Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes

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Type 3c (Pancreatogenic) Diabetes
This is an illustration of the pancreas and its main locations for exocrine and endocrine functions.
A model of the pancreas and its main locations for exocrine and endocrine functions.

Type 3c diabetes (also known as Pancreatogenic diabetes) is a form of diabetes that is being researched. It involves the exocrine and digestive functions of the pancreas. Out of all the diabetics, 5–10% may actually be type 3c diabetics. In 80% of people who suffer from this condition, chronic pancreatitis seems to be the cause.[1]

Presentation[edit]

Complications[edit]

The same complications that occur for other types of diabetics (type 1 and type 2) may occur for type 3c diabetics. These include retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Patients with this condition are advised to follow the same risk-reduction guidelines as the other diabetics do and keep blood sugars as normal as possible to minimize any complications.

Cause[edit]

There are multiple causes. Some of which identified are:

More possible causes are being researched.

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnostic Criteria for T3cDM
Major criteria (all must be fulfilled):
  • Presence of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (according to monoclonal fecal elastase-1 or direct function tests.
  • Pathological pancreatic imaging: (by endoscopic ultrasound, MRI, or CT)
  • Absence of T1DM-associated autoimmune markers (autoantibodies).
Minor Criteria:
  • Impaired β-cell function
  • No excessive insulin resistance (e.g. as measured by HOMA-IR).
  • Impaired incretin (e.g. GIP) or pancreatic polypeptide secretion.
  • Low serum levels of lipid (fat) soluble vitamins (A, D, E, or K).

Management[edit]

The condition can be managed by many factors.

Lifestyle Modifications[edit]

Avoiding toxins to the body such as alcohol and smoking reduce pancreatic inflammation. Also, eating a diet rich in fiber and consuming normal amounts of fat may help. Oral pancreatic enzymes may be given. Maintaining sufficient levels of vitamin D can also reduce symptoms and help manage the disease better.

Medications[edit]

Medications such as insulin may be given in order to lower blood sugars. For not so high blood sugars, oral treatments in the form of a pill or capsule may be given.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ewald, Nils; Hardt, Philip D (2013-11-14). "Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus in chronic pancreatitis". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 19 (42): 7276–7281. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i42.7276. ISSN 1007-9327. PMC 3831209Freely accessible. PMID 24259958. 
  2. ^ "Diabetes in Chronic Pancreatitis". Medscape. Anand R. Gupte and Chris E. Forsmark. Retrieved 2016-07-09. 
  3. ^ "Study shows molecular mechanism behind type 3c pancreatic diabetes". News Medical. August 29, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2016.