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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes, characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may include increased hunger, feeling tired, sores that do not heal. Symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations; the sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur. Type 2 diabetes occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise; some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due to type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In type 1 diabetes there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin. Type 2 diabetes is preventable by staying a normal weight and eating properly. Treatment involves dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is recommended. Many people may also require insulin injections. In those on insulin checking blood sugar levels is advised. Bariatric surgery improves diabetes in those who are obese. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity; as of 2015 there were 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. It begins in middle or older age, although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. Diabetes was one of the first diseases described; the importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s. The classic symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, weight loss.

Other symptoms that are present at diagnosis include a history of blurred vision, peripheral neuropathy, recurrent vaginal infections, fatigue. Other symptoms that may include loss of taste. Many people, have no symptoms during the first few years and are diagnosed on routine testing. A small number of people with type 2 diabetes can develop a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy; this is due to a number of complications with which it is associated, including: two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke. In the developed world, elsewhere, type 2 diabetes is the largest cause of nontraumatic blindness and kidney failure, it has been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Other complications include acanthosis nigricans, sexual dysfunction, frequent infections.

There is an association between type 2 diabetes and mild hearing loss. The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female gender, genetics. Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa. A lack of sleep has been linked to type 2 diabetes; this is believed to act through its effect on metabolism. The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA methylation; the intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight, lack of physical activity, poor diet and urbanization. Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60–80% of cases in those of European and African descent, 100% of cases in Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.

Among those who are not obese, a high waist–hip ratio is present. Smoking appears to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Dietary factors influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk; the type of fats in the diet are important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk. Eating a lot of white rice appears to play a role in increasing risk. A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases. Persistent organic pollutants may play a role. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic; the proportion of diabetes, inherited is estimated at 72%. More than 36 genes and 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.

The TCF7L2 allele, for example

Celia Kritharioti

Celia Kritharioti is a Greek fashion designer. She is the owner of the oldest Greek fashion house, established in 1906. Kritharioti is married to Greek shipowner Nikolas Tsakos and has three children, two of which are models in her company. Kritharioti is pinpointed in UK Vanity Fair as one of six couturiers to watch worldwide: "Beautifully feminine and embellished concoctions from this couturier to the stars", noted Annabel Davison, Senior Editor at Vanity Fair on Jewellery and Couture. Supporters include Jennifer Lopez, Lady Gaga, Paula Patton, Kim Kardashian, Kelly Rutherford, Miranda Lambert, Samantha Barks, Maria Menounos, Giuliana Rancic, Gemma Arterton. Gwyneth Paltrow was photographed for Vogue Mexico in Celia Kritharioti Haute Couture. Natalia Vodianova, Naomi Campbell, Gisele Bündchen, Laetitia Casta, Claudia Schiffer, Elle Macpherson and Karolina Kurková are top models who have worked with her, she was appointed to design the “Olympic Air personnel costumes”. Kritharioti designed the costumes of "Romeo & Juliet" and "Swan Lake" ballets for the Greeκ National Opera presented at the Megaron venue in Athens.

Kritharioti presents an Haute Couture Collection, a Bridal Collection, the 5226 Prêt-à-Porter collection and the 5226 Princess Collection for children. She designs sunglasses and accessories. Website. "CELIA: celiakritharioti.gr". Celiakritharioti.gr. Archived from the original on 2017-02-12. Retrieved 2015-10-24. "The red carpet is a runway for unknown designers". Latimes. 5226. "5226 - Celia Kritharioti Eshop". Celiakrithariotieshop.gr. "Celia Kritharioti". WeRpress. "Kim Kardashian in Celia Kritharioti at Elton John party". Harper's BAZAAR

St Mary with St John, Upper Edmonton

St. John the Evangelist, Upper Edmonton is a church in Edmonton and is within the Diocese of London and are under the Bishop of Edmonton, the Rt Revd Peter Wheatley. St John is within the Anglo-Catholic tradition of the Church of England and has the Mass at the centre of parish life; the foundation stone for the church was laid on July 22, 1905 by Samuel Forde Ridley, MP. The church was designed by architect, Charles Henry Bourne Quennell, built by Albert Monk and Paul Woodroffe installed the stained glass windows. A plaque adorning the church is inscribed with these details. In 2004 the church building was closed but despite the closure of the church building, the congregation persisted to remain on the site and with the help of priest missioner - Fr Nigel Asbridge, moved back into the church in September 2010; the work to repair St John's Church is now completed and Peter Wheatley, Bishop of Edmonton came to rededicate the Church in July 2012. The east end of the nave and chancel, Lady Chapel and Sunday School room has been restored to their former glory, whilst the west end has been converted to provide new facilities for the Hanlon Centre.

In July 2012 as well as the rededication of the church and the opening of St Matthew's School Annex, HRH Prince Andrew came to formally open the new Hanlon Centre and St Matthew's School. St Matthew's CofE Primary School has now opened an annexe in the small hall, further work will take place over the summer to convert the large church hall into a school hall, dining room and kitchens and provide further classrooms in the vicarage garden. There follows a table of all the Vicars, Rectors, Honorary Curates and Curates in charge. Fr. Derek Gough was the longest serving priest at St Mary with St John's Church staying 32 years in his role as parish priest; the Priest in Charge is Fr Nigel Asbridge, supported by Fr Martin Waswa Church Facebook page