A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time by a whole number of hours, but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes; some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones; this creates a permanent daylight saving time effect. Before clocks were first invented, it was common practice to mark the time of day with apparent solar time – for example, the time on a sundial –, different for every location and dependent on longitude; when well-regulated mechanical clocks became widespread in the early 19th century, each city began to use some local mean solar time.
Apparent and mean solar time can differ by up to around 15 minutes because of the elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the tilt of the Earth's axis. Mean solar time has days of equal length, the difference between the two sums to zero after a year. Greenwich Mean Time was established in 1675, when the Royal Observatory was built, as an aid to mariners to determine longitude at sea, providing a standard reference time while each city in England kept a different local time. Local solar time became inconvenient as rail transport and telecommunications improved, because clocks differed between places by amounts corresponding to the differences in their geographical longitudes, which varied by four minutes of time for every degree of longitude. For example, Bristol is about 2.5 degrees west of Greenwich, so when it is solar noon in Bristol, it is about 10 minutes past solar noon in London. The use of time zones accumulates these differences into longer units hours, so that nearby places can share a common standard for timekeeping.
The first adoption of a standard time was on December 1, 1847, in Great Britain by railway companies using GMT kept by portable chronometers. The first of these companies to adopt standard time was the Great Western Railway in November 1840; this became known as Railway Time. About August 23, 1852, time signals were first transmitted by telegraph from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Though 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT by 1855, it was not made Britain's legal time until August 2, 1880; some British clocks from this period have two minute hands—one for the local time, one for GMT. Improvements in worldwide communication further increased the need for interacting parties to communicate mutually comprehensible time references to one another; the problem of differing local times could be solved across larger areas by synchronizing clocks worldwide, but in many places that adopted time would differ markedly from the solar time to which people were accustomed. On November 2, 1868, the British colony of New Zealand adopted a standard time to be observed throughout the colony, was the first country to do so.
It was based on the longitude 172°30′ East of Greenwich, 11 hours 30 minutes ahead of GMT. This standard was known as New Zealand Mean Time. Timekeeping on the American railroads in the mid-19th century was somewhat confused; each railroad used its own standard time based on the local time of its headquarters or most important terminus, the railroad's train schedules were published using its own time. Some junctions served by several railroads had a clock for each railroad, each showing a different time. Charles F. Dowd proposed a system of one-hour standard time zones for American railroads about 1863, although he published nothing on the matter at that time and did not consult railroad officials until 1869. In 1870 he proposed four ideal time zones, the first centered on Washington, D. C. but by 1872 the first was centered with geographic borders. Dowd's system was never accepted by American railroads. Instead, U. S. and Canadian railroads implemented a version proposed by William F. Allen, the editor of the Traveler's Official Railway Guide.
The borders of its time zones ran through railroad stations in major cities. For example, the border between its Eastern and Central time zones ran through Detroit, Pittsburgh and Charleston, it was inaugurated on Sunday, November 18, 1883 called "The Day of Two Noons", when each railroad station clock was reset as standard-time noon was reached within each time zone. The zones were named Intercolonial, Central and Pacific. Within a year 85% of all cities with populations over 10,000, about 200 cities, were using standard time. A notable exception was Detroit which kept local time until 1900 tried Central Standard Time, local mean time, Eastern Standard Time before a May 1915 ordinance settled on EST and was ratified by popular vote in August 1916; the confusion of times came to an end when Standard zone time was formally adopted by the U. S. Congress in the Standard Time Act of March 19, 1918; the first known person to conceive of a worldwide system of time zones was the Italian mathematician
Kato Olympos is a former municipality in the Larissa regional unit, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Tempi, of which it is a municipal unit. Population 3,496; the municipal unit has an area of 128.462 km2. The seat of the municipality was in Pyrgetos
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Trikala is a city in northwestern Thessaly and the capital of the Trikala regional unit. The city straddles the Lithaios river, a tributary of Pineios. According to the Greek National Statistical Service, Trikala is populated by 81,355 inhabitants, while in total the Trikala regional unit is populated by 131,085 inhabitants; the region of Trikala has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The first indications of permanent settlement have been uncovered in the cave of Theopetra, date back to approx. 49,000 BC. Neolithic settlements dating back to 6,000 BC have been uncovered in Megalo Kefalovriso and other locations; the city of Trikala is built on the ancient city of Trikka or Trikke, founded around the 3rd millennium BC and took its name from the nymph Trikke, daughter of Penaeus, or according to others, daughter of the river god Asopus. The ancient city was built at a defensive location in between the river Lithaios; the city became an important center in antiquity and it was considered to be the birthplace and main residence of the healing god Asclepius.
The city exhibited one of the most important and ancient of Asclepius' healing temples, called asclepieia. The city is mentioned in Homer's Iliad as having participated in the Trojan War with thirty ships under Asclepius' sons Machaon and Podalirius. In the Mycenean period, the city was the capital of a kingdom, it constituted the main center of the Thessalian region of Estaiotis, which occupied the territory of the modern Trikala Prefecture. In historical times, the city of Trikke and the surrounding area experienced prosperity, it fell to the Achaemenid Persians in 480 BC, while ten years it joined the Thessalian monetary union. In 352 BC it was united with the Macedonia of Philip II; the city became a location of hard battles between Rome. While Philip V of Macedon and his son Perseus tried to keep the city, after 168 BC it fell to the Roman Republic. While the area was considered to be under the rule of the Byzantine Empire, it was invaded by a succession of raiders and nomadic tribes; some of these tribes that raided the area include: Goths, Slavs, Normans, Catalans.
The current name of Trikala first appears in the 11th-century Strategikon of Kekaumenos, where "Trikalitan Vlachs" are mentioned, in the early 12th-century Alexiad of Anna Komnene. In the century, the Arab traveller and geographer al-Idrisi recorded the town as "an important agrarian center with abundant vineyards and gardens". After the dissolution of the Byzantine state by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Trikala does not appear to have fallen into Frankish hands, but became part of the Despotate of Epirus. Epirote rule lasted until 1259, when the town was taken without resistance by the Empire of Nicaea following the Battle of Pelagonia. In the early 14th century the town was the capital of a semi-independent domain under the sebastokrator Stephen Gabrielopoulos, which extended across much of western Thessaly and Macedonia. After his death in 1332/3 the city, along with most of Gabrielopoulos' lands, was seized by the Epirote ruler John II Orsini, but he was in turn expelled and the area incorporated into the Byzantine Empire by Andronikos III Palaiologos.
In 1348, Thessaly was conquered by Stephen Dushan and incorporated into the newly established Serbian Empire. The Serbian general Preljub was made the region's governor, established himself at Trikala. In 1359, Dushan's half-brother Symeon Uroš established his court at Trikala, in 1366/7 he founded the Meteora monasteries nearby. Symeon was succeeded by his son John Uroš, he in turn by the local magnates Alexios Angelos Philanthropenos and Manuel Angelos Philanthropenos, who ruled until the Ottoman conquest of Thessaly in 1393/4. Under Ottoman rule, the city was called Tırhala in Turkish, its fortunes in the early period of Ottoman rule are unclear: it is reported as being part of a large sanjak under Ahmed, the son of Evrenos Bey, but in the early 15th century it formed part of the domain of Turahan Bey, who brought in Muslim settlers and granted privileges to the local Greek population. Turahan and his son and successor, Ömer Bey, erected many buildings in the city, helping it, in the words of the historian Alexandra Yerolimpos, to " the appearance of a typical Ottoman town, with mosques, medreses, a hammam, imaret and karwansaray extending beyond the citadel and the Varoussi quarter which remained Christian".
As the administrative center of the local province, the city attracted Muslim immigrants and had large Muslim and Jewish communities: in the 1454/5 census, the city had 2,453 inhabitants. The city became an important intellectual center during these years with the Trikke School, where famous intellectuals of the time, such as Dionysius the Philosopher, taught; the 17th-century Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi reports that the city had 2,300 houses divided into sixteen Muslim and eight Christian quarters. The city was burned down in a
Eastern European Time
Eastern European Time is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time. A number of African countries use UTC+02:00 all year long, where it is called Central Africa Time, although Egypt and Libya use the term Eastern European Time; the following countries, parts of countries, territories use Eastern European Time all year round: Egypt, since 21 April 2015. Kaliningrad Oblast, since 26 October 2014. See Kaliningrad Time. Libya, since 27 October 2013. Used year-round EET from 1980–1981, 1990–1996 and 1998–2012; the following countries, parts of countries, territories use Eastern European Time during the winter only: Bulgaria, since 1894 Cyprus. Belarus, in years 1922–30 and 1990–2011 In Poland this time was used in years 1918–22. In time of World War II, Germany implemented MET in east occupied territories. Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol used EET as part of Ukraine between 1991-94 and 1996-2014. Turkey, used EET in years 1910-1978 and re-used it again in years 1985-2016.
Now uses year round DST timezone called Further-eastern European Time or Turkey Time. Sometimes, due to its use on Microsoft Windows, FLE Standard Time or GTB Standard Time are used to refer to Eastern European Time. Since political, in addition to purely geographical, criteria are used in the drawing of time zones, it follows that time zones do not adhere to meridian lines; the EET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of the area between meridians 22°30' E and 37°30' E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" UTC+02:00 time, are in another time zone. Following is a list of such anomalies: The westernmost part of Greece, including the cities of Patras and Ioannina, the Ionian Islands The westernmost parts of the Bulgarian provinces of Vidin and Kyustendil The westernmost part of Romania, including most of the area of the counties of Caraș-Severin, Timiș, Bihor, as well as the westernmost tips of the counties of Mehedinți and Satu Mare The extreme westernmost tip of Ukraine, near the border with Hungary and Slovakia, at the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast comprising the city of Uzhhorod and its environs most of the Kaliningrad Oblast, including the cities of Kaliningrad and Baltiysk Western Lithuania, including the cities of Klaipėda, Tauragė, Telšiai Western Latvia, including the cities of Liepāja and Ventspils The westernmost parts of the Estonian islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, including the capital of the Saare County, Kuressaare The southwestern coast of Finland, including the city of Turku.
The easternmost part of North Macedonia, including the city of Strumica. The easternmost part of Serbia, in the Pirot District, including the city of Pirot; the extreme easternmost tips of Hungary and Slovakia, bordering to the north and south the Ukrainian Transcarpathian Oblast, a bit to the east of the Vásárosnamény, Hungary – Uzhhorod, Ukraine line The easternmost part of Poland, including the cities of Lublin and Białystok The extreme northeast of Sweden, in the Norrbotten province, including the cities of Kalix and Haparanda The northeast of Norway, lying north of Finland coinciding with the county of Finnmark. The easternmost town in Norway, Vardø, lies at 30°51' E, located east of of the central meridian of UTC+02:00, i.e. east of Istanbul and Alexandria. The Norwegian-Russian border is the only place where CET borders Moscow time, resulting in a one hour time change when crossing that border. There is a "tri-zone" point at the Norway-Finland-Russia tripoint, near the town of Rayakoski.
Belarus is located between 23°11′E and 32°47′E and is thus located with the physical UTC+02:00 area, but it uses UTC+03:00 year around. All European Russia west of Moscow; this includes the city of Anapa, at the westernmost tip of the Krasnodar Krai near the entrance to the Sea of Azov, at 37°22' E. Western Tur
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, complementing the prefectures. Before 1986, there was a traditional division into broad historical–geographical regions, however, was arbitrary. Although the post-1986 regions were based on the earlier divisions, they are smaller and, in a few cases, do not overlap with the traditional definitions: for instance, the region of Western Greece, which had no previous analogue, comprises territory belonging to the Peloponnese peninsula and the traditional region of Central Greece; as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government.
They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan, which entered into effect on 1 January 2011. In the 2011 changes, the government-appointed general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor and a regional council with 5-year terms. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level; the regional organs of the central government were in turn replaced by seven Decentralized administrations, which group from one to three regions under a government-appointed general secretary. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one autonomous region, Mount Athos, a monastic community under Greek sovereignty, it is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula. Administrative divisions of Greece ISO 3166-2:GR List of Greek regions by Human Development Index