The Sunday Telegraph
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings. It is the sister paper of The Daily Telegraph published by the Telegraph Media Group. A separate operation with a different editorial staff, since 2013 the Telegraph has been a seven-day operation. Official website
Gary Leonard Oldman is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre and television. Known for his versatility and expressive acting style, Oldman is regarded as one of the greatest actors of his generation. Among other accolades, he has won an Academy Award, three BAFTA Awards, two Critics' Choice Awards, a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, along with nominations for an Emmy Award and the Palme d'Or. In 2011, Empire readers voted him the recipient of the Empire Icon Award. Oldman began acting in theatre in 1979, made his earliest screen appearances in Remembrance and Meantime, he continued to lead a stage career, during which he performed at London's Royal Court and was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company, with credits including Cabaret, The Massacre at Paris, Entertaining Mr Sloane, The Country Wife and Hamlet. Oldman rose to prominence in British film with his portrayals of Sid Vicious in Sid and Nancy, Joe Orton in Prick Up Your Ears, a football firm leader in The Firm and Rosencrantz in Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead.
Identified with the "Brit Pack", he achieved greater renown as a Hell's Kitchen gangster in State of Grace, Lee Harvey Oswald in JFK and Count Dracula in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Oldman went on to star as the antagonists of several films, including True Romance, The Fifth Element, Air Force One and The Contender, he meanwhile played Ludwig van Beethoven in Immortal Beloved. In the 21st century, Oldman is known for his roles as Sirius Black in the Harry Potter series, James Gordon in The Dark Knight Trilogy, George Smiley in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, a human leader in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour, which earned him the Academy Award for Best Actor. Films in which he has appeared have grossed over $11 billion. In addition to acting in film, Oldman directed Nil by Mouth. Oldman was born in New Cross, the son of Leonard Bertram Oldman, a former sailor who worked as a welder, Kathleen, he has stated. Oldman attended West Greenwich School in Deptford, leaving school at the age of 16 to work in a sports shop.
He was a pianist as a child, a singer, but gave up his musical aspirations to pursue an acting career after seeing Malcolm McDowell's performance in the 1971 film The Raging Moon. In a 1995 interview with Charlie Rose, Oldman said: "Something about Malcolm just arrested me, I connected, I said,'I wanna do that'."Growing up in south London, Oldman supported his local football club Millwall, followed Manchester United so that he could watch his idol, George Best. In 2011, Oldman would learn from his mother that his father represented Millwall after World War II, with Oldman stating: "Just after the war, she ran a boarding house, for football players, Millwall players, and I knew. But two weeks ago my mum said,'Oh yeah, your dad played for Millwall; when he was young he had a couple of first team games'." Oldman studied with the Young People's Theatre in Greenwich during the mid-1970s, while working jobs on assembly lines, as a porter in an operating theatre, selling shoes and beheading pigs in an abattoir.
He unsuccessfully applied to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, which welcomed him to try again the following year, but advised him to find something else to do for a living. When asked by Charlie Rose if he had reminded RADA of this, Oldman joked that "the work speaks for itself", he won a scholarship to attend the Rose Bruford College in Sidcup, Southeast London, from which he graduated with a BA in Acting in 1979. Oldman describes himself as'shy but diligent worker' during his time there, where he performed roles such as Puck in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. After leaving school, Oldman was the first in his class to receive professional work. Oldman stated on The South Bank Show that it had nothing to do with being better than someone else, rather his diligence and application, he made his professional stage debut in 1979 as Puss, alongside Michael Simkins and Peter Howitt, in Dick Whittington and His Cat, at York's Theatre Royal. The play ran in Colchester with Glasgow's Citizens Theatre.
In 1979, he starred in Cabaret. From 1980 to 1981, he appeared in The Massacre at Paris, Desperado Corner, Robert David MacDonald's plays Chinchilla and A Waste of Time, he performed in a 6-month West End run of MacDonald's Summit Conference, opposite Glenda Jackson, in 1982. That year, Oldman made his film debut in Colin Gregg's Remembrance, would have starred in Don Boyd's Gossip if that film had not collapsed; the following year, he landed a starring role as a skinhead in Mike Leigh's film Meantime, moved on to Chesterfield to assume the lead role in Entertaining Mr Sloane. Afterwards, he went to Westcliffe to star in Saved. Saved proved to be a major breakthrough for Oldman. Max Stafford-Clark, artistic director of the Royal Court Theatre, had seen Oldman's performance and
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Burton upon Trent
Burton upon Trent known as Burton-on-Trent or Burton, is an industrial town on the River Trent in East Staffordshire, close to the border with Derbyshire. In 2011, it had a population of 72,299; the demonym for residents of the town is'Burtonian'. Burton is 13 miles 11 miles from Derby and 26 miles from Leicester. Burton is known for brewing; the town grew up around Burton Abbey. Burton Bridge was the site of two battles, in 1322 when Edward II defeated the rebel Earl of Lancaster and 1643 when royalists captured the town during the First English Civil War. William Lord Paget and his descendants were responsible for extending the manor house within the abbey grounds and facilitating the extension of the River Trent Navigation to Burton. Burton grew into a busy market town by the early modern period; the town is served by Burton-on-Trent railway station. The town was the start and terminus of the now defunct South Staffordshire Line which linked it to Lichfield, Walsall and Stourbridge. Ryknild Street, a Roman road, ran north-east through what became the parish of Burton, linking camps at Letocetum, near Lichfield, Derventio, near Derby.
Between 666 and 669 Wilfrid, the pro-Roman bishop of York, exercised episcopal functions in Mercia, whose Christian king, gave him land in various places, on which he established monasteries. Burton was certainly one of the sites: the name Andresey given to an island in the river Trent near the parish church means "Andrew's isle" and refers to a church there dedicated to St Andrew; the island is associated with Modwenna, an Irish abbess. It is that any surviving religious house would have been destroyed during the Danish incursion into the area in 874. Place names indicate Scandinavian influence, several personal names of Scandinavian origin were still used in the area in the early 12th century. In 1003 a Benedictine abbey was established on a new site on the west bank of the Trent at Burton by Wulfric Spott, a thegn, he is known to have been buried alongside his wife. Burton Abbey was mentioned in Domesday book, where it was said to control lands in Appleby Magna in Leicestershire, Mickleover, Stapenhill, Coton in the Elms and Ticknall, all in Derbyshire.
The monastery was the most important in Staffordshire and by the 1530s had the highest revenue. It is known that there were frequent Royal visits to the abbey, including those by William I, Henry II and Edward I. In the 12th and 13th centuries streets were laid out off the west side of High Street, the earliest being New Street, which stretched from the abbey gates towards the line of Ryknild Street. Horninglow Street at the north end of High Street was part of a major east-west route using the bridge over the river. A royal charter was granted on 12 April 1200 by King John to the Abbot to hold a market in Burton every Thursday; this charter was renewed by King Henry III and King Edward IV. There were four annual fairs for trade in horses and produce: on Candlemas Day, 5 April, Holy Thursday, 29 October although as in other British towns this practice has now died out. While Burton's great bridge over the Trent was in poor repair by the early 16th century it served as "a comen passage to and fro many countries to the grett releff and comfort of travellyng people", according to the abbot.
The bridge was the site of two battles, first in 1322 when Edward II defeated the rebel Earl of Lancaster and in 1643 when the Royalists captured the town during the First English Civil War. Under Henry VIII the abbey was dissolved in 1539, to be refounded in 1541 as a collegiate church for a dean and four prebendaries, it was again granted to Sir William Paget. Paget began planning to expand the Manor House within the abbey precincts, known to have existed since at least 1514, into a grand mansion. To provide the materials for this project, the old abbey buildings were to be cannibalised. There were major alterations to the house over the next three centuries. Sir William died in 1563. After his death, the Paget family was implicated in Catholic plots against Queen Elizabeth I, the manor house along with most of the family estates were confiscated, with the Manor House leased to Richard Almond in 1612. Parts of the abbey church may have been retained for parish use, however these were demolished and replaced by a new church in 1719–1726.
Some fragments remain of the chapter house nearby but little of the rest remains either. Two buildings were converted to residential use—a part known as the Manor House, the former Infirmary; the Infirmary became known as The Abbey, is now an inn. The Paget family's lands and title were restored to them by James I in 1602 and they owned considerable estates around Burton for over 150 years. In 1699, William Lord Paget obtained an Act of Parliament to extend navigation on the River Trent from Nottingham up to Burton, but nothing was done. In 1711, Lord Paget leased his rights to George Hayne, who in 1712 opened the River Trent Navigation and constructed a wharf and other buildings in the precinct of the old abbey; this led to the development of Burton as the major town for brewing and exporting beer, as it allowed Burton beer to be shipped to Hull, on to the Baltic Sea and Prussia, as well as to London, where it was being sold in 1712. A number of breweries opened in the second half of the 18th century.
The Napoleonic blockade badly affected overseas trade, leading to some consolidation and a redirection of the trade to London and Lancashire via canals. When Burton brewers succeeded in replicating the pal
James Marsh (director)
James Marsh is a British film and documentary director best known for his work on Man on Wire, which won the 2008 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, The Theory of Everything, the multi-award winning biopic of physicist Stephen Hawking released in 2014. Marsh was born in Truro and raised in Sennen, a Cornish village, Woolwich, a district in southeast London. In Woolwich, he lived in a "miserable council flat" with his family. Marsh won a scholarship to the University of Oxford; as an undergraduate, he studied at St Catherine's College and graduated with a degree in English. Marsh began his early career in directing with several documentaries made for the BBC, his first TV documentary was the 90-minute Troubleman – The Last Years of Marvin Gaye, was followed by the 26-minute 1990 documentary The Animator of Prague starring Jan Švankmajer and his works. Came The Burger and the King: The Life and Cuisine of Elvis Presley, made in 1995 and released in 1996, the Welsh musician John Cale, made in 1998 and released in 1999.
His relationship continued with the BBC as a producer in 1993 for three Arena series episodes. In 2005 he directed the film The King, screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2005 Cannes Film Festival. In 2008 he made the documentary Man on Wire, about Philippe Petit's walk between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York. Man on Wire won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 81st annual Oscars, the BAFTA Award for Best British film, the Independent Spirit Award, many others; the film, called "exhilarating", has had a hugely positive audience response and was among the Top Ten Films of 2008 on many critics' lists. In 2009, he directed the "1980" episode of Red Riding, which aired on Channel 4 in the UK, he directed Project Nim in 2010, based on the book Nim Chimpsky: The Chimp Who Would Be Human by Elizabeth Hess. It is a documentary about the landmark study conducted by Herbert S. Terrace on the subject of animal language acquisition and the subject of the study is a chimpanzee named Nim Chimpsky.
Marsh watched different films to gain inspiration before making Project Nim. He watched E. T. Frederick Wiseman's Primate, the Bresson film Au hasard Balthazar, he gained the most information from Au hasard Balthazar, a fictional account of a donkey as it passes through various human owners. The structure of Project Nim reflects a lot from this film as we see the drama of the human world through the eyes of the chimpanzee. In 2012, he directed Shadow Dancer, a joint Irish/UK production about the Irish republican movement, filmed in Dublin and London; the film features Clive Owen, Andrea Riseborough, Gillian Anderson, Domhnall Gleeson and Aidan Gillen. Most he directed The Theory of Everything, a biopic on Stephen Hawking starring Eddie Redmayne and Felicity Jones. Marsh received a nomination for the BAFTA for Best Director and the film was nominated for five Academy Awards including Best Picture. Marsh lives in Copenhagen, with his Danish wife and two daughters. James Marsh on IMDb
Public housing in the United Kingdom
Public housing in the United Kingdom provided the majority of rented accommodation in the country until 2011. Houses built for public or social housing use are built by or for local authorities and known as council houses. Before 1865, housing for the poor was provided by the private sector. Council houses were built on council estates, where other amenities, like schools and shops, were also provided. From the 1950s, blocks of flats and three- or four-storey blocks of maisonettes were built. Flats and houses were built in mixed estates. Council homes were built to supply uncrowded, well-built homes on secure tenancies at reasonable rents to working-class people. Public housing in the mid-20th century included many large suburban "council estates" and numerous urban developments featuring tower blocks. Many of these developments did not live up to the hopes of their supporters, now suffer from urban blight. Since 1979, the role of council housing has changed. Housing stock has been sold under Right to Buy legislation, new social housing has been developed and managed by housing associations.
A substantial part of the UK population still lives in council housing: in 2010, about 17% of UK households. 55% of the country's social housing stock is owned by local authorities – of which 15% is managed on a day-to-day basis by arms-length management organisations, rather than the authority, 45% by housing associations. In Scotland, council estates are known as'schemes'; the history of public housing is the history of the housing of the poor. That statement is controversial, as before 1890 the state was not involved in housing policy. Public housing became needed to provide "homes fit for heroes" in 1919 to enable slum clearance. Standards were set to ensure high quality homes. Aneurin Bevan, a Labour politician, passionately believed that council houses should be provided for all, while the Conservative politician Harold Macmillan saw council housing "as a stepping stone to home ownership"; the Labour government of Harold Wilson built houses and flats to the point where there was a surplus in the late 1960s.
The Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher transferred the public housing stock to the private sector to the point where councils had to rent back their own houses to house the homeless, with the Right to Buy scheme being introduced in 1979 and the millionth council house being sold within seven years. In the stable medieval model of landowner and peasant, where the estate workers lived at the landowner whim in a tied cottage, the aged and infirm needed provision from their former employer, the church or the state; the documented history of social housing in Britain starts with almshouses, which were established from the 10th century, to provide a place of residence for "poor and distressed folk". The first recorded almshouse was founded in York by King Æthelstan; the public workhouse was the final fallback solution for the destitute. Rural poverty had been increased by the Inclosure Acts leaving many in need of assistance; this was divided into outside relief, or handouts to keep the family together, inside relief, which meant submitting to the workhouse.
The workhouse provided for two groups of people – the transient population roaming the country looking for seasonal work, the long-term residents. The two were kept separate; the long term residents included single elderly men incapable of further labour, young women with their children—often women, abandoned by their husbands, single mothers and servant-girls, dismissed from residential positions. The pressure for decent housing was increased by overcrowding in the large cities during the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century; some industrialists and independent organisations provided housing in tenement blocks, while some philanthropist factory owners built entire villages for their workers, such as Saltaire and Port Sunlight. The City of London Corporation built tenements in Farringdon Road in 1865, but this was an isolated instance; the first council to build housing as an integrated policy was Liverpool Corporation, starting with St Martin's Cottages in Ashfield Street, completed in 1869.
The Corporation built Victoria Square Dwellings, opened by Home Secretary Sir Richard Cross in 1885. That year, a Royal Commission was held, as the state had taken an interest in housing and housing policy; this led to the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, which encouraged the London authority to improve the housing in their areas. It gave them the power to acquire land and to build tenements and houses; as a consequence, London County Council opened the Boundary Estate in 1900, a'block dwelling estate' of tenements in Tower Hamlets. The Housing of the Working Classes Act 1900 extended these power to all local councils, which began building tenements and houses. In 1912, Raymond Unwin published, he worked on the influential Tudor Walters Report of 1918, which recommended housing in short terraces, spaced 70 feet apart at a density of 12 per acre. The First World War indirectly provided a new impetus, when the poor physical health and condition of many urban recruits to the army was noted with alarm.
This led to a campaign under the slogan "Homes fit for heroes". In 1919, the Government first required councils to provide housing, built to the Tudor Walters standards, under the Housing, Town Planning, &c. Act 1919, helping them to do so through the
Nicholas'Nick' Hemming is a British musician and guitarist. He was of early 1990s indie band She Talks To Angels, is a key musician in the Willkommen Collective, is the lead singer for The Leisure Society. Hemming plays banjo and mandolin with Sons of Noel and Adrian and with Shoreline. Hemming performed music for the films A Room for Romeo Brass and Dead Man's Shoes, he penned The Leisure Society's debut single "The Last Of The Melting Snow", receiving huge critical and public acclaim and extensive radio play on Zane Lowe's Radio 1 show, Marc Riley's BBC 6 Music show, Lauren Laverne's 6 Music show and Mark Radcliffe and Stuart Maconie's Radio 2 show, where they were voted'Record of the Week' by listeners, with a record 90% of the vote. The track has been championed by Elbow frontman Guy Garvey, who named it his favourite song of 2008; the song was nominated for an Ivor Novello award. Hemming plays with The Climbers, alongside The Leisure Society's Christian Hardy and their childhood friend Tim West, co-wrote some songs on their debut album The Good Ship, released in May 2010.
Nick Hemming on IMDb Nick Hemming interview on music.virgin.com