Fanta is a brand of fruit-flavored carbonated drinks created by The Coca-Cola Company and marketed globally. There are more than 100 flavours worldwide; the Fanta drink originated as a cola substitute in Nazi Germany under a World War II trade embargo for Coca-Cola ingredients in 1940. During WWII, a trade embargo was established against Nazi Germany—making the import of Coca-Cola syrup difficult. To circumvent this, Max Keith, the head of Coca-Cola Deutschland decided to create a new product for the German market, using only ingredients available in Germany at the time, including whey and apple pomace—the "leftovers of leftovers", as Keith recalled; the name was the result of a brainstorming session, which started with Keith's exhorting his team to "use their imagination", to which one of his salesmen, Joe Knipp, retorted "Fanta!"The plant was cut off from Coca-Cola headquarters during the war. After the war, The Coca-Cola Company regained control of the plant and the trademarks to the new Fanta product—as well as the plant profits made during the war.
During the war the Dutch Coca-Cola plant in Amsterdam suffered the same difficulties as the German Coca-Cola plant. Max Keith put the Fanta brand at the disposal of the Dutch Coca-Cola plant, of which he had been appointed the official caretaker. Dutch Fanta had a different recipe from German Fanta, elderberries being one of the main ingredients. Fanta production was discontinued when the German and Dutch Coca-Cola branches were reunited with their parent company. Following the launch of several drinks by the Pepsi corporation in the 1950s, Coca-Cola relaunched Fanta in 1955; the drink was marketed in Europe, Asia and South America. The orange Fanta that we know today was produced for the first time in Italy, in Naples, in 1955, when a local bottling plant started producing it using locally sourced oranges. Fanta is known for its upbeat colorful advertising. For the re-introduction of Fanta in the United States, Coca-Cola worked with the ad agency Ogilvy in 2001. After a brainstorming session, the Ogilvy creative team of Andrea Scaglione, Andrew Ladden and Bill Davaris created the tagline "Wanta Fanta!" which became the jingle for the Fantanas in the broadcast campaign.
The campaign lasted from mid-2001, in the form of a successful trial run, to October 1, 2006. Three years in June 2009, Fanta re-launched the campaign. In February 2015, a 75th-anniversary version of Fanta was released in Germany. Packaged in glass bottles evoking the original design and with an authentic original wartime flavor including 30% whey and pomace, it is described on the packaging as "less sweet" and a German original. An associated television ad referenced the history of the drink and said the Coca-Cola company wanted to bring back "the feeling of the Good Old Times", interpreted by many to mean Nazi rule; the ad was subsequently replaced. There are more than 90 flavors worldwide. In Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Turkey and some other countries, there is "Fanta Shokata" based on an elderflower blossom extract drink, traditional in Romania, Serbia and Herzegovina, Croatia and other Balkan countries. Orange Fanta is available in Canada; the other variants available in Canada are Cream Soda, both made with grape juice.
Primary competitors to Fanta have included Tango, Sunkist, Sumol, Faygo, Tropicana Twister and Orangina. Fanta was the second drink to be produced after the original Coca-Cola. In New Zealand, unlike the rest of Australasia, Fanta is visually branded with the original logo used since 2008; the New Zealand market includes the Fanta variants Fanta Blueberry, Fanta Sour Watermelon and Fanta Strawberry Sherbet. Hit – Fanta's Venezuelan counterpart Royal Tru – Fanta's Filipino counterpart Official website "Coca Cola and the war". Digger History. Fanta on Coca-Cola.com Coke phasing out Minute Maid soft drinks
Boilermaker (beer cocktail)
A boilermaker can refer to two types of beer cocktail. In American terminology, the drink consists of a shot of whiskey; the beer is either mixed with the whiskey. When the beer is served as a chaser, the drink is called a shot and a beer. In Philadelphia, it is referred to as a Citywide Special. In the basement it's widely known as "A Goldman" In Texas, it is known as a Two-Step. In parts of Florida, it is referred to as a Git-Right; the drink originated in Butte, Montana in the 1890s, was called a "Sean O'Farrell" and was served only when miners ended their shifts. In England, the term boilermaker traditionally refers to a half pint of draught mild mixed with a half pint of bottled brown ale, although it now commonly refers to the American shot and pint. In Scotland, a Half and a Half is a half pint of beer with a whisky; the use of these terms in Scottish and English pubs can be traced back to about 1920. There are a number of ways to drink an American boilermaker: Traditionally, the liquor is drunk in a single gulp and is "chased" by the beer, sipped.
The liquor and beer may be mixed by dropping the shot into the beer. The mixture may be stirred, if desired. If the actual shot glass is dropped into the beer glass, the drink is known as a depth charge; the liquor may be poured directly into can after consuming some of the beer. Other pairings of a shot and a beer are possible. Imp'n' Arn, Imperial whisky and Iron City Beer, exclusive to Pittsburgh. Kopstootje, Dutch pairing of Jenever and beer, term attested 1943. Somaek,Poktanju, Korean pairing of soju and beer. U-Boot, German pairing of vodka and beer. Yorsh, Russian pairing of vodka and beer. Chicago Handshake, a pairing of Jeppson's Malört and Old Style Beer Irish Car Bomb, an American pairing of a shot of Irish cream and whiskey into a glass of stout. Bomb shot Yorsh
Sorbs known by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting Lusatia, a region divided between Germany and Poland. According to Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Lusatians have the same origin as Serbs from the Balkan Peninsula who inhabited the areas between the rivers Elbe and Saale, on the southern coast of the Baltic sea. Sorbs traditionally speak the Sorbian languages related to the Polish, Kashubian and Slovak. Sorbian is an recognized minority language in Germany. Sorbs are genetically closest to the Czechs and Poles. Due to a gradual and increasing assimilation between the 17th and 20th centuries all Sorbs spoke German by the late 19th century and much of the recent generations no longer speak the language; the community is divided religiously between Roman Lutheranism. The former Prime Minister of Saxony, Stanislaw Tillich, is a Sorb; the ethnonym "Sorbs" derives from the medieval ethnic groups called Sorbs. The original ethnonym, was retained by the Sorbs and Serbs in the Balkans.
By the 6th century, Slavs occupied the area west of the Oder inhabited by Germanic peoples. The Sorbs are first mentioned in the 7th century, it is a fact that the other Slavs call them the ″Lusatian Serbs″, the Sorbs call the Serbs ″the south Sorbs″. In the 19th century the autonym of the Slavic population of Lusatia was "Lusatians"; the name "Lusatia" was applied only to Lower Lusatia, inhabited by Slavs known as Luzici, who may be regarded ancestors of the Lower Sorbs, while Upper Lusatia was inhabited by Slavs known as Milceni, the supposed ancestors of Upper Sorbs. According to a genetic study published in May 2011, Sorbs show the greatest genetic similarity to Poles, followed by Czechs, consistent with their West Slavic language, they less than Sardinians and French Basques. Estimates of demographic history of the Sorb population since 1450: Sorbs are divided into two ethnographical groups: Upper Sorbs, who speak Upper Sorbian. Lower Sorbs, who speak Lower Sorbian; the dialects spoken vary in intelligibility in different areas.
Sorbs arrived in the area extending between the Bober and Oder rivers to the East and the Saale and Elbe rivers to the West during the 6th century. In the north, the area of their settlement reached Berlin; the earliest surviving mention of the tribe was in 631 A. D. when Fredegar's Chronicle described them as Surbi and as under the rule of a Dervan, an ally of Samo. According to some historians, the Sorbian principality was mythical White Serbia and some think that the migration of Serbs to the Balkans was in this period; the Annales Regni Francorum state that in 806 A. D. Sorbian Duke Miliduch was killed. In 840, Sorbian Duke Czimislav was killed. In 932, Henry I conquered Milsko. Gero II, Margrave of the Saxon Ostmark, reconquered Lusatia the following year and, in 939, murdered 30 Sorbian princes during a feast; as a result, there were many Sorbian uprisings against German rule. A reconstructed castle, at Raddusch in Lower Lusatia, is the sole physical remnant from this early period. Lusatian tribes are noted in the work of the Bavarian Geographer.
The document contains a list of the tribes in Central-Eastern Europe east of the Elbe and north of the Danube to the Volga rivers to the Black and Caspian Sea most of them of Slavic origin. Having settled by the Elbe and Neisse in the 6th century, Sorbian tribes divided into two main groups, which have taken their names from the characteristics of the area where they had settled. Sorbs living on the swampy broads of the Lower Spree have taken their name from the word marsh; the Milceni settled on fertile soil around Upper Spree, the name derives from the word měl’. The two groups were separated from each other by a uninhabited forest range; the rest of the tribes settled themselves between the Saale. Among the many Slavic tribes, the Bavarian Geographer noted a few Lusatian tribes: Glomacze - Dolomici, Milceni and Sitice; the Israeli Slavic linguist Paul Wexler has argued that the Yiddish language structure provides "compelling evidence of an intimate Jewish contact with the Slavs in the German and Bohemian lands as early as the 9th century," and has theorized that Sorbs may have been contributors to the Ashkenazic Jewish population in Europe from the same period.
During the reign of Boleslaw I of Poland in 1002-1018, three Polish-German wars were waged which caused Lusatia to come under the domination of new rulers. In 1018, on the strength of peace in Bautzen, Lusatia became a part of Poland. However, this German rule is not to be understood in a national sense. At that time, Lusatia was part of Bohemia which itself was part of the Roman-German Empire but was ruled by a powerful indigenous slavic dynasty. There was a dense network of dynastic and diplomatic relations between German and slavic feudal lords, e.g. Wiprecht of Groitzsch rose to power through close links with the Bohemian king and his marriage into slavic nobility; the slavic-governed Bohemia remained a loyal and politically influential member of the Roman-German Empire but was in a constant power-struggle with neighbouring Poland. From the 11th to the 15th century, agriculture in
The Sazerac is a local New Orleans variation of a cognac or whiskey cocktail, named for the Sazerac de Forge et Fils brand of cognac brandy that served as its original main ingredient. The drink is most traditionally a combination of cognac or rye whiskey, Peychaud's Bitters, sugar, although bourbon whiskey or Herbsaint are sometimes substituted; some claim it is the oldest known American cocktail, with origins in pre-Civil War New Orleans, although drink historian David Wondrich is among those who dispute this, American instances of published usage of the word cocktail to describe a mixture of spirits and sugar can be traced to the dawn of the 19th century. The defining feature of the Sazerac is its method of preparation, which involves two chilled old-fashioned glasses; the first glass is swirled with a wash of absinthe for strong scent. The second glass is used to combine the remaining ingredients, which are stirred with ice strained into the first glass. Various anisettes such as pastis, Pernod, or Herbsaint are common substitutes when absinthe is unavailable.
In New Orleans, Herbsaint is most used due to the absence of absinthe in the U. S. market from 1912 until 2007. Around 1850, Sewell T. Taylor sold his New Orleans bar, The Merchants Exchange Coffee House, to become an importer of spirits, he began to import a brand of cognac named Sazerac-de-Forge et Fils. Meanwhile, Aaron Bird assumed proprietorship of the Merchants Exchange and changed its name to Sazerac Coffee House. Legend has it that Bird began serving the "Sazerac Cocktail", made with Sazerac cognac imported by Taylor, with bitters being made by the local apothecary, Antoine Amedie Peychaud; the Sazerac Coffee House subsequently changed hands several times, until around 1870 Thomas Handy became its proprietor. It is around this time that the primary ingredient changed from cognac to rye whiskey, due to the phylloxera epidemic in Europe that devastated the vineyards of France. At some point before his death in 1889, Handy recorded the recipe for the cocktail, which made its first printed appearance in William T.
"Cocktail Bill" Boothby's The World's Drinks and How to Mix Them, although his recipe calls for Selner Bitters, not Peychaud's. After absinthe was banned in the US in 1912, it was replaced by various anise-flavored liqueurs, most notably the locally produced Herbsaint, which first appeared in 1934. By the early 20th century, simple cocktails like the Sazerac had become rare, which rekindled their popularity; the creation of the Sazerac has been credited to Antoine Amédée Peychaud, a Creole apothecary who emigrated to New Orleans from the West Indies and set up shop in the French Quarter in the early 19th Century. He was known to dispense a proprietary mix of aromatic bitters from an old family recipe. According to popular myth, he served his drink in the large end of an egg cup, called a coquetier in French, the Americanized mispronunciation resulted in the name cocktail; this belief was debunked when people discovered that the term "cocktail" as a type of drink first appeared in print at least as far back as 1803—and was defined in print in 1806 as, "a mixture of spirits of any kind, water and bitters, vulgarly called a bittered sling.".
In March 2008, Louisiana state senator Edwin R. Murray filed Senate Bill 6 designating the Sazerac as Louisiana's official state cocktail; the bill was defeated on April 8, 2008. After further debate, on June 23, 2008, the Louisiana Legislature agreed to proclaim the Sazerac as New Orleans' official cocktail. A cocktail named the Zazarack was included in the 1910 version of Jack's Manual, an early bartender's reference written by Jacob "Jack" Grohusko, the head bartender at Baracca’s restaurant in New York, it is the same cocktail as the Sazerac, but called for bourbon instead of cognac. Versions of the drink were spelled Zazarac and added rum, are thought by some to be a variant of the Sazerac, although it might have originated independent of the more famous drink. A Sazerac cocktail features prominently in an episode of the HBO TV series Treme, when chef Janette Desautel tosses one in the face of restaurant critic and food writer Alan Richman. Richman had angered many New Orleanians in 2006 with an article in the magazine GQ, in which he criticized New Orleans' food culture post-Hurricane Katrina.
Despite reservations, he agreed to participate in the scene and called Sazerac "a good choice of weaponry, because it symbolizes the city". In the 1973 James Bond film Live and Let Die, two Sazerac cocktails are ordered by Bond's CIA-agent friend Felix Leiter. Sazerac is a brand of rye whiskey produced by the Sazerac Company. List of cocktails
Absinthe is described as a distilled alcoholic beverage. It is an anise-flavoured spirit derived from botanicals, including the flowers and leaves of Artemisia absinthium, together with green anise, sweet fennel, other medicinal and culinary herbs. Absinthe traditionally has a natural green colour, but may be colourless, it is referred to in historical literature as "la fée verte". It is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a liqueur, but it is not traditionally bottled with added sugar and is, classified as a spirit. Absinthe is traditionally bottled at a high level of alcohol by volume, but it is diluted with water prior to being consumed. Absinthe originated in the canton of Neuchâtel in Switzerland in the late 18th century, it rose to great popularity as an alcoholic drink in late 19th- and early 20th-century France among Parisian artists and writers. The consumption of absinthe was opposed by social conservatives and prohibitionists due to its association with bohemian culture. Absinthe drinkers included Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce, Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Vincent van Gogh, Oscar Wilde, Marcel Proust, Aleister Crowley, Erik Satie, Edgar Allan Poe, Lord Byron, Alfred Jarry, Marilyn Manson.
Absinthe has been portrayed as a dangerously addictive psychoactive drug and hallucinogen. The chemical compound thujone, present in the spirit in trace amounts, was blamed for its alleged harmful effects. By 1915, absinthe had been banned in the United States and in much of Europe, including France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria-Hungary, yet it has not been demonstrated to be any more dangerous than ordinary spirits. Recent studies have shown that absinthe's psychoactive properties have been exaggerated, apart from that of the alcohol. A revival of absinthe began in the 1990s following the adoption of modern European Union food and beverage laws which removed long-standing barriers to its production and sale. By the early 21st century, nearly 200 brands of absinthe were being produced in a dozen countries, most notably in France, Austria, Netherlands and the Czech Republic; the French word absinthe can refer either to the alcoholic beverage or, less to the actual wormwood plant, with grande absinthe being Artemisia absinthium, petite absinthe being Artemisia pontica.
The Latin name artemisia comes from the Greek ἀρτεμισία "wormwood" and the latter from Artemis, the ancient Greek goddess of the hunt. Absinthe is derived from the Latin absinthium, which in turn comes from the Greek ἀψίνθιον apsínthion, "wormwood"; the use of Artemisia absinthium in a drink is attested in Lucretius' De Rerum Natura, where Lucretius indicates that a drink containing wormwood is given as medicine to children in a cup with honey on the brim to make it drinkable. Some claim that the word means "undrinkable" in Greek, but it may instead be linked to the Persian root spand or aspand, or the variant esfand, which meant Peganum harmala called Syrian Rue—although it is not a variety of rue, another famously bitter herb; that Artemisia absinthium was burned as a protective offering may suggest that its origins lie in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European root *spend, meaning "to perform a ritual" or "make an offering". Whether the word was a borrowing from Persian into Greek, or from a common ancestor of both, is unclear.
Alternatively, the Greek word may originate in a pre-Greek substrate word, marked by the non-Indo-European consonant complex νθ. Alternative spellings for absinthe include absinth and absenta. Absinth is a spelling variant most applied to absinthes produced in central and eastern Europe, is associated with Bohemian-style absinthes; the precise origin of absinthe is unclear. The medical use of wormwood dates back to ancient Egypt and is mentioned in the Ebers Papyrus, c. 1550 BC. Wormwood extracts and wine-soaked wormwood leaves were used as remedies by the ancient Greeks. Moreover, there is evidence of a wormwood-flavoured wine in ancient Greece called absinthites oinos; the first evidence of absinthe dates to the 18th century in the sense of a distilled spirit containing green anise and fennel. According to popular legend, it began as an all-purpose patent remedy created by Dr. Pierre Ordinaire, a French doctor living in Couvet, Switzerland around 1792. Ordinaire's recipe was passed on to the Henriod sisters of Couvet, who sold it as a medicinal elixir.
By other accounts, the Henriod sisters may have been making the elixir before Ordinaire's arrival. In either case, a certain Major Dubied acquired the formula from the sisters in 1797 and opened the first absinthe distillery named Dubied Père et Fils in Couvet with his son Marcellin and son-in-law Henry-Louis Pernod. In 1805, they built a second distillery in Pontarlier, France under the company name Maison Pernod Fils. Pernod Fils remained one of the most popular brands of absinthe until the drink was banned in France in 1914. Absinthe's popularity grew through the 1840s, when it was given to French troops as a malaria preventive, the troops brought home their taste for it. Absinthe became so popular in bars, cafés, cabarets by the 1860s that the hour of 5 p.m. was called l'heure verte. It was favoured by all social classes, from the wealthy bourgeoisie to poor artists and ordinary working-class people. By the 1880s, mass production had caused the price to drop and the French were drinking 36 million litres per year by 1910, compared
A beer cocktail is a cocktail, made by mixing beer with a distilled beverage or another style of beer. In this type of cocktail, the primary ingredient is beer. A mixture of beer with a beverage that contains a soft drink is called a shandy. Admiral’s Flush - Guinness with a shot of port added in. Black and Tan – A layered drink made from a blend of pale ale and a dark beer such as a stout or porter. Traditionally uses stout. Black Velvet – A layered drink using a combination of Stout and sparkling wine or champagne. A cheaper version uses cider. Blow my Skull Off – Ale or porter with rum and brandy Boilermaker – Mild ale mixed with bottled brown ale; the US version is a glass of beer with a shot of whiskey. The beer is either mixed with the whiskey. Brass Monkey – There are at least two cocktails going by this name; the beer version is created by adding orange juice to Malt liquor. Coronarita – Overturned Corona bottle draining into a margarita. Clam Pint - Lager with Clamato. Served premixed or with the Clamato separate for the customer to add.
Popular in Western Canada Depth Charge – Pint of beer with a bomb shot of Drambuie dropped within. A "depth charge" is another name for a bomb shot. Dog's Nose – Beer and gin, referred to in Tom Sharpe's book Grantchester Grind. Flaming Doctor Pepper - a flaming drink made from a bomb shot of high-proof alcohol and Amaretto ignited and dropped into a pint of beer. Tastes like Dr Pepper. Hangman's Blood – Porter combined with brandy and rum. Incredible Hulk - a variation of the cognac drink of the same name. Both share the similarity of a green color, it combines equal parts of WKD Blue. Irish Car Bomb – Irish stout with a mixed bomb shot of Irish cream and Irish whiskey. Lunchbox – Beer mixed with orange juice and a shot of Amaretto Michelada – "Prepared beer" with citrus juice, tomato juice, chili sauce and Worcester sauce. Micky Mouse – Equal parts of lager and bitter Porchcrawler – Equal parts of beer and lemonade concentrate. Portagaff – Stout with lemonade. Red eye - beer, Clamato juice, chili sauce, Worcester sauce.
Sake bomb – Shot of sake poured or dropped into a glass of beer. Shandy – Beer with lemonade. Snakebite – Equal parts of lager and cider. Snakebite & Black – Equal parts of lager and cider, a shot of blackcurrant squash. Creme de cassis was added instead of squash. Somaek – Soju with beer; the ratio varies liberally. Tom Bass – Bass ale with a shot of Jägermeister served in a pint glass. Turbo Shandy - equal parts of strong lager and lemonade flavored alcopop.. U-Boot – Glass of beer with a bomb shot containing vodka "submerged" in it. Vancouver Vice – Weiss beer based cocktail with gin, Pimms, citrus juices and strawberry honey syrup. Berliner Weisse Wassail List of cocktails
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge