Capitalization, or capitalisation is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction. The term may refer to the choice of the casing applied to text. Conventional writing systems for different languages have different conventions for capitalization, for example the capitalization of titles. Conventions vary, to a lesser extent, between different style guides; the full rules of capitalization for English are complicated. The rules have changed over time to capitalize fewer words; the conventions used in an 18th century document will be unfamiliar to a modern reader. The systematic use of capitalized and uncapitalized words in running text is called "mixed case". Owing to the arbitrary nature of orthographic classification and the existence of variant authorities and local house styles, questionable capitalization of words is not uncommon in respected newspapers and magazines. Most publishers require consistency, at least within the same document, in applying a specified standard: this is described as "house style".
In English, the subjective form of the singular first-person pronoun, "I", is capitalized, along with all its contractions such as I'll and I'm. Object and possessive forms "me", "my", "mine" are not. Many European languages traditionally capitalize nouns and pronouns used to refer to God, including references to Jesus Christ: hallowed be Thy name, look what He has done; some English authors capitalize any word referring to God: the Almighty. These practices have become much less common in English in the 21st centuries. In the Bahai Scriptures and plural object and possessive forms get capitalization if referring to a Rasul, the Twelve Imams, or'Abdu'l-Baha; some languages capitalize a royal we, e.g. it is capitalized in German. Many languages distinguish between informal 2nd person pronouns. In German, the formal 2nd person plural pronoun Sie is capitalized along with all its case-forms, but these words are not capitalized when used as 3rd person feminine singular or plural pronouns; until the recent German spelling reform, the traditional rules capitalized the informal 2nd person singular pronoun Du when used in letters or similar texts, but this is no longer required.
Italian capitalizes its formal pronouns and Loro, their cases. This is also done for the Dutch U, though this is formally only required when referring to a deity and may be considered archaic. In Spanish, the abbreviations of the pronouns usted and ustedes, Ud. Uds. Vd. and Vds. are written with a capital. In Finnish, the second-person plural pronoun can be used when formally addressing a single person, in writing the pronoun is sometimes capitalized as Te to indicate special regard. In a more familiar tone, one can capitalize the second-person singular pronoun Sinä. In Russian the formal second-person pronoun Вы, its oblique cases Вас, Вам etc. are capitalized. Slovenian, Serbian capitalize the formal second-person pronoun Vi along with its oblique cases and personal pronoun in formal correspondence; the familiar second-person pronoun ti and its cases were capitalized as well, but new orthography prohibits such use. In Danish, the plural second-person pronoun, I, is capitalized, but its other forms jer and jeres are not.
This distinguishes it from the preposition i. The formal second-person pronoun is capitalized in all its forms, distinguishing it from the otherwise identical third-person plural pronouns. In Norwegian, both second person singular and plural have a capitalized alternative form to express formality for both subject and object of a sentence, but is rarely used in modern speech and writing. In formally written Polish, Czech and Latvian, most notably in letters and e-mails, all pronouns referring to the addressee are capitalized; this includes Ty and all its related forms such as Ciebie. This principle extends to nouns used formally to address the addressee of a letter, such as Pan and Pani. In Indonesian, capitalizing the formal second-person pronoun Anda along with all references to the addressee, such as " Bapak/Ibu", is required in practice of Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan. However, some people do not choose not to adhere to this spelling rule. In contrast, Malay orthography used in Malaysia and Brunei does not require the capitalization of anda.
In Tagalog and its standard form, the formal second-person pronouns Kayo and Ninyo and their oblique form Inyo are customarily and reverentially capitalized as such in most digital and printed media related to religion and its references. Purists who consider this rule as nonstandard and inconsistent do not apply it. In Tajik, capitalization is used to distinguish the second person formal pronoun Шумо from the second person plural pronoun шумо. In Swedish, since du-reformen, the second person singular pronoun du may be capitalized as Du when addressed formally; the various languages and dialects in the High German family, including Standard German and Luxembourgish, are the only m
In graphic design, a pull quote is a key phrase, quotation, or excerpt, pulled from an article and used as a page layout graphic element, serving to entice readers into the article or to highlight a key topic. It is placed in a larger or distinctive typeface and on the same page. Pull quotes are used in magazine and newspaper articles, annual reports, brochures, as well as on the web, they can add visual interest to text-heavy pages with few illustrations. Placement of a pull quote on a page may be defined in website's style guide; such a typographic device may not be aligned with a column on the page. Some designers, for example, choose not to align the quote. In that case, the quotation cuts into two or more columns, as in the example shown; because the pull quote invites the reader to read about the highlighted material, the pull quote should appear before the text it cites and fairly close to it. Pull quotes need not be a verbatim copy of the text being quoted. A disadvantage of pull quotes as a design element is that they can disrupt the reading process of readers invested in reading the text sequentially by drawing attention to ghost fragments out of context.
At the other extreme, when pull quotes are used to break up what would otherwise be a formless wall of text, pull quote can serve as visual landmarks to help the reader maintain a sense of sequence and place. Block quote Call-out Jacci Howard Bear. "How To Use Pull-quotes". Desktoppub.about.com. About.com
In typography, letter-spacing referred to as tracking by typographers working with pre-WYSIWYG digital systems, refers to an optically consistent degree of increase of space between letters to affect visual density in a line or block of text. Letter-spacing should not be confused with kerning. Letter-spacing refers to a uniform adjustment to the spacing of a word or block of text affecting its density and texture. Kerning is a spacing adjustment of one or more specific pairs of adjacent characters that, because of the relationship of their respective shapes, would appear to be badly spaced if left un-adjusted. An example might be a capital V next to a capital A. In its original meaning with metal type, a kern meant having a letter stick out beyond the metal slug it was attached to, or cutting off part of the body of the slug to allow letters to overlap. So a kern in that sense could only bring letters closer together, though it was possible to add space between letters. Digital kerning can go in either direction.
Tracking can go in either direction, though with metal type one could only adjust groups of letters further apart. Letter-spacing adjustments are used in news design; the speed with which pages must be built on deadline does not leave time to rewrite paragraphs that end in split words or that create orphans or widows. Letter-spacing is decreased by modest amounts to fix these unattractive situations. Word processing and desktop publishing programs for personal computers such as—Microsoft Word, Microsoft Publisher, WordPerfect, QuarkXPress, Adobe InDesign, Adobe FrameMaker, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop—use differing methods of adjusting letter-spacing. What is common to most systems is that the default letter-spacing is zero, using the character widths and kerning information built into the font itself. Although digital type sets tighter on average than metal type, this results from the more ready availability of kerning, rather than any design choice inherent in the technology. However, digital type does allow for negative sidebearings, which were uncommon in metal type due to the difficulty in cutting a "kern" in the original sense.
In the days of machine-implemented lead typesetting, such as Linotype machines and the Monotype System, letter-spacing had to be uniform. In modern digital page-layout software, high-end applications all use relative measurements proportional to the size of the type. QuarkXPress uses units of 1/200 of an em, the competing Adobe InDesign uses 1/1000 of an em. Thus, in QuarkXPress a tracking setting of 3 opens text noticeably, while in InDesign a tracking setting of 3 is noticeable; the amount of letter-spacing in text affects legibility. Tight letter-spacing in small text sizes, can diminish legibility; the addition of minimal letter-spacing can increase the legibility and readability. Adding whitespace around the characters allows the individual characters to emerge and be recognized more quickly. Adding too much space, may isolate individual letters and make it harder for the reader to perceive whole words and phrases, which reduces readability. Wide letter-spacing, beyond relaxed book composition, can look affected and earned the opprobrium of Frederic Goudy: "Men who would letterspace blackletter would shag sheep."
When quoted, "shag" is bowdlerised as "steal". Goudy's pronouncement inspired the title of Stop Stealing Sheep, an introduction to typography that Spiekermann co-authored. In the days of hot metal typesetting, letter-spacing required adding horizontal space between letters of words set in metal type, in increments of a minimum of ½ point; some publishers and typesetters avoided letter-spacing. Letter-spacing required by-hand insertion of copper and printer's "lead" spaces between individual pieces of type or between matrices. Despite the cost, letter-spacing was used in book publishing, it was used for short phrases set in capital letters or small caps, to avoid the phrases appearing too black compared to the rest of the page. Letter-spacing may refer to the insertion of fixed spaces, as was done in hand-set metal type to achieve letter-spacing; this is a more mechanical method which relies less upon spacing and kerning tables resident in each typeface and accessed and used when letterspacing is applied universally.
Fixed spaces include a hair space, thin space, wordspace, en-space, em-space. An en-space is equal to half the current point size, an em-space is the same width as the current point size. A visually pleasing result with no "kerning control", can be achieved with some control of the space between letters. Example on webpages: with CSS1, a standard of 1996, the letter-spacing property offer some control for lost or enhance "kerning perception"—kerning can be simulated with non-uniform spacing between letters. Only with the standard CSS3, font-kerning property arrives with a complete control of kerning. In the meantime the web-designers used the workaround of letter-spacing to enhance spaced-texts of titles and banners. Emphasis in typography Kashida – analog in Arabic-Persian scripts Kerning Microtypography Sentence spacing Typographic ligature Word spacing Bringhurst, Robert; the Elements of Typographic Style. Hartley & Marks: 1992. ISBN 0-88179-033-8. Kane, John. A type primer. Prentice Hall: 2002.
ISBN 0-13-099071-X. Lupton, Ellen. Thinking with Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Editors, & Students. Princeton Architectural Press: 2007. ISBN 978-1-56898-448-3). Spiekermann, Erik. Stop Stealing
Sentence spacing is the space between sentences in typeset text. It is a matter of typographical convention. Since the introduction of movable-type printing in Europe, various sentence spacing conventions have been used in languages with a Latin alphabet; these include a normal word space, a single enlarged space, two full spaces. Until the 20th century, publishing houses and printers in many countries used additional space between sentences. There were exceptions to this traditional spacing method—some printers used spacing between sentences, no wider than word spacing; this was French spacing—a term synonymous with single-space sentence spacing until the late 20th century. With the introduction of the typewriter in the late 19th century, typists used two spaces between sentences to mimic the style used by traditional typesetters. While wide sentence spacing was phased out in the printing industry in the mid-20th century, the practice continued on typewriters and on computers; because of this, many modern sources now incorrectly claim that wide spacing was created for the typewriter.
The desired or correct sentence spacing is debated but many sources now say additional space is not necessary or desirable. From around 1950, single sentence spacing became standard in books and newspapers, the majority of style guides that use a Latin-derived alphabet as a language base now prescribe or recommend the use of a single space after the concluding punctuation of a sentence. However, some sources still state that additional spacing is acceptable; the debate continues. Many people prefer double sentence spacing because, how they were taught to type. There is a debate. Shortly after the invention of movable type variable spacing was created that could create spaces of any size, allowed for even justification. Early American and other European typesetters' style guides specified spacing standards that were all identical from the 18th century onwards; these guides—e.g. Jacobi in the UK and MacKellar, De Vinne in the U. S.—indicated that sentences should be em-spaced, that words should be 1/3 or 1/2 em-spaced.
The relative size of the sentence spacing would vary depending on the size of the word spaces and the justification needs. For most countries, this remained the standard for published work until the 20th century, yet in this period, there were publishing houses that used a standard word space between sentences—a technique called French spacing. Mechanical type systems introduced near the end of the 19th century, such as the Linotype and Monotype machines, allowed for some variable sentence spacing similar to hand composition. Just as these machines revolutionized the mass production of text, the advent of the typewriter around the same time revolutionized the creation of personal and business documents, but the typewriters' mechanical limitations did not allow variable spacing—typists could only choose the number of times they pressed the space bar. Typists in some English-speaking countries learned to insert three spaces between sentences to approximate the wider sentence spacing used in traditional printing, but settled on two spaces, a practice that continued throughout the 20th century.
This became known as English spacing, marked a divergence from French typists, who continued to use French spacing. In the early 20th century, some printers began using one and a half interword spaces to separate sentences; this standard continued to some extent, into the 1990s. Magazines and books began to adopt the single space convention in the United States in the 1940s and in the United Kingdom in the 1950s. Typists did not move to single spacing simultaneously; the average writer still relied on the typewriter to create text—with its mechanical spacing limitations. Technological advances began affecting sentence spacing methods. In 1941, IBM introduced the Executive, a typewriter capable of proportional spacing—which had been used in professional typesetting for hundreds of years; this innovation broke the hold that the monospaced font had on the typewriter, reducing the severity of its mechanical limitations. By the 1960s, electronic phototypesetting systems ignored runs of white space in text.
This was true of the World Wide Web, as HTML ignores additional spacing, although in 2011 the CSS 2.1 standard added an option that can preserve additional spaces. In the 1980s, desktop publishing software provided the average writer with more advanced formatting tools. By the late 20th century, literature on the written word had begun to adjust its guidance on sentence spacing. Early positions on typography supported traditional spacing techniques in English publications. In 1954, Geoffrey Dowding's book, Finer Points in the Spacing and Arrangement of Type, underscored the widespread shift from a single enlarged em space to a standard word space between sentences. With the advent of the computer age, typographers began deprecating double spacing in monospaced text. In 1989, Desktop Publishing by Design stated that "typesetting requires only one space after periods, question marks, exclamation points, colons", identified single sentence spacing as a typographic convention. Stop Stealing Sheep & Find Out How Type Works and Designing with Type: The Essential Guide to Typography both indicate that uniform spacing should be used between words, including between sentences.
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Subscript and superscript
A subscript or superscript is a character, set below or above the normal line of type. It is smaller than the rest of the text. Subscripts appear below the baseline, while superscripts are above. Subscripts and superscripts are most used in formulas, mathematical expressions, specifications of chemical compounds and isotopes, but have many other uses as well. In professional typography and superscript characters are not ordinary characters reduced in size; the vertical distance that sub- or superscripted text is moved from the original baseline varies by typeface and by use. In typesetting, such types are traditionally called "superior" and "inferior" letters, etc. or just "superiors" and "inferiors". In English, most nontechnical use of superiors is archaic. Superior and inferior figures on the baseline are used for fractions and most other purposes, while lowered inferior figures are needed for chemical and mathematical subscripts. A single typeface may contain sub- and superscript glyphs at different positions for different uses.
The four most common positions are listed here. Because each position is used in different contexts, not all alphanumerics may be available in all positions. For example, subscript letters on the baseline are quite rare, many typefaces provide only a limited number of superscripted letters. Despite these differences, all reduced-size glyphs go by the same generic terms subscript and superscript, which are synonymous with the terms inferior letter and superior letter, respectively. Most fonts that contain superscript/subscript will have predetermined size and orientation, dependent on the design of the font; the most familiar example of subscripts is in chemical formulas. For example, the molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. A subscript is used to distinguish between different versions of a subatomic particle, thus electron and tau neutrinos are denoted νe νμ and ντ. A particle may be distinguished by multiple subscripts, such as Ω−bbb for the triple bottom omega particle. Subscripts are used in mathematics to define different versions of the same variable: for example, in an equation x0 and xf might indicate the initial and final value of x, while vrocket and vobserver would stand for the velocities of a rocket and an observer.
Variables with a zero in the subscript are referred to as the variable name followed by “naught”. Subscripts are used to refer to members of a mathematical sequence or set or elements of a vector. For example, in the sequence O =, O3 refers to the third member of sequence O, 800. In mathematics and computing, a subscript can be used to represent the radix, or base, of a written number where multiple bases are used alongside each other. For example, comparing values in hexadecimal and octal one might write Chex = 12dec = 14oct. Subscripted numbers dropped below the baseline are used for the denominators of stacked fractions, like this: 67 68; the only common use of these subscripts is for the denominators of diagonal fractions, like ½ or the signs for percent %, permille ‰, basis point ‱. Certain standard abbreviations are composed as diagonal fractions, such as ℅, ℀, ℁, or in Spanish ℆; these superscripts share a baseline with numerator digits, the top of which are aligned with the top of the full-height numerals of the base font.
Ordinal indicators are sometimes written as superscripts, although many English-language style guides recommend against this use. Other languages use a similar convention, such as 1er or 2e in French, or 4ª and 4º in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. In medieval manuscripts, many superscript as well as subscript signs were used to abbreviate text. From these developed modern diacritical marks. In early Middle High German and other modifications to pronunciation would be indicated by superscript letters placed directly above the letter they modified, thus the modern umlaut ü was written as uͤ. Both vowels and consonants were used in this way, as in boͮsen. In modern typefaces, these letters are smaller than other superscripts, their baseline is above the base font's midline, making them extend no higher than a typical ordinal indicator. Superscripts are used for the standard abbreviations for service mark ℠ and trademark ™; the signs for copyright © and registered trademark ® are sometimes superscripted, depending on the use or the typeface.
On handwritten documents and signs, a monetary amount may be written with the cents value superscripted, as in $8⁰⁰ or 8€⁵⁰. The superscripted numbers are underlined: $8⁰⁰, 8€⁵⁰; the currency symbol itself may be superscripted, as in $80 or 6¢. Superscripted numerals are used for the numerators of diagonal fractions, like ¾ or the signs for percent %, permille ‰, basis point ‱. Certain standard abbreviations are composed as diagonal fractions, such as ℅, ℀, ℁, or in Spanish ℆. Both low and high superscripts can be used to indicate the presenc
In typography, a counter is the area of a letter, or enclosed by a letter form or a symbol. The stroke that creates such a space is known as a "bowl". Letters containing closed counters include A, B, D, O, P, Q, R, a, b, d, e, g, o, p, q. Letters containing open counters include i, s etc.. The digits 0, 4, 6, 8, 9 possess a counter. An aperture is the outside of the letter; the lowercase'g' has two typographic variants: the single-story" has one closed counter and one open counter. The digit 4 has two typographic variants: the closed-top variant" has a closed counter, an open-top" has an open counter. Different typeface styles have different tendencies to use more closed apertures; this design decision is important for sans-serif typefaces, which can have wide strokes making the apertures narrow indeed. Fonts designed for legibility have open apertures, keeping the strokes separated from one another to reduce ambiguity; this may be important in situations such as signs to be viewed at a distance, materials intended to be viewed by people with vision problems, or small print on poor-quality paper.
Fonts with open apertures include Lucida Grande, Trebuchet MS, Corbel and Droid Sans, all designed for use on low-resolution displays, Frutiger, FF Meta and others designed for print use. This design trend has become common with the spread of humanist sans-serif designs since the 1980s and the 1990s and the use of computers requiring new fonts which are legible on-screen. Realist or neo-grotesque sans-serif fonts like Helvetica use closed apertures, folding up stroke ends to make them closer together; this gives these designs a distinctive, compact appearance, but may make similar letterforms hard to distinguish. Closed letterforms on condensed realist designs such as Impact and Haettenschweiler make characters such as 8 and 9 indistinguishable at small print sizes. Designer Nick Shinn has suggested that the cause of this design trend, similar to the Didone serif typefaces of the nineteenth century, may have been the desire to distribute the pressure of the printing press on the type, reducing wear.
Figure space Thin space Paren space Counterpunch
Text figures are numerals typeset with varying heights in a fashion that resembles a typical line of running text, hence the name. They are contrasted with lining figures. In text figures, the shape and positioning of the numerals vary. In the most common scheme, 0, 1, 2 are of x-height, having neither ascenders nor descenders. Other schemes exist. A few other typefaces used different arrangements. Sometimes the stress of the 0 is made different from a letter o in some way, although many fonts do not do this. High-quality typesetting prefers text figures in body text: they integrate better with lowercase letters and small capitals, unlike runs of lining figures. Lining figures are called for in all-capitals settings, may work better in tables and spreadsheets. During the period of transition from text figures to lining, a justification for the old system was that the height differences helped distinguish similar numbers, while a justification for lining figures was that they were clearer and that on uses such as page numbers they looked better giving all page numbers the same height.
Amusingly, as several writers have noted, the printer Thomas Curson Hansard in his landmark textbook on printing Typographia describes the new fashion as'preposterous', but the book was printed using lining figures and the modern typefaces he criticised throughout. Although many traditional fonts included a complete set of each kind of numbers, early digital fonts include only one or the other. Modern OpenType fonts include both, being able to switch via lnum and onum feature tags; the few common digital fonts that default to using text figures include Candara, Corbel, Hoefler Text, Junicode, some variations of Garamond, FF Scala. Palatino and its clone FPL Neu support lining figures; as the name medieval numerals implies, text figures have been in use since the Middle Ages, when Arabic numerals reached 12th century Europe, where they supplanted Roman numerals. Lining figures came out of the new middle-class phenomenon of shopkeepers’ hand-lettered signage, they were introduced to European typography in 1788, when Richard Austin cut a new font for type founder John Bell, which included three-quarter height lining figures.
They were further developed by 19th-century type designers, displaced text figures in some contexts, such as newspaper and advertising typography. The use of text figures suffered further setbacks for most of the 20th century, amid attempts to do away with typographic case altogether, they became rarer still with the advent of phototypesetting. Fine book faces for mechanical typesetting still used text numerals well into the 20th century, they began to make a strong comeback. Text figures are not encoded separately in Unicode, because they are not considered separate characters from lining figures, only a different way of writing the same characters. However, many fonts intended for professional use offer both text and lining figures, either using OpenType features to select between them or using Unicode's Private Use Area for one or the other set. Adobe's "Pro" fonts used to do both. Arabic numerals Arabic numeral variations § Old-style numerals Bergsland, David. "Using Numbers in the Proper Case".