In television and theatre, typecasting is the process by which a particular actor becomes identified with a specific character, one or more particular roles, or characters having the same traits or coming from the same social or ethnic groups. There have been instances in which an actor has been so identified with a role as to make it difficult for them to find work playing other characters. Alternatively, a director may choose to cast an actor "against type". Typecasting occurs in other performing arts. An opera singer who has a great deal of success in one role, such as Denyce Graves as Carmen, may become typecast in that role. Actors are selected for their roles either by a casting director found in small productions, or, in larger productions such as motion pictures, through casting agencies. Extras and stand-ins are drawn from the company Central Casting, a company so influential since its 1925 start, that some people refer to all cast as coming from "central casting"; the concept of "central" casting was widespread during the studio-dominated era when each studio had a larger number of actors on contract who were assigned to whatever films were being made at the time by that studio.

Such centralized casting was made more efficient by placing an actor in subsequent similar character roles after his or her first success if an actor was well received in that role by the audience or by critics. Once typecast, an actor could make a bold impression by playing an atypical role "against type." Early in Jack Lemmon's career, Fred Astaire advised him about the professional value of movie typecasting, telling Lemmon, "You're now at a level where you can only afford one mistake. The higher up you go, the more mistakes you're allowed. Right at the top, if you make enough of them, it's considered to be your style." An actor is sometimes so identified with a role as to make it difficult for them to find work playing other characters. It is common among leading actors in popular television series and films. An example is the cast of the original Star Trek series. During Star Trek's original run from 1966 to 1969, William Shatner was the highest paid cast member at $5,000 per episode, with Leonard Nimoy and the other actors paid much less.

However, the press predicted that Nimoy would be a star after the series ended, James Doohan expected that appearing on an NBC series would help his post-Star Trek career. The series so typecast the actors, however—as early as March 1970, Nichelle Nichols complained of Star Trek having "defined so narrowly as an actress"—that only Shatner and Nimoy continued working during the 1970s, their work received little attention unless it was Star Trek-related; the others' income came from personal appearances at Star Trek conventions attended by Trekkies. Residuals from the series ended in 1971 but in 1979, the first of six films starring the cast appeared. Parade stated of the cast in 1978 that " lost control of their destinies the minute they stepped on the bridge of the make-believe Enterprise in 1966", The New York Times observed in 1991 that "For most of the actors in the original "Star Trek" series, Starfleet has never been far off the professional horizons." Being identified so with one role left the series' cast with mixed emotions.

Some of the Next Generation actors became typecast. Patrick Stewart recalled that a "distinguished Hollywood director I wanted to work for said to me'Why would I want Captain Picard in my movie?' That was painful". His most prominent non-Star Trek film or television role, Professor X of the X-Men film series, shares similarities to Jean-Luc Picard. Stewart has stated "I don't have a film career. I have a franchise career". However, The Next Generation had one of the largest budgets of its time, the cast became wealthy. Jonathan Frakes stated that "it’s better to be type-cast than not to be cast at all." Michael Dorn said in 1991, "If what happened to the first cast is called being typecast I want to be typecast. Of course, they didn't get the jobs after'Trek.' But they are making their sixth movie. Name me someone else in television who has made six movies!"The movie Galaxy Quest depicts a group of former actors on a Star Trek-like television series who now make publicity appearances in character, such as opening stores and malls.

Except for the captain, comfortably retired, the cast members complain about how they cannot find serious and appropriate roles because of typecasting. John Larroquette said that after winning four Emmy Awards in a row, "it was 10 years after Night Court ended before I got a role as a dad; because Dan Fielding was such a bizarre character, he had made such an impression, that typecasting does happen. Every role was some sleazy lawyer or some sleazy this or some sleazy that." During his years on the comedy Married... with Children, Ed O'Neill's scenes were cut from the film drama Flight of the Intruder after a test audience laughed when he was on the screen. Jon Hamm stated that after the success of Mad Men, he received "about 40 scripts that were all set in the 60s, or had me playing advertising guys" like his character Don Draper. Adam West as Batman in the 1966 s


In geometry, the tesseract is the four-dimensional analogue of the cube. Just as the surface of the cube consists of six square faces, the hypersurface of the tesseract consists of eight cubical cells; the tesseract is one of the six convex regular 4-polytopes. The tesseract is called an eight-cell, C8, octahedroid, cubic prism, tetracube, it is the four-dimensional hypercube, or 4-cube as a part of the dimensional family of hypercubes or measure polytopes. Coxeter labels it the γ 4 polytope. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word tesseract was coined and first used in 1888 by Charles Howard Hinton in his book A New Era of Thought, from the Greek τέσσερεις ἀκτίνες, referring to the four lines from each vertex to other vertices. In this publication, as well as some of Hinton's work, the word was spelled "tessaract"; the tesseract can be constructed in a number of ways. As a regular polytope with three cubes folded together around every edge, it has Schläfli symbol with hyperoctahedral symmetry of order 384.

Constructed as a 4D hyperprism made of two parallel cubes, it can be named as a composite Schläfli symbol ×, with symmetry order 96. As a 4-4 duoprism, a Cartesian product of two squares, it can be named by a composite Schläfli symbol ×, with symmetry order 64; as an orthotope it can be represented by composite Schläfli symbol × × × or 4, with symmetry order 16. Since each vertex of a tesseract is adjacent to four edges, the vertex figure of the tesseract is a regular tetrahedron; the dual polytope of the tesseract is called the regular hexadecachoron, or 16-cell, with Schläfli symbol, with which it can be combined to form the compound of tesseract and 16-cell. The standard tesseract in Euclidean 4-space is given as the convex hull of the points; that is, it consists of the points: A tesseract is bounded by eight hyperplanes. Each pair of non-parallel hyperplanes intersects to form 24 square faces in a tesseract. Three cubes and three squares intersect at each edge. There are four cubes, six squares, four edges meeting at every vertex.

All in all, it consists of 8 cubes, 24 squares, 32 edges, 16 vertices. The construction of hypercubes can be imagined the following way: 1-dimensional: Two points A and B can be connected to become a line, giving a new line segment AB. 2-dimensional: Two parallel line segments AB and CD can be connected to become a square, with the corners marked as ABCD. 3-dimensional: Two parallel squares ABCD and EFGH can be connected to become a cube, with the corners marked as ABCDEFGH. 4-dimensional: Two parallel cubes ABCDEFGH and IJKLMNOP can be connected to become a tesseract, with the corners marked as ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOP. It is possible to project tesseracts into three- and two-dimensional spaces to projecting a cube into two-dimensional space. Projections on the 2D-plane become more instructive by rearranging the positions of the projected vertices. In this fashion, one can obtain pictures that no longer reflect the spatial relationships within the tesseract, but which illustrate the connection structure of the vertices, such as in the following examples: A tesseract is in principle obtained by combining two cubes.

The scheme is similar to the construction of a cube from two squares: juxtapose two copies of the lower-dimensional cube and connect the corresponding vertices. Each edge of a tesseract is of the same length; this view is of interest when using tesseracts as the basis for a network topology to link multiple processors in parallel computing: the distance between two nodes is at most 4 and there are many different paths to allow weight balancing. This configuration matrix represents the tesseract; the rows and columns correspond to vertices, edges and cells. The diagonal numbers say; the nondiagonal numbers say how many of the column's element occur at the row's element. The long radius of the tesseract is equal to its edge length. Only a few polytopes have this property, including the four-dimensional tesseract and 24-cell, the three-dimensional cuboctahedron, the two-dimensional hexagon. In particular, the tesseract is the only hypercube with this property; the longest vertex-to-vertex diameter of an n-dimensional hypercube of unit edge length is √n, so for the square it is √2, for the cube it is √3, only for the tesseract it is √4 2 edge lengths.

The tesseract, like all hypercubes, tessellates Euclidean space. The self-dual tesseractic honeycomb consisting of 4 tesseracts around each face ha

Brian Vandborg

Brian Bach Vandborg is a Danish former professional road bicycle racer, who competed as a professional between 2004 and 2013. Over his career, Vandborg competed for Team CSC, Discovery Channel, Team GLS, Liquigas–Doimo, SpiderTech–C10 and Cannondale. Born in Snejbjerg, Vandborg was national U/23 champion in individual time trial in 2002 and 2003 and in 2004 he signed his first professional contract with Team CSC, with a length of two years, he won stage 4 of Tour de Georgia in 2005, his first professional victory, but the rest of his season was ruined due to a case of mononucleosis. In 2006, Vandborg became a national champion by capturing the Danish Individual Time Trial Championship. Vandborg moved to Discovery Channel for the 2007 season. In 2009 he rode alongside Daniele Bennati at Liquigas. Vandborg rode for the Saxo Bank–SunGard team in 2011, SpiderTech–C10 in 2012. Vandborg retired after ten years as a professional. Media related to Brian Vandborg at Wikimedia Commons Official website