France for the sale of the Clemenceau fell through in 1997. Both the take-off and landing were conducted on the day. The experience gained was applied to the Shenyang J-15, several days after ex-Varyag went on its first-sea-trial in August 2011, ex-Kiev welcomed guests in its new role as a luxury hotel with a £9.6 million refit. The owners believe that Chinas naval ambitions as well as a curiosity about aircraft carriers will result in public interest. The 67,500 ton ex-Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag, which was only 70% completed, following her troublesome tow to Dalian shipyard, the carrier underwent a long refit.
Varyag had been stripped of any military equipment as well as her propulsion systems prior to being put up for sale, in 2007 there were news reports that she was being fitted out to enter service. On 10 August 2011, it was announced that the refurbishment of Varyag was complete, in September 2012, it was announced that this carrier would be named Liaoning, after Liaoning Province of China. On 23 September 2012, Liaoning was handed over to the Peoples Liberation Army Navy, in November 2012, the first landing was successfully conducted on Liaoning with Shenyang J-15
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. Typically, it is the ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Aircraft carriers are expensive to build and are critical assets, there is no single definition of an aircraft carrier, and modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, former head of the Royal Navy, has said, To put it simply, as of April 2017, there are 37 active aircraft carriers in the world within twelve navies. The United States Navy has 10 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers, the largest carriers in the world, the Royal Navy of Great Britain is building two 280-m / 920-ft carriers, the Queen Elizabeth, and the Prince of Wales scheduled to go into service in 2020-2023.
These are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds, by comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships. They were smaller and slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried, most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top. Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet, three nations currently operate carriers of this type, ten by the United States, and one each by France and Brazil for a total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery, these carriers are generally limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads, Russia and India possess commissioned carriers of this type. Short take-off vertical-landing, limited to carrying STOVL aircraft and this type of aircraft carrier is currently in service with Italy. Some count the nine US amphibious assault ships in their secondary light carrier role boosting the total to thirteen.
Helicopter carrier, Helicopter carriers have an appearance to other aircraft carriers. Some are designed for addition of, or may include, a ski jump ramp allowing for STOVL operations or may have a ski jump installed before retirement of STOVL aircraft. In the past, some conventional carriers were converted and called commando carriers by the Royal Navy, some helicopter carriers with a resistant flight surface can operate STOVL jets. Currently the majority of carriers, but not all, are classified as amphibious assault ships. The US has nine of this type and Japan three, Australia two, the UK one, the Republic of Korea one and Spain one, the US and Spains amphibious assault ships operate STOVL jets in normal deployment. Supercarrier Fleet carrier Light aircraft carrier Escort carrier Several systems of identification symbol for aircraft carriers, two months later, on 18 January 1911, Ely landed his Curtiss pusher airplane on a platform on the armored cruiser USS Pennsylvania anchored in San Francisco Bay
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949. The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party, three NATO members are permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and are officially nuclear-weapon states. NATOs headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons. NATO is an Alliance that consists of 28 independent member countries across North America and Europe, an additional 22 countries participate in NATOs Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programmes. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total, Members defence spending is supposed to amount to 2% of GDP.
The course of the Cold War led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. N. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, France, the treaty and the Soviet Berlin Blockade led to the creation of the Western European Unions Defence Organization in September 1948. However, participation of the United States was thought necessary both to counter the power of the USSR and to prevent the revival of nationalist militarism. He got a hearing, especially considering American anxiety over Italy. In 1948 European leaders met with U. S. defense and diplomatic officials at the Pentagon, marshalls orders, exploring a framework for a new and unprecedented association. Talks for a new military alliance resulted in the North Atlantic Treaty and it included the five Treaty of Brussels states plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland. The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, stated in 1949 that the goal was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in.
Popular support for the Treaty was not unanimous, and some Icelanders participated in a pro-neutrality, the creation of NATO can be seen as the primary institutional consequence of a school of thought called Atlanticism which stressed the importance of trans-Atlantic cooperation. The members agreed that an attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. The treaty does not require members to respond with military action against an aggressor, although obliged to respond, they maintain the freedom to choose the method by which they do so. This differs from Article IV of the Treaty of Brussels, which states that the response will be military in nature. It is nonetheless assumed that NATO members will aid the attacked member militarily, the treaty was clarified to include both the members territory and their vessels, forces or aircraft above the Tropic of Cancer, including some Overseas departments of France. The creation of NATO brought about some standardization of allied military terminology and technology, the roughly 1300 Standardization Agreements codified many of the common practices that NATO has achieved
Type 052C destroyer
The Type 052C destroyer is a class of destroyer built by China. It features a four array AESA multi-function phased array radar for 360-degree coverage, the radar is used in conjunction with vertically launched HHQ-9 long-range air defence missiles. The Type 052C was the first warship in the Peoples Liberation Army Navy Surface Force to have true long-range fleet air defence capability, the design for the Type 052C was approved in September 2001. Two ships and Haikou were constructed by Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai starting in 2002, production resumed at Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard in Shanghai toward the end of the decade, with 4 more launched by 2012. There were six more ships planned after Lanzhou and Haikou, the hull of at least one planned ships was modified into newer Type 052D. The Type 052C used the hull and propulsion as the preceding Type 052B destroyer. While the Type 052B used a mixture of Russian and Chinese systems, the Type 052C was designed for the fleet air defence role, and mounted the Type 348 Active Electronically Scanned Array radar, and vertically launched HQ-9 air defence missiles.
It carried YJ-62 anti-ship missiles, all three were new aboard Chinese warships. Aviation facilities included a hangar and flight deck for one Ka-28-A or Z-9 helicopter. The command and control used by the Type 052C is unknown. Previous Chinese ships used derivatives of the French Thomson-CSF TAVITAC, the Type 052C may use an improved system to better engage anti-ship missiles, and to process data from its helicopter, the Ka-28 ASW helicopters must pass data back to its host ship for processing. While the Chinese claim to have produced combat data systems based on the MIL-STD-1773 standard, the Chinese claim these are versatile enough to be upgraded to MIL-STD-1773 later. The Type 052C carries 48 HQ-9 naval air defence missiles in eight 6-cell cold launched vertical launch systems, the Chinese VLS has a lid for each launch cell, but uses the same cold launch mechanism for each cell. This eliminates the system used in Russian VLS, and one single point of failure. The Chinese claim this results in lower size, the HQ-9 is a Chinese medium- to long-range, active radar homing air defence missile with a maximum range of 200 km.
The missile incorporates some technology from the Russian S-300, the naval HQ-9 appears to be identical to the land-based variant. The destroyer carries anti-ship missiles in two 4-cell launchers just forward of the hangar and it is not confirmed whether the missiles are YJ-85 or YJ-62. Unlike the launchers for previous Chinese anti-ship missiles, the Type 052C launchers are cylindrical rather than box-shaped, missiles are guided by a Russian MR331 Mineral-ME fire-control radar atop the bridge and a Light Bulb datalink forward of the hangar
East Sea Fleet
The East Sea Fleet was the first naval force formed by the Peoples Republic of China, on 23 April 1949 and was initially based at Shanghai. The fleet was used in a role during the Peoples Liberation Armys invasion of the previously Kuomintang-held island of Yijiangshan on 14 January 1955. It has engaged in other battles against the Taiwanese military. It has operated in support of the South Sea Fleet against the Peoples Army of Vietnam, the fleet would have a key role in any invasion of Taiwan, and one of its principal missions is to effectively support a PLA amphibious operation against that island. The fleet has been augmented by two Sovremenny-class missile destroyers, with a further 2 delivered by the end of 2006, four Kilo class attack submarines have joined the fleet. org
Diesel engines work by compressing only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a degree that it ignites atomised diesel fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such as an engine or gas engine. In diesel engines, glow plugs may be used to aid starting in cold weather, or when the engine uses a lower compression-ratio, the original diesel engine operates on the constant pressure cycle of gradual combustion and produces no audible knock. Low-speed diesel engines can have an efficiency that exceeds 50%. Diesel engines may be designed as either two-stroke or four-stroke cycles and they were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s they have used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, heavy equipment and electricity generation plants followed later, in the 1930s, they slowly began to be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of engines in larger on-road and off-road vehicles in the US increased.
According to the British Society of Motor Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total sold, including 70% in France and 38% in the UK. The worlds largest diesel engine is currently a Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel, the definition of a Diesel engine to many has become an engine that uses compression ignition. To some it may be an engine that uses heavy fuel oil, to others an engine that does not use spark ignition. However the original cycle proposed by Rudolf Diesel in 1892 was a constant temperature cycle which would require higher compression than what is needed for compression ignition. Diesels idea was to compress the air so tightly that the temperature of the air would exceed that of combustion, to make this more clear, let it be assumed that the subsequent combustion shall take place at a temperature of 700°. Then in that case the pressure must be sixty-four atmospheres, or for 800° centigrade the pressure must be ninety atmospheres.
In years Diesel realized his original cycle would not work, Diesel describes the cycle in his 1895 patent application. Notice that there is no longer a mention of compression temperatures exceeding the temperature of combustion, now all that is mentioned is the compression must be high enough for ignition. In 1806 Claude and Nicéphore Niépce developed the first known internal combustion engine, the Pyréolophore fuel system used a blast of air provided by a bellows to atomize Lycopodium
The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric submarine that is made in Russia. The original version of the vessels were designated Project 877 Paltus in Soviet Union, there is a more advanced version, designated as Improved Kilo-class submarine in the West, and Project 636 Varshavyanka in Russia. These attack submarines are intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Original Project 877 boats are equipped with Rubikon MGK-400 sonar system, newer Project 636 boats are equipped with improved MGK-400EM, with MG-519 Arfa upgraded to MG-519EM. The improved sonar systems have reduced the number of operators needed by sharing the same console via automation, anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sound waves of active sonar, which results in a reduction and distortion of the return signal. These tiles help attenuate sounds that are emitted from the submarine, the Kilo class was to have been succeeded by the Lada class.
In November 2011, the Russian Navy announced that the Lada class will not enter service because trials with the boat of the new class. Construction of two boats was suspended. On 27 July 2012, the Russian Navy commander-in-chief announced that construction of the Lada-class submarines will resume, one Kilo-class submarine, B-871, was equipped with pump-jet propulsion. The version Kilo 636MV contains a GE2-01 radar and an improved MGK 400E sonar, in this version, the submarine is able to operate in more weather conditions than the original Kilo-class submarines. The first submarine entered service in the Soviet Navy in 1980, as of September 2011,17 vessels were believed to still be in active service with the Russian Navy, while 7 vessels were thought to be in reserve. 40 vessels have been exported to countries, Algeria,2 Original Kilo,4 Improved Kilo. Peoples Republic of China,2 Original Kilo,10 Improved Kilo, india,10 Original Kilo,1 sustained major casualty, – Designated as the Sindhughosh class Poland,1 Original Kilo – ORP Orzeł.
Romania,1 Original Kilo – Delfinul, Russia,22 Original Kilo,6 Improved Kilo +6 Improved Kilo on order for Pacific fleet to be delivered 2019-2021. The government of Venezuela expressed interest in buying 3 Project 636 Kilo-class submarines The government of Indonesia in 2007-2008 planned to acquire at least 2 Kilo-class submarines. In October 2013, the ministry of defence of Indonesia reported the possibility of a grant from the Russian government involving up to ten ex-Russian navy Kilo-class submarines. Army General Moeldoko, Indonesian Armed Forces chief of staff, announced that a team will be sent to Russia last month to inspect the condition of future submarines, the Philippine Navy has shown its interest on the Kilo-class submarine as part of its modernization program. Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said that the country is now evaluating the Russian offer, there are several variants of the Kilo class
Landing Ship, Tank
This provided amphibious assaults to almost any beach. The bow of the LST had a door that would open with a ramp for unloading the vehicles. The LST had a flat keel that allowed the ship to be beached. The twin propellers and rudders had protection from grounding, the LSTs served across the globe during World War II including, Pacific War and European theatre. The first tank landing ships were built to British requirements by converting existing ships, the British, over 1,000 LSTs were laid down in the United States during World War II for use by the Allies. Eighty more were built in the United Kingdom and Canada, as an interim measure, three 4, 000- to 4, 800-GRT tankers, built to pass over the restrictive bars of Lake Maracaibo, were selected for conversion because of their shallow draft. Bow doors and ramps were added to ships, which became the first tank landing ships, LST, HMS Misoa, Tasajera. They proved their worth during the invasion of Algeria in 1942, the first purpose-built LST design was HMS Boxer.
It was a design from ideas penned by Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In order that it could carry 13 Churchill infantry tanks,27 other vehicles and nearly 200 men at a speed of 18 knots, as a result, each of the three ordered in March 1941 had a very long ramp stowed behind the bow doors. The three ships were converted to Fighter Direction Ships for the invasion of Normandy, the U. S. were to build seven LST but in light of the problems with the design and progress with the LCT Mark II the plans were canceled. Construction of the LCTs took until 1943 and the first US LCT was launched before them, at their first meeting at the Atlantic conference in Argentia, Newfoundland, in August 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill confirmed the Admiraltys views. During this meeting, it was decided that the Bureau of Ships would design these vessels, as with the standing agreement, these ships would be built by the US so British shipyards could concentrate on building vessels for the Royal Navy.
The specifications called for vessels capable of crossing the Atlantic, calling a vessel 300 ft long a craft was considered a misnomer and the type was re-christened Landing Ship, Tank, or LST. The LST design incorporated elements of the first British LCTs from their designer, Sir Rowland Baker, one of the elements provided for sufficient buoyancy in the ships sidewalls so that they would float the ship even when the tank deck was flooded. The LST gave up the speed of HMS Boxer, at only 10 knots, within a few days, John C. Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships sketched out an awkward looking ship that proved to be the design for the more than 1,000 LST that were built during World War II. An anchor and mechanical winch system aided in the ability to pull itself off the beach