Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes known as juvenile diabetes, is a form of diabetes in which little or no insulin is produced by the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone required for the body to use blood sugar. Before treatment this results in high blood sugar levels in the body; the classic symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, weight loss. Additional symptoms may include blurry vision and poor wound healing. Symptoms develop over a short period of time; the cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. However, it is believed to involve a combination of environmental factors. Risk factors include having a family member with the condition; the underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diabetes is diagnosed by testing the level of glycated hemoglobin in the blood. Type 1 diabetes can be distinguished from type 2 by testing for the presence of autoantibodies. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes. Treatment with insulin is required for survival.

Insulin therapy is given by injection just under the skin but can be delivered by an insulin pump. A diabetic diet and exercise are important parts of management. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Complications of rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. Long-term complications include heart disease, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes. Furthermore, complications may arise from low blood sugar caused by excessive dosing of insulin. Type 1 diabetes makes up an estimated 5–10% of all diabetes cases; the number of people affected globally is unknown, although it is estimated that about 80,000 children develop the disease each year. Within the United States the number of people affected is estimated at one to three million. Rates of disease vary with 1 new case per 100,000 per year in East Asia and Latin America and around 30 new cases per 100,000 per year in Scandinavia and Kuwait, it begins in children and young adults. The classical symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: polyuria, dry mouth, polyphagia and weight loss.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed when diabetic ketoacidosis occurs. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include dry skin, rapid deep breathing, increased thirst, frequent urination, abdominal pain, vomiting. About 12 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have clinical depression. About 6 percent of people with type 1 diabetes have celiac disease, but in most cases there are no digestive symptoms or are mistakenly attributed to poor control of diabetes, gastroparesis or diabetic neuropathy. In most cases, celiac disease is diagnosed after onset of type 1 diabetes; the association of celiac disease with type 1 diabetes increases the risk of complications, such as retinopathy and mortality. This association can be explained by shared genetic factors, inflammation or nutritional deficiencies caused by untreated celiac disease if type 1 diabetes is diagnosed first; some people with type 1 diabetes experience dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels occurring for no apparent reason.

The results of such swings can be irregular and unpredictable hyperglycemias, sometimes involving ketoacidosis, sometimes serious hypoglycemias. Brittle diabetes occurs no more than in 1% to 2% of diabetics. Type 1 diabetes is associated with alopecia areata. Type 1 diabetes is more common in the family members of people with AA; the cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. A number of explanatory theories have been put forward, the cause may be one or more of the following: genetic susceptibility, a diabetogenic trigger, exposure to an antigen. Type 1 diabetes is a disease; the risk of a child developing type 1 diabetes is about 5% if the father has it, about 8% if a sibling has it, about 3% if the mother has it. If one identical twin is affected there is about a 40% chance the other will be too; some studies of heritability have estimated it at 80 to 86%. More than 50 genes are associated with type 1 diabetes. Depending on locus or combination of loci, they can be recessive, or somewhere in between.

The strongest gene, IDDM1, is located in the MHC Class II region on chromosome 6, at staining region 6p21. Certain variants of this gene increase the risk for decreased histocompatibility characteristic of type 1; such variants include DRB1 0401, DRB1 0402, DRB1 0405, DQA 0301, DQB1 0302 and DQB1 0201, which are common in North Americans of European ancestry and in Europeans. Some variants appear to be protective. There is on the order of a 10-fold difference in occurrence among Caucasians living in different areas of Europe. Environmental triggers and protective factors under research include dietary agents such as proteins in gluten, time of weaning, gut microbiota, viral infections, bacterial infections like paratuberculosis; some chemicals and drugs selectively destroy pancreatic cells. Pyrinuron, a rodenticide introduced in the United States in 1976, selectively destroys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in type 1 diabetes after accidental poisoning. Pyrinuron was withdrawn from the U. S. market in 1979 and it is not approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for use in the U.

S. Streptozotocin, an antineoplastic agent, is selectively toxic to the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, it is used in research for inducing type 1 diabetes on rodents and for treating metastatic cancer of the pancreatic islet cells in patients whose cancer cannot be removed by surgery. Other pancreatic

List of sundial mottos

Many sundials bear a motto to reflect the sentiments of its maker or owner. Be as true to each other as this dial is to the sun. Begone about Thy business. Come along and grow old with me. Hours fly, Flowers die. New days, New ways, Pass by. Love stays. Hours fly, Flowers die. Old days, Old ways pass. Love stays. I only tell of sunny hours. I count only sunny hours. Let others tell of storms and showers, I tell of sunny morning hours. Let others tell of storms and showers, I'll only count your sunny hours. Has date of 1767 Life is but a shadow: the shadow of a bird on the wing. Self-dependent power can time defy, as rocks resist the sky. Time, like an ever-rolling stream, bears all its sons away. Today is Yesterday's Tomorrow When I am gone, mark not the passing of the hours, but just that love lives on; the Concern of the Rich and the Poor Hora fugit, ne tardes. Ruit hora. Tempus breve est. Tempus fugit. Tempus volat, hora fugit. Altera pars pars ista labori. Festina lente. – carpe diem. Utere, non numera. Utere non reditura.

Ex iis unam cave. Lente hora, celeriter anni. Meam vide umbram, tuam videbis vitam. Memor esto brevis ævi. Mox nox. pereunt et imputantur. Omnes vulnerant, ultima necat. Umbra sumus. Serius est quam cogitas. Sic labitur ætas. Sic vita fluit, dum stare videtur. Ultima latet ut observentur omnes. Umbra sicut hominis vita. Una ex his erit tibi ultima. Ver non semper viret. Vita fugit, sicut umbra Vita similis umbræ. Tempus edax rerum. Tempus vincit omnia. Vidi nihil permanere sub sole. Dum tempus habemus operemur bonum. Omnes æquales sola virtute discrepantes. Amicis qualibet hora. Dona præsentis cape lætus horæ. Fruere hora. Post tenebras spero lucem. Semper amicis hora. Sit fausta quæ labitur. Sol omnibus lucet. Tempus omnia dabit. Una dabit quod negat altera. Vita in motu. Vivere memento. Horas non numero nisi æstivas Horas non numero nisi serenas Nunc est bibendum Si sol deficit, respicit me nemo. Sine sole sileo. Mach' es wie die Sonnenuhr. Notes Footnotes Earle, AM. Sundials and Roses of Yesterday. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle.

ISBN 0-8048-0968-2. LCCN 74142763. Reprint of 1902 book published by Macmillan. Rohr, RRJ. Sundials: History and Practice. Translated by G. Godin. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-29139-1. Amended reprint of the 1970 translation published by University of Toronto Press, Toronto; the original was published in 1965. Cadran Solaires. Nyons: Artissime. 1988. Selections from the 1895 paper by Raphaël Blanchard in the Bulletin de la Société d'Etudes des Hautes-Alpes. Boursier, C. 800 Devises de cadrans solaires. Paris. Cross, L. the Book of Old Sundials. Illustrated by W Hogg. London: Foulis Press. Gatty, Mrs Alfred; the Book of Sun-Dials. London: George Bell & Sons. Hyatt, AH. A Book of Sundial Mottoes. New York: Scott-Thaw. Landon, P. Helio-tropes, or new Posies for Sundials. London: Methuen. Leadbetter, C. Mechanick Dialling. London: Caslon

Marcus Brandon

Marcus Brandon is a politician from Greensboro, North Carolina who served in the North Carolina House of Representatives. A Democrat, he represented the 60th district from January 2011 through the end of 2014. In 2015, Brandon became the executive director of NorthCarolinaCan a nonprofit education policy and advocacy organization. A lifelong resident of Guilford County, North Carolina, Brandon graduated from Southern Guilford High School, class of 1993, he went on to attend North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University where he majored in political science. Brandon is a political consultant by profession, he worked for NGP Software, a supplier of campaign software, served as national finance director for Dennis Kucinich's 2008 presidential campaign. North Carolina's 60th state house district includes parts of Greensboro, High Point and Pleasant Garden. Brandon challenged four-term incumbent Rep. Earl Jones in the Democratic primary held on May 4, 2010 and defeated him by 60% to 40%.

The district is majority African American and Democratic. He took office in January 2011. In 2012, he again faced Earl Jones. In the Democratic primary held on May 8, 2012, Brandon defeated Jones by 66% to 34%, he was unchallenged in the 2012 general election on November 6, 2012. Brandon was named one of "12 State Legislators to Watch in 2014" by Brandon ran for the House seat vacated by former Congressman Mel Watt but lost the Democratic primary to Alma Adams. Brandon is gay, he was the only LGBT member of the North Carolina General Assembly during his term. Legislative homepage NorthCarolinaCan