Netherlands national football team
The Netherlands national football team has represented the Netherlands in international football since its initial match in 1905. The national team is controlled by the Royal Dutch Football Association, a part of UEFA, under the jurisdiction of FIFA the governing body for football in the Netherlands. Most of the Netherlands' home matches are played at the Johan Cruyff Arena and the Stadion Feijenoord; the team is colloquially referred to as Het Nederlands Elftal or the Oranje, after the House of Orange-Nassau. Like the country itself, the team is sometimes referred to as Holland; the fan club is known as the "Het Legioen". The Netherlands has competed in ten FIFA World Cups, they have appeared in nine UEFA European Championships winning the 1988 tournament in West Germany. Additionally, the team won a bronze medal at the Olympic football event in 1908, 1912 and 1920; the Netherlands has long-standing football rivalries with neighbors Germany. The Netherlands played their first international match in Antwerp against Belgium on 30 April 1905.
The players were selected by a five-member commission from the Dutch football association. After 90 minutes, the score was 1–1; because the match was for the Coupe van den Abeele it went into overtime, during which Eddy de Neve scored three times, making the score 4–1 for the Netherlands. Some historians attribute one of the goals scored to Willem Hesselink. In 1908, the Netherlands competed in their first official tournament appearance at the Summer Olympics in London, they received a bronze medal after losing to Great Britain in the semifinals, before defeating Sweden in the bronze medal match 2–0. At the Olympic Games in 1912 and 1920, the Dutch finished with the bronze medal as they lost to Denmark and Belgium in the respective tournaments; the Dutch reached the semi-finals at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris after winning against Romania and Ireland. In the semi-final, they gave up a one-goal lead, scored by Kees Pijl, to lose 2–1 and were relegated to the third-place playoff for the fourth time, losing to Sweden in a replay.
After being eliminated in the first round at the 1928 Summer Olympics on home turf, they skipped the first World Cup in 1930 due to the cost of travel from Europe to South America. The team made their first appearance at a FIFA World Cup in 1934. Kick Smit was the first goalscorer for the Netherlands in a World Cup; the team was eliminated in the opening round by Switzerland 3–2. A second appearance at the 1938 World Cup resulted in a first-round elimination against Czechoslovakia. After the Second World War, the Dutch qualified for only two international tournaments before the 1970s; the 1948 Summer Olympics in Great Britain and the 1952 Summer Olympics in Finland. They faced early elimination losing to the hosts in 1948 and Brazil in 1952. During the 1970s, Total Football was invented, pioneered by Ajax and led by playmaker Johan Cruyff and national team head coach Rinus Michels; the Dutch made significant strides. Carlos Alberto, captain of the Brazilian team that won the 1970 FIFA World Cup said, "The only team I've seen that did things differently was Holland at the 1974 World Cup in Germany.
Since everything looks more or less the same to me... Their'carousel' style of play was amazing to watch and marvelous for the game."In 1974, the Netherlands beat both Brazil and Argentina in the second group stage, reaching the final for the first time in their history. However, they lost to West Germany in the final in Munich, despite having gone up 1–0 through Johan Neeskens' early penalty kick before a German had touched the ball. However, a converted penalty by Paul Breitner and the winner from Gerd Müller, led to a victory for the Germans; the 1976 European Championship the Netherlands qualified for their first European Championship after beating Belgium in the quarterfinals. They were matched in the semifinals by Czechoslovakia who kept Cruff and Van Hanegem within arms-length of another player as they defeated the Dutch in overtime; the Dutch finished in third place after defeating the hosts in overtime. In 1978, the Netherlands qualified for the World Cup in Argentina; the team was missing Johan Cruyff due to a kidnapping attempt, Wim van Hanegem.
But the squad still had players like Jan Jongbloed, Wim Suurbier and Ruud Krol from the previous World Cup. After finishing runner-up in Group 4 behind Peru, they recorded wins against Austria and Italy to set up a final with Argentina. After a controversial start, with Argentina questioning the plaster cast on René van de Kerkhof's wrist, the match headed to extra time where the Dutch lost 3–1 after two extra time goals from Mario Kempes and Daniel Bertoni. Euro'80 was the last tournament. Despite the tournament format being expanded that year they did not advance past the group stage. Veterans such as Krol and Rensenbrink retired soon afterwards and the Dutch team hit a low point in their history: they missed the 1982 World Cup in Spain, Euro 1984 in France, the 1986 World Cup in Mexico, they failed qualifying for Euro 1984 by virtue of goals scored when Spain scored twelve in the final game against Malta. Because both teams had the same goal difference, Spain qualified having scored two more goals than the Dutch.
After qualifying for the 1986 World Cup the Dutch finished in second place and advanced to the playoffs against neighbors Belgium. After losing the first leg 1–0 in Brussels, they held a 2–0 lead at Rotterdam with a few minutes remaining, but Georges Grun's header in the 84th minute resulted in the Netherlands elimination as Belgium advanc
Neftçi PFK Bakı, pronounced known as Neftchi or Neftçi, is an Azerbaijani football club based in the capital, that plays in the Azerbaijan Premier League. Founded in 1937, the club has won eight Azerbaijan Premier League titles, six Azerbaijan Cups and two Azerbaijan Supercup titles; the club is one of the two teams in Azerbaijan, along with Qarabağ, which has participated in all Azerbaijan Premier League championships so far. In 2012, Neftçi became the first Azerbaijani club to advance to the group stage of a European competition after defeating APOEL 4–2 on aggregate in the play-off round of the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League. Neftçi plays its matches at the Bakcell Arena. Neftchi were founded in 1937; the name means "petroleum worker" in Azerbaijani. World-famous referee Tofiq Bahramov played for Neftchi but a serious leg injury prevented him from continuing his playing career and he became a referee, they won the first independent Azeri championship in 1992, won further titles in 1995–96 and 1996–97.
In 2006, Neftchi managed to win the CIS Cup after defeating FBK Kaunas of Lithuania in the final. In European competitions, the club have advanced to the second qualifying round of the UEFA Champions League twice, having defeated Bosnian champions – Široki Brijeg – and Icelandic champions – FH Hafnarfjarðar – in 2004 and 2005 respectively. A long period of decline followed the success of the 2005 to the end of the decade. Despite the appointment of famous names such as Gurban Gurbanov, Vlastimil Petržela, Anatoliy Demyanenko and Hans-Jürgen Gede, the club did not achieve any success and squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings. Prospects changed positively in December 2009; the takeover was followed by a flurry of bids for high-profile international players such as Bahodir Nasimov, Nicolás Canales, Bruno Bertucci, Eric Ramos, Igor Mitreski and Julius Wobay. In May 2011, coached by Arif Asadov, the club won its sixth championship title. Asadov become first person in Azerbaijan to win the league title as a coach and football player.
In the 2011–12 season, Boyukagha Hajiyev guided Neftchi to another domestic success as club become champions for seventh time in their history. In November 2011, Neftchi celebrated its 1,000th victory in official matches and its 1,000th goal, scored by Araz Abdullayev. In 2012, Neftchi qualified for the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League group stage, being the first Azerbaijani team to advance to this stage in a European competition. Neftchi managed to get three points in six matches, drawing with Partizan both times and holding Internazionale away at the San Siro. A third consecutive Premier League title followed in 2012–13. Neftchi won the Azerbaijan Cup on 28 May 2013 to secure the domestic double. Following Neftchi's early exit from European cups, Boyukagha Hajiyev resigned from his post. Following defeat at 2013 Azerbaijan Supercup, Nazim Suleymanov was appointed as Neftchi's new manager after Tarlan Ahmadov was sacked just three months in charge. On 8 January 2014, Suleymanov resigned as manager after a transfer fund dispute.
In May 2014, despite finishing fourth, Neftchi managed to win Azerbaijan Cup. In August 2014, the club reached Europa League play off round after defeating Chikhura Sachkhere on aggregate. On 2 November 2014, Neftchi club president Sadygov stated that the club was experiencing financial difficulties. In 2015, it was announced that the club would become a public limited company – Neftchi PLC, while the club's new president would be Chingiz Abdullayev. On 8 June 2018, Roberto Bordin was announced as Neftçi's new manager on a two-year contract. Neftchi's traditional kit was composed of white shorts and socks of the same colour. Although through the years these two have gone from alternating between white and black stripes. Neftchi's home matches are played at Tofiq Bahramov Stadium in Baku. Built by German prisoners of war in 1951 and constructed in the shape of a "C" to honour Joseph Stalin, it was renamed after famous football referee Tofiq Bahramov in 1993 after his death; the stadium serves as the home ground of the Azerbaijan national football team and holds 31,200 spectators, making it the largest stadium in the country.
Neftchi's current home venue is the 11,000 capacity Bakcell Arena. It has been the club's home since the 2012–13 season. Neftchi Baku is one of the most supported club in Azerbaijan, with supporters organized in many fan clubs around the world, including the United States, Russia, the Netherlands and any other country with a sizeable Azerbaijani community. In the 2010s, although Neftchi improved its position, the average attendance fell to record low levels; the club's most popular celebrity supporters are the likes of actors Bahram Bagirzade, Bashir Safaroglu and Lutfali Abdullayev, composers Gara Garayev, Fikrat Amirov and Niyazi, judoka Ilham Zakiyev and scientist Mirali Qashqai. Matches between Neftchi and Khazar Lankaran are some of the biggest clashes in Azerbaijan; the relationship between the two clubs has always been known for its great animosity, as the classic opposes two geographic regions – with Neftchi and Khazar Lankaran representing the north and south of Azerbaijan, respectively.
As of 13 July 2018 As of 15 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For recent transfers, see Transfers summer 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Neftçi-2 plays in the Azerbaijan First Division from 2018. Neftchi has had numerous presidents over the course of its history, some of whom have been owners of
SC Cambuur is a Dutch football club from the city of Leeuwarden formed on 19 June 1964, that plays in the Eerste Divisie, the second tier of Dutch football, after being relegated in May 2016 from the Eredivisie. The home ground of the club is the 10,000-capacity Cambuur Stadion; the club plays in yellow shirts and blue shorts. The origin of the club's emblem is the coat of arms of the House of Cammingha, a Frisian noble family. Founded in 1964, Cambuur has played a total of seven seasons in the top-flight Eredivisie. In the 1980s and 1990s, the club was a regular contender in the Eerste Divisie playoffs. Cambuur won the Eerste Divisie title in 1992 and gained promotion to the Eredivisie, but was relegated two seasons in 1994. In 1998, the club was promoted again to the Eredivisie, but again was relegated after just two years in the top-flight in 2000. Troubled times followed which brought the "folk club" close to bankruptcy in 2005; the rebuilding started in 2006 and since 2010, the club has been in a stable financial condition.
In 2009, the club won the playoff against Eredivisie side Roda JC, only losing on penalties. In 2010, the club came in second, again just narrowly missing promotion. Cambuur welcomed during these play-offs more than 40,000 spectators in just two weeks. Another estimated 7,000 fans watched the final play-off match against Roda on a large screen in the city centre of the city of Leeuwarden. More than 1.4 million people watched the final play-off match on television, which appeared to be another record for a play-off promotion match in the Netherlands. In total, more than 4.5 million people watched the play-off matches between Cambuur, PEC Zwolle and Roda JC on television that year. Cambuur won the Eerste Divisie championship in the 2012–13 season, awarding the club promotion to the Eredivisie for the 2013–14 season. On 1 May 2016, Cambuur were relegated to the Eerste Divisie after losing 6–2 away to PSV. Cambuur has a group of ultras, known as the M. I.-Side, who stand on the north and south stands at the Cambuur Stadion.
The name derives from the street names in which the stands are built: M stands for Marathonstraat and I for Insulindestraat. Most of the hardcore fans of Cambuur are sitting close to the stand of the away fans on the northern side of the stadium, they are among the most notorious in the Netherlands. In the 2009–10 season, the average attendance was 8,600 fans per game, more than 6,500 season tickets were sold; that was a new record for Cambuur, as these numbers were achieved while the club was in the second division but higher than when it played in the Eredivisie. In the 2009–10 season, the club sold out six regular season matches with 10,000 fans per game, another milestone for the Leeuwarden-based club. Never before in the second division it had sold out; as of 1 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Eerste Divisie Winner: 1992, 2013 Runners-up: 1997, 1998, 2010 Tweede Divisie Winner: 1957, 1965 Promoted to Eredivisie Promotion: 1992, 1998, 2013 Below is a table with Cambuur's domestic results since the introduction of professional football in 1956.
The players below had senior international cap for their respective countries. Players whose name is listed represented their countries while playing for SC Cambuur. List of football clubs in the Netherlands Official website Cambuur Leeuwarden at weltfussballarchiv.com
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
PEC Zwolle is a Dutch football club based in Zwolle playing in the Eredivisie, the country's highest level of professional club football. They have played in the Eredivisie for a total of 16 seasons, reaching sixth place in 2015, they won the KNVB Cup in 2014 and reached the final in 1928, 1977 and 2015. This is the second incarnation of the club; the current club was founded afterwards as FC Zwolle before renaming back to PEC Zwolle in 2012. PEC was founded on 12 June 1910, the name being an abbreviation of PH EDN Combinatie; the club was formed by a merger of Ende Desespereert Nimmer. PEC has been a professional football club since 23 February 1955; the club name was changed to PEC Zwolle in 1971 and to PEC Zwolle'82 in 1982. After the bankruptcy a new name was chosen for the new club: FC Zwolle. On 14 April 2012, after the promotion, the club name was changed back to PEC Zwolle. PEC was one of Zwolle's three top football clubs, along with Zwolsche Boys. ZAC was associated with the local high society, Zwolsche Boys were associated with the working class, while PEC was the club of the local middle class.
There was considerable rivalry between these three clubs between Zwolsche Boys and PEC. Not only were their stadiums on walking distance from each other, the clubs met each other in league matches. Despite this rivalry, PEC and Zwolsche Boys merged in 1969, taking the name PEC. In 1971, this became PEC Zwolle, in an attempt to promote the image of the city of Zwolle. In 1977, PEC Zwolle reached the finals of the KNVB Cup, losing to Twente in extra time, missed out on promotion to the Eredivisie by one point. In 1978, the club won the Dutch first division title and was promoted to the Eredivisie for the first time in its history. In its first season in the Eredivisie, the club finished eighth, which remained PEC Zwolle's highest league position until finishing sixth in 2014–15, their most impressive result that season was a 0–1 away victory at PSV. These results were achieved by a talented group of players bought from other clubs, such as Rinus Israël; the money for this came from the Slavenburg's bank, led by FC Zwolle chairman Jan Willem van der Wal.
By 1982, the club was on the verge of bankruptcy. Real estate developer Marten Eibrink took over power in PEC Zwolle in 1982, he managed to end the debt and restructured the club, epitomized by a change in the name: PEC Zwolle'82. He had the club's stadium renovated and decided to name the stadium's main stand the Johan Cruyff Stand, because Johan Cruyff had played his last official match against PEC Zwolle'82 on 13 May 1984. Eibrink brought legendary players like Johnny Rep and Cees van Kooten to the club; the club managed to revive. In 1985, PEC Zwolle'82 were relegated to the Dutch first division due to an injury-ridden main squad, they managed having finished in second place. That team was led by the player Foeke Booy. Eibrink, grew disappointed in sponsors and local authorities, accusing them of not loving the club in the way that he did, he left the club in 1988. Despite a promising start to the 1988–89 season, the club finished in 16th place, which meant that it was relegated to the First Division.
The financial crisis worsened. The players' wages could not be paid, a debt to the Slavenburg's bank appeared, overseen by the board for around ten years; this led to the club's bankruptcy in March 1990. After the bankruptcy, it was decided that the club had to sever all ties with the troubled finances of the past and make a fresh start; the club got a new name, a new organisational structure, new sponsors, new club colours and a new crest. The first years of the'new' club were hard, but after 1992–93, a new team filled with talents such as Jaap Stam, Bert Konterman, Johan Hansma and Henri van der Vegt played attractive and successful football. In 1992–93, FC Zwolle narrowly missed promotion to the Eredivisie. In the KNVB Cup, FC Zwolle reached the quarter-finals. After many failed attempts in the play-offs, FC Zwolle managed to secure a return to the Eredivisie by winning the First Division in 2002. In the 2002–03 Eredivisie season, the club finished in 16th place and escaped relegation via the play-offs.
A year they made a miserable start to the season, had scored only seven points halfway through the season. An impressive run, with victories over the likes of SC Heerenveen and AZ, proved in vain, as FC Zwolle dropped from a 16th place to the 18th place on the last day of the season, they lost 7–1 away at Feyenoord, while their rivals Vitesse and Volendam managed to beat their opponents Utrecht and RBC Roosendaal. At the beginning of the 2004–05 season, FC Zwolle was considered one of the favourites for the title in the First Division, along with Sparta Rotterdam. However, it was another club from the province of Heracles Almelo, that won the title. FC Zwolle finished the season in fourth place, had to play play-off matches against the second- and sixth-placed teams of the First Division and the 17th-placed team of
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b