The Uí Ímair, or Dynasty of Ivar, was a royal Norse-Gael dynasty which ruled much of the Irish Sea region, the Kingdom of Dublin, the western coast of Scotland, including the Hebrides and some part of Northern England, from the mid 9th century. The dynasty lost control of York in the mid 10th century, but reigned over the other domains at variously disputed times, depending on which rulers may be counted among their descendants; this has proved a difficult question for scholars to determine, because reliable pedigrees do not survive. Additionally, for between three and four decades, the Uí Ímair were overkings of the Kingdom of Scotland itself, distinct from the Kingdom of Strathclyde, of which they may have been overkings, briefly the Irish province of Munster, dominated from Waterford, still the English kingdom of Mercia. In the west of Ireland, the Uí Ímair supplied at least two kings of Limerick, from which they may have attempted to conquer Munster again. Two members are styled queens of Ireland in the Irish annals.
In the Norse sources, another was queen of Norway. Another may have been queen of Brega; the name Uí Ímair in Old Irish means "grandchildren" or descendants of Ivar, but the dynasty includes its progenitor and his sons. The Irish annals describe Ivar as the brother of Amlaíb Conung and of Auisle, the Annals of Ulster record his obituary under the year 873, reading: Imhar, rex Nordmannorum totius Hibernie & Brittanie, uitam finiuit; the senior leader of the Great Heathen Army, Ivar may thus have become the inspiration for the legendary Ivar the Boneless, son of Ragnar Lodbrok. In any event, Uí Ímair dynasts may have exercised power as overkings of East Anglia during their career in Britain. Alex Woolf points out it would be a mistake to view the lordship as a "unitary empire". In the early period, a great portion of the dynasty's wealth the majority, came from the international slave trade, both as slavers themselves and from the taxation of it, for which they were infamous in their time. In this role they star as the principal antagonists in the early 12th-century Irish epic political tract The War of the Irish with the Foreigners, although the account is exaggerated.
One of the greatest dynasties of the Viking Age, the Uí Ímair were at their height the most fearsome and wide-reaching power in the British Isles and beyond. However, unlike the contemporary Rurikids in the East they failed to make any long-lasting territorial gains of significance and are considered a strategic failure, despite their considerable economic and political influence; some historians believe Ímar and Ivar the Boneless to be identical, others claim they are two different individuals. According to Irish annals, Ímar was the son of Gofraid, the king of Lochlann; the Norwegians at this point were referred to as Lochlanns by the Irish. Lochlann was accepted among scholars as being identical to Norway however this has been questioned, among others by Donnchadh Ó Corráin, his and others' theory is that Lochlann was the "viking Scotland". Whether the Irish annals used the term Lochlann to refer to Norway or to the Norse settlements in Scotland is still a matter of debate, however by the 11th century the term had come to mean Norway.
According to Donnchadh Ó Corráin there is no evidence that any branch of the royal Danish dynasty ruled in Ireland. He claims that Ímar's brother, Amlaíb Conung, identified as part of the royal Norwegian dynasty, was in fact not, he argues that both Ímar and his brothers were part of a Norse dynasty centered in and around the Scottish mainland. The Norwegian historian Kim Hjardar and archaeologist Vegard Vike claim that Ímar is the same person as the Dane Ivar the Boneless, that he and the Norwegian chieftain Amlaíb Conung arrived in Ireland as leaders of a coalition of Vikings whose goal was to take control over the Viking settlements in Ireland; when the Irish annals describe Ímar and Amlaíb Conung as brothers and Vike claims that this has to be interpreted as a metaphor for "warrior brothers" or "brothers in arms". The following list contains only members mentioned in the Irish annals and other reliable and semi-reliable sources, such as the Cogad Gáedel re Gallaib, among those only the ones who can be placed in the pedigree with relative confidence.
Thus it is by no means complete. Among recent developments in scholarship it has been argued that the historical king of Northumbria contributing to the character of Eric Bloodaxe was an Uí Ímair dynast. First proposed by James Henthorn Todd in 1867, most considered by Alex Woolf and Clare Downham, it is possible the Uí Ímair were peculiar in that some early members, the entire known dynasty, descended from the founder via the female line. After various authors. Birthdates are unknown. Mac = son of; the precise lineage of one of the last agreed upon members of the dynasty, Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, is uncertain. He was either a descendant of Ivar of Waterford or Gofr
The Servais Ministry was in office in Luxembourg from 3 December 1867 to 26 December 1874. It was reshuffled four times. Emmanuel Servais: Minister of State, head of government, Director-General for Foreign Affairs Édouard Thilges: Director-General for Communal Affaires Henri Vannerus: Director-General for Justice Jean Colnet d'Huart: Director-General for Finance Emmanuel Servais: Minister of State, head of government, Director-General for Foreign Affairs, provisionally for Finances Édouard Thilges: Director-General for Communal Affaires Henri Vannerus: Director-General for Justice Emmanuel Servais: Minister of State, head of government, Director-General for Foreign Affairs Édouard Thilges: Director-General for Communal Affaires Henri Vannerus: Director-General for Justice Georges Ulveling: Director-General for Finance Emmanuel Servais: Minister of State, head of government, Director-General for Foreign Affairs Henri Vannerus: Director-General for Justice Georges Ulveling: Director-General for Finance Nicolas Salentiny: Director-General for the Interior Emmanuel Servais: Minister of State, head of government, Director-General for Foreign Affairs Henri Vannerus: Director-General for Justice Nicolas Salentiny: Director-General for the Interior Victor de Roebe: Director-General for Finance The Treaty of London of 1867 required Luxembourg to demolish its fortress, declared it a neutral state.
This was a solution to the Luxembourg Crisis, which had led to war between France and Prussia. The Servais government had to carry out the stipulations of the treaty, bear its costs. Demolishing the fortifications took until 1883, cost 1,798,000 francs; the sale of the land to private individuals only covered part of the costs, this was a massive drain on the state's budget. A government commission planned the expansion of the city now that it was no longer constrained by the fortress, with new avenues and boulevards and a green belt of parks; the law of 1868 created a Luxembourgish corps des chasseurs, to maintain order. It was composed of 19 officers and 587 non-commissioned officers and menCompliance with the Treaty obligations did not shelter Luxembourg from another international crisis. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian War broke out, several incidents threatened the country's neutrality; the population was on the side of the French, the employees of the Compagnie de l'Est supplied the Thionville garrison via a train departing from Luxembourg.
Though this was not approved by the government, Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck let it be known that the Prussian military would no longer feel bound by the Grand Duchy's neutral status. Another foreign occupation seemed imminent, Servais vigorously refuted the Prussian allegations. In the end, after the French defeat, the newly created German Empire contented itself with control of the Luxembourgish railways; the French railways were forced to cede control of the Luxembourg railway network to the Germans. The Luxembourgish government had not been asked, was opposed to this; the dissolution of the German Confederation after the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 allowed the Servais government in Luxembourg to turn its back on the German political model, imposed by the coup d'état of 1856, to undertake a revision of the constitution. The resulting constitution of 1868 was a compromise between the republican text of 1848, the monarchist charter of 1856. Ministerial responsibility and the annual vote on taxes were re-introduced.
The Constitution guaranteed basic civil liberties such as freedom of the press and freedom of association again. At the same time, the sovereign retained several important prerogatives. After 1848, the government and the legislature had locked horns over constitutional questions: the constitution of 1868 re-established a certain equilibrium between these two institutions. Since the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg had been made an Apostolic Vicariate in 1840, the need had been growing for a redefinition of the relations between church and state; the civil authorities felt snubbed when in 1870 Rome took the initiative of creating a diocese and appointing Nicolas Adames as the first Bishop of Luxembourg. On the advice of the Council of State, the government first refused to recognise the Vatican's decision. In 1872 it submitted a bill to establish the bishopric; the law, approved on 30 April 1873, stipulated that the bishopric could only be occupied by a Luxembourger, the bishop had to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch.
The Servais government's time in office saw the beginnings of the modern steel industry in Luxembourg. The two last blast furnaces using charcoal, relicts of the pre-industrial era, were shut in 1868. New furnaces were established in the mining area; the production of cast iron doubled in 4 years, rising from 93,000 tons in 1868 to 185,000 in 1872. Extraction of iron increased from 722,000 tons to 1 million tons in 1871. However, only a third of the iron ore, mined was processed in the country, the rest being exported to Germany and Belgium; the Servais government's policy aimed to reverse this, to divert resources towards the industrialisation of the country. The mining law of 15 March 1870 declared all mineral deposits to a certain depth underground to be property of the state, therefore subject to mining concessions. Another law in 1874 regulated the manner of these concessions, which were to become a major source of revenue for public finances; the price of concessions was to be paid in annuities staggered over many years, which allowed small Luxembourgish businesses with a small amount of capital to acquire concessions.
The government had intended to introduce a clause requiring the extracted iron ore to be processed in the country. However, this m
Adron Tennell is an American football wide receiver, a free agent. He played college football at Oklahoma, he was considered one of the top wide receiver recruits in 2006. Tennell attended Irving High School in Texas. There, he was a standout member of the football team being ranked as the No. 7 recruit at the wide receiver position. Tennell committed to the University of Oklahoma on July 21, 2005. Tennell chose Oklahoma over football scholarships from Mississippi State, Oklahoma State, SMU, TCU, Texas A&M & Texas Tech. Tennell played four seasons for the Sooners, he started his last year there. Tennell signed with the Spokane Shock of the Arena Football League before the 2011 season. Tennell remained a member of the Shock during the 2012 season. Tennell had a big season for the Shock, earning 1st Team All-Arena honors, leading the league in both receptions and receiving touchdowns. In addition, Tennell was named the AFL's Wide Receiver of the Year. Tennell missed most of the 2014 season with an injury.