The River Slaney is a large river in the southeast of Ireland. It rises on Lugnaquilla Mountain in the western Wicklow Mountains and flows west and south through counties Wicklow and Wexford for 117.5 km, before entering St George's Channel in the Irish Sea at Wexford town. The estuary of the Slaney is known as Wexford Harbour; the catchment area of the River Slaney is 1,762 km2. The long term average flow rate of the River Slaney is 37.4 Cubic Metres per second Towns that the Slaney runs through include Stratford-on-Slaney, Tullow, Bunclody and Wexford. Over the river's 117 kilometre course, it is crossed by one railway bridge. Varied and plentiful wildlife can be found in the environs of the river. In Wicklow, herds of deer can be seen, as well as swans, wild ducks and kingfishers. At dusk, bats and otters may be seen, while the mudflats of the estuary are favoured by black-headed gulls and oystercatchers; the rare goosander can be seen on the Slaney at Kildavin. In season and trout and pike are fished.
Ptolemy's Geography described a river called Μοδοννος which may have referred to the River Slaney, though scholarly opinion remains divided on the issue. Tributaries of the Slaney include the River Derreen, the River Derry, the River Clody, the River Bann, the River Urrin, the River Boro, the River Sow. Rivers of Ireland River Slaney: Environment Under Threat Information on salmon fishing on the Slaney from the Salmon Ireland website
Ferns, County Wexford
Ferns is a historic town in north County Wexford, Ireland. It is 11.7 km from Enniscorthy, where the Gorey to Enniscorthy N11 road joins the R745 regional road. The remains of Ferns Castle are in the centre of the town. Ferns is believed to have been established in the 6th century, when a monastery was founded in 598 dedicated to St Mogue of Clonmore, a Bishop of Ferns; the town became the capital of the Kingdom of Leinster, the Capital of Ireland when the kings of that southern part of the province established their seat of power there. It was a large city but shrunk in the fire that destroyed most of it; the city stretched all the way down and further than the River Bann, if it was not burnt it would've been one of Ireland's biggest cities today. King Dermot MacMurrough founded St. Mary's Abbey as a house of Augustinian canons c. 1158 and was buried there in 1171. Ferns Castle, an Anglo-Norman fortress, was built in the middle of the 13th century by William, Earl Marshall. Today about half of the castle still stands.
The town contains the 13th-century St Edan's Cathedral This was a big aisled cathedral with a long chancel. The present east wall of the cathedral is the original east wall, it has been suggested that the ruined building to the east, which has a row of fine Gothic windows, might have been built to house the effigy of Bishop John St John, now in the porch of the church. The Tower and the Chapter House were added on in the 19th century; the cemetery has several high parts of crosses. The 19th-century population never reached the levels of medieval times. Lewis's Topography of 1834 claimed the town "consists chiefly of one irregular street, contains 106 houses indifferently built, retaining no trace of its ancient importance"; the Abbey, St. Peter's Church, the remainder of the great cathedral are regarded as historic, holy places, regarded as churches still, this includes the abbey which has the title of an abbey church. See Annals of Inisfallen AI741.1 Kl. Repose of Cúán.u, abbot of Ferna, Flann.
Feórna son of Colmán, king of Ciarraige Luachra. The old Catholic church stood at the north of the town until the 1970s, when it was decided to demolish the building, due to an "alleged" issue with the roof and tower. There is no evidence to suggest there was any issues with the tower or the rest of the building, except for a rotting wooden main beam across the altar-area of the church - it is evident that this could've been replaced; the minor problems with the roof were used as an excuse to demolish and replace the magnificent building. A convent, St. Aidan's Monastery of Adoration now stands in its place, since the early 1990s, is used to worship God daily; the foundation stone of the new Church of St. Aidan was laid on the Feast of St. Aidan, 31 January 1974, the foundation stone lies at the northwest corner wall of the church at the entrance to the Sacristy; the new Catholic Church was completed in 1975. In 2007 the new church went under a major refurbishment since it too had roof problems with leakage of the roof, etc.
There was a previous roof problem. In 2007/2008, the parish replaced the old slates with new composite metal-material, the inside was refurbished and few minor changes were made to the look of the building. A plaque listing the names of parish priests, from 1644, is on the wall to the right of the altar, beside the organ; the pipe organ in St. Aidan's Church dates from 1901 when a Canon J Doyle had it installed, its bellows were once inflated by hand, until modifications were made to it in the 1970s, one of which saw a new electric blower to inflate the bellows installed. Other modifications included; the pipe organ is still in much use. Before being transferred, it was dismantled, re-shaped and re-designed to fit into a much smaller space, in the new church. Whereas it was designed to fit a large space; the Bell, dating from 1911, was installed in the tower of St. Mogue's Church, by Canon John Doyle. There is an interesting story behind this bell. In the period between 1900 and 1911, there is believed to have been a severe lightning storm.
This lightning storm claimed a number of lives of farm livestock in the Parish area. There was an idea to have a new large bell installed in the clock tower, its purpose is that all who hear the strike of the bell would be safe from being harmed by extreme weather. Another bell was installed there in the 19th century, this was replaced in 1901; the whereabouts of these bells remains unknown, they were destroyed. The bell from 1911 now stands outside the new Catholic Church today, is rang at special occasions, such as the New Year's midnight celebrations, Christmas and other great occasions; the Anglican Cathedral and the Catholic Church are open daily. The Anglican Cathedral - all day, The Catholic Church – 7 am until 4 pm, on weekdays. 8 am until 8:15 pm on 8 am until 9 pm on Sundays. These times may change in accordance to events taking place; the town gave the name to the Diocese of Ferns. The town's religious traditions live on today through the recent establishment in Ferns of a hermitage; the whole history of modern Ireland stems from Ferns – Diarmuid MacMurrough, King of Leinster invited the Normans in 1169 to help him fight his battles – he sealed the deal with his daughter Aoife’s
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
Leinster is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland. It comprises the ancient Kingdoms of Mide and Leinster. Following the 12th-century Norman invasion of Ireland, the historic fifths of Leinster and Mide merged due to the impact of the Pale, which straddled both, thereby forming the present-day province of Leinster; the ancient kingdoms were shired into a number of counties for judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Leinster has no official function for local-government purposes. However, the province is an recognised subdivision of Ireland, it is listed on ISO 3166-2 as one of the four provinces of Ireland and "IE-L" is attributed to Leinster as its country sub-division code. Leinster had a population of 2,630,720 according to the preliminary results of the 2016 census, making it the most populous province in the country; the traditional flag of Leinster features a golden harp on a green background.
The Gaelic Kingdom of Leinster before 1171 smaller than the present-day province did not include certain territories such as Meath, Osraige or the Viking cities of Wexford and Dublin. The first part of the name Leinster derives from Laigin, the name of a major tribe that once inhabited the area; the latter part of the name derives either from the Irish tír or from the Old Norse staðr, both of which translate as "land" or "territory". Úgaine Mór, who built the hill-fort of Dún Ailinne, near Kilcullen in County Kildare, united the tribes of Leinster. He is a but uncertain candidate as the first historical king of Laigin in the 7th century BC. Circa 175/185 AD, following a period of civil wars in Ireland, the legendary Cathair Mor re-founded the kingdom of Laigin; the legendary Finn Mac Cool, or Fionn mac Cumhaill, reputedly built a stronghold at the Hill of Allen, on the edge of the Bog of Allen, in what was Leinster. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, after Magnus Maximus had left Britain in 383 AD with his legions, leaving a power vacuum, colonists from Laigin settled in North Wales in Anglesey and Denbighshire.
In Wales some of the Leinster-Irish colonists left their name on the Llŷn Peninsula, which derives its name from Laigin. In the 5th century, the emerging Uí Néill dynasties from Connacht conquered areas of Westmeath and Offaly from the Uí Enechglaiss and Uí Failge of the Laigin. Uí Néill Ard Righ attempted to exact the Boroimhe Laighean from the Laigin from that time, in the process becoming their traditional enemies. By the 8th century the rulers of Laigin had split into two dynasties: Northern Leinster dynasty: Murchad mac Brain, King of Uí Dúnlainge, joint leader of the Laigin Southern Leinster dynasty: Áed mac Colggen, King of Uí Cheinnselaig, joint leader of the LaiginAfter the death of the last Kildare-based King of Laigin, Murchad Mac Dunlainge in 1042, the kingship of Leinster reverted to the Uí Cheinnselaig sept based in the south east in present-day County Wexford; this southern dynasty provided all the Kings of Leinster. Leinster represents the extended "English Pale", counties controlled directly from Dublin, at the beginning of the 1600s.
The other three Provinces had their own regional Presidency systems, based on a Welsh model of administration, in theory if not in fact from the 1570s and 1580s up to the 1670s, were considered separate entities. "Leinster" subsumed the term of "The Pale", as the kingdom was pacified and the difference between the old Pale area and the wider province, now under English administration, grew less distinct. The expansion of the province took in the territory of the ancient Kingdom of Mide encompassing much of present-day counties Meath and Longford with five west County Offaly baronies. Local lordships were incorporated during the Tudor conquest of Ireland and subsequent plantation schemes. Other boundary changes included County Louth removed from Ulster in 1596, the baronies of Ballybritt and Clonlisk in Munster becoming part of Leinster in 1606, the'Lands of Ballymascanlon' transferred from Armagh to Louth circa 1630; the provincial borders were redrawn by Cromwell for administration and military reasons, the Offaly parishes of Annally and Lusmagh part of Connacht, were transferred in 1660.
The last major boundary changes within Leinster occurred with the formation of County Wicklow, from lands in the north of Carlow and most of southern Dublin. Minor changes dealt with "islands" of one county in another. By the late 1700s, Leinster looked as shown in the above map of 1784. Following the abolition of County Dublin, three successor counties were created that cover the same area, they are Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown and South Dublin. To these may be added the historic County Corporate of the city of Dublin, under the terms of the Local Government Act 1898 was abolished to be succeeded by the County borough of Dublin; this was in turn abolished under the terms of the Local Government Act 2001 and the area is now under the jurisdiction of Dublin City Council. The remaining counties of the province are Kildare, Laois, Carlow, Louth, Westmeath and Kilkenny. While Kilkenny city was once a county corporate, by the terms of the 1898 Act it became part of the administrative county. Although it retains the privilege of calling itself a city.
As is the norm for language in Ireland, Engl
Art Óg mac Murchadha Caomhánach
Art Óg Mac Murchadha Caomhánach was an Irish king, regarded as the most formidable of the Kings of Leinster. He revived not only the royal family's prerogatives, but their lands and power. During his 42-year reign, he dominated the Anglo-Norman settlers of Leinster. MacMurrough-Kavanagh's dominance of the province and its inhabitants, both Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman, was deemed sufficiently detrimental to the colony that Richard II of England spent much of the years 1394 and 1395 sparring with him. While MacMurrough-Kavanagh did submit to Richard, he renounced this fealty on Richard's departure and made much of his kingdom a death trap for any invading English or Anglo-Irish forces; the Crown accordingly dealt with him cautiously and he was granted an amnesty in 1409. MacMurrough-Kavanagh married Elizabeth le Veel, widow of Sir John Staunton of Clane, she was the only daughter of Sir Robert le Veel, through her father the heiress of the Anglo-Norman barony of Norragh. Such a racial intermarriage violated the Statutes of Kilkenny and the Crown thus forfeited Elizabeth's lands, which became one of the causes of her husband's enmity to the English.
They had three sons: Donnchadh, King of Leinster, Diarmuid Lamhdearg, Gerald, Lord of Ferns. Elizabeth's estates passed to the Wellesley family, who were descendants of her daughter, Elizabeth, by her first husband, Sir John Staunton of Clane. MacMurrough-Kavanagh died soon after Christmas 1417 in his bed in Ferns, or was poisoned in New Ross—accounts differ. MacMurrough-Kavanagh's descendants include 19th century Irish politician Arthur MacMurrough Kavanagh; the 1885 historical novel Art M'Morrough O'Cavanagh, Prince of Leinster: An Historical Romance of the Fourteenth Century by M. L. O'Byrne is a loosely biographical account of his life, written from a nationalist perspective. Irish kings Kings of Leinster Annals of the Four Masters online Francis John Bryne, Irish Kings and High Kings Emmett O'Byrne, War and the Irish of Leinster 1156-1606 Gilbert, John Thomas. "MacMurrogh, Art". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 35. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Ireland's Wars, How Art MacMurragh Brought Down The English Monarchy at Never Felt Better