The Thing is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is a founding member of the Fantastic Four; the Thing was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, he first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1. The character is known for his trademark rocky appearance, sense of humor, famous battle cry, "It's clobberin' time!" The Thing's speech patterns are loosely based on those of Jimmy Durante. Actor Michael Bailey Smith played Ben Grimm in The Fantastic Four film from 1994, Michael Chiklis portrayed the Thing in the 2005 film Fantastic Four and its 2007 sequel Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, while Jamie Bell acted the part in Fantastic Four. In 2011, IGN ranked the Thing 18th in the "Top 100 Comic Book Heroes", 23rd in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012; the Thing was named Empire magazine's tenth of "The 50 Greatest Comic Book Characters" in 2008. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1.
Kirby modeled the character after himself. In addition to appearing in the Fantastic Four, the Thing has been the star of Marvel Two-in-One, Strange Tales, two incarnations of his own eponymous series, as well as numerous miniseries and one-shots; the Thing joined his Fantastic Four partner and frequent rival the Human Torch in #124 of Strange Tales, which featured solo adventures of the Human Torch and backup Doctor Strange stories. The change was intended to liven the comic through the always humorous chemistry between the Torch and the Thing, they were replaced in #135 with the "modern-day" version of Nick Fury, Agent of S. H. I. E. L. D. Who had been appearing in Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos. After a 1973 try-out in two issues of Marvel Feature, the Thing starred in the long-running series Marvel Two-in-One. In each issue, Ben Grimm would team up with another character from the Marvel Universe an obscure or colorful character; the series helped to introduce characters from Marvel's lineup, by way of teaming up with the more recognizable Thing.
In 1992, Marvel reprinted four Two-in-One stories as a miniseries under the title The Adventures of the Thing. The series was cancelled after seven annuals to make way for a solo series; the cancellation of Marvel Two-in-One led to the Thing's first solo series, which ran for 36 issues. It was written by John Byrne and Mike Carlin; the series featured art by Ron Wilson and by Paul Neary. It elaborated on Ben Grimm's poor childhood on Yancy Street in its early issue, chronicled the Thing's foray into the world of professional wrestling, it featured a major storyline offshoot from Marvel's Secret Wars event, in which the Thing elects to remain on the Beyonder's Battleworld after discovering that the planet enables him to return to human form at will. A full third of the series' stories take place on Battleworld. In 2002, Marvel released The Thing: Freakshow, a four-issue miniseries written by Geoff Johns and illustrated by Scott Kolins, in which the Thing travels across the United States by train, inadvertently stumbling on a deformed gypsy boy he once ridiculed as a teenager, now the super-strong main attraction of a troupe of traveling circus freaks.
He discovers a town full of alien Kree and Skrull warriors fighting over a Watcher infant. In 2003, Marvel released a four-issue miniseries written by Evan Dorkin and illustrated by Dean Haspiel, The Thing: Night Falls on Yancy Street; the story was more character-driven than the stories that feature the Thing. Tom Spurgeon found its outlook on relationships "depressing". After the success of the 2005 Fantastic Four feature film and events in the comics series that resulted in Grimm becoming a millionaire, the Thing was once again given his own series in 2005, The Thing, written by Dan Slott and penciled by Andrea Di Vito and Kieron Dwyer, it was canceled with issue #8 in 2006. The Thing was a member of The New Avengers, when that team debuted in their self-titled series in 2010, he appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010–2013 New Avengers series, from issue #1 through its final issue #34. Born on Yancy Street in New York City's Lower East Side, to a Jewish family, Benjamin Jacob "Ben" Grimm had an early life of poverty and hardship, shaping him into a tough, streetwise scrapper.
His older brother Daniel, whom Ben idolized, was killed in a street gang fight when Ben was eight years old. This portion of his own life is modeled on that of Jack Kirby, who grew up on tough Delancey Street, whose brother died when he was young, whose father was named Benjamin, and, named Jacob at birth. Following the death of his parents, Ben was raised by his Uncle Jake, he comes to lead the Yancy Street gang at one point. Excelling in football as a high school student, Ben received a full scholarship to Empire State University, where he first met his eventual lifelong friend in a teenaged genius named Reed Richards, as well as future enemy Victor von Doom. Despite their being from radically different backgrounds, science student Richards described to Grimm his dream of building a space rocket to explore the regions of space around Mars; the details of his life story have been modified over the decades. Prior to the stories published in the 1970s, after earning multiple advanced degrees in engineering, served in the United States Marine Corps as a test pilot during World War II
The Fantastic Four is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group debuted in The Fantastic Four #1, which helped to usher in a new level of realism in the medium; the Fantastic Four was the first superhero team created by editor/co-plotter Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, who developed a collaborative approach to creating comics with this title that they would use from on. The four individuals traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are Mister Fantastic, a scientific genius and the leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes. Since their original 1961 introduction, the Fantastic Four have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic book archetypes of the time, they would squabble and hold grudges both deep and petty and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status.
The team is well known for its recurring encounters with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom, the Kree Empire's ruthless and tyrannical enforcer Ronan the Accuser, the planet-devouring Galactus, ruler of the Negative Zone, the sea-dwelling prince Namor, the spacefaring Silver Surfer, the Skrull warrior Kl'rt. The Fantastic Four have been adapted into other media, including four animated series and four live-action films. Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics known as National Periodical Publications, that the top executive bragged about DC's success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America. While film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan has debunked the particulars of that story, Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of the JLA's strong sales, did direct his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes.
According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes....'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he,'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'"Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics, for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive. Determined "to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books", Lee concluded that, "For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading.... And the characters would be the kind of characters I could relate to: they'd be flesh and blood, they'd have their faults and foibles, they'd be fallible and feisty, — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they'd still have feet of clay."Lee said he created a synopsis for the first Fantastic Four story that he gave to penciller Jack Kirby, who drew the entire story.
Kirby turned in his penciled art pages to Lee, who captions. This approach to creating comics, which became known as the "Marvel Method", worked so well for Lee and Kirby that they used it from on. Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. Challenged with Lee's version of events in a 1990 interview, Kirby responded: "I would say that's an outright lie", although the interviewer, Gary Groth, notes that this statement needs to be viewed with caution. Kirby claims he came up with the idea for the Fantastic Four in Marvel's offices, that Lee had added the dialogue after the story had been pencilled. Kirby sought to establish, more credibly and on numerous occasions, that the visual elements of the strip were his conceptions, he pointed to a team he had created for rival publisher DC Comics in the 1950s, the Challengers of the Unknown. "f you notice the uniforms, they're the same... I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt... the Challengers and the FF have a minimum of decoration. And of course, the Thing's skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the monotony of the blue uniform."
The chest insignia of a "4" within a circle, was designed by Lee. The characters wear no uniforms in the first two issues. Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to identify with precise detail who created the Fantastic Four. Although Stan Lee's typed synopsis for the Fantastic Four exists, Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal, points out that its existence does not assert its place in the creation: "e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas". Comics historian R. C. Harvey believes that the Fantastic Four was a furtherance of the work Kirby had been doing and so "more Kirby's creations than Lee's", but Harvey notes that the Marvel Method of collabora
Time travel is the concept of movement between certain points in time, analogous to movement between different points in space by an object or a person using a hypothetical device known as a time machine. Time travel is a widely-recognized concept in fiction; the idea of a time machine was popularized by H. G. Wells' 1895 novel The Time Machine, it is uncertain. Forward time travel, outside the usual sense of the perception of time, is an extensively-observed phenomenon and well-understood within the framework of special relativity and general relativity. However, making one body advance or delay more than a few milliseconds compared to another body is not feasible with current technology; as for backwards time travel, it is possible to find solutions in general relativity that allow for it, but the solutions require conditions that may not be physically possible. Traveling to an arbitrary point in spacetime has a limited support in theoretical physics, only connected with quantum mechanics or wormholes known as Einstein-Rosen bridges.
Some ancient myths depict a character skipping forward in time. In Hindu mythology, the Mahabharata mentions the story of King Raivata Kakudmi, who travels to heaven to meet the creator Brahma and is surprised to learn when he returns to Earth that many ages have passed; the Buddhist Pāli Canon mentions the relativity of time. The Payasi Sutta tells of one of the Buddha's chief disciples, Kumara Kassapa, who explains to the skeptic Payasi that time in the Heavens passes differently than on Earth; the Japanese tale of "Urashima Tarō", first described in the Nihongi tells of a young fisherman named Urashima Taro who visits an undersea palace. After three days, he returns home to his village and finds himself 300 years in the future, where he has been forgotten, his house is in ruins, his family has died. In Jewish tradition, the 1st-century BC scholar Honi ha-M'agel is said to have fallen asleep and slept for seventy years; when waking up he returned home but found none of the people he knew, no one believed his claims of who he was.
Early science fiction stories feature characters who sleep for years and awaken in a changed society, or are transported to the past through supernatural means. Among them L'An 2440, rêve s'il en fût jamais by Louis-Sébastien Mercier, Rip Van Winkle by Washington Irving, Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy, When the Sleeper Awakes by H. G. Wells. Prolonged sleep, like the more familiar time machine, is used as a means of time travel in these stories; the earliest work about backwards time travel is uncertain. Samuel Madden's Memoirs of the Twentieth Century is a series of letters from British ambassadors in 1997 and 1998 to diplomats in the past, conveying the political and religious conditions of the future; because the narrator receives these letters from his guardian angel, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that "the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel." Madden does not explain how the angel obtains these documents, but Alkon asserts that Madden "deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backward from the future to be discovered in the present."
In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries, editor August Derleth claims that an early short story about time travel is Missing One's Coach: An Anachronism, written for the Dublin Literary Magazine by an anonymous author in 1838. While the narrator waits under a tree for a coach to take him out of Newcastle, he is transported back in time over a thousand years, he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery and explains to him the developments of the coming centuries. However, the story never makes it clear whether these events are a dream. Another early work about time travel is The Forebears of Kalimeros: Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon by Alexander Veltman published in 1836. Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol has early depictions of time travel in both directions, as the protagonist, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past and future. Other stories employ the same template, where a character goes to sleep, upon waking up finds themself in a different time. A clearer example of backward time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard, published posthumously.
In this story, the protagonist is transported to the prehistoric past by the magic of a "lame demon", where he encounters a Plesiosaur and an apelike ancestor and is able to interact with ancient creatures. Edward Everett Hale's "Hands Off" tells the story of an unnamed being the soul of a person who has died, who interferes with ancient Egyptian history by preventing Joseph's enslavement; this may have been the first story to feature an alternate history created as a result of time travel. One of the first stories to feature time travel by means of a machine is "The Clock that Went Backward" by Edward Page Mitchell, which appeared in the New York Sun in 1881. However, the mechanism borders on fantasy. An unusual clock, when wound, transports people nearby back in time; the author does not explain the origin or properties of the clock. Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau's El Anacronópete may have been the first story to feature a vessel engineered to travel through time. Andrew Sawyer has commented that the story "does seem to be the first literary description of a time machine noted so far", adding that "Edward Page Mitchell's story'The Clock That Went Backward' is described as the first time-machine story, but I'm not sure
The Kid Commandos is a fictional organization appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group was active during the second world war; the Kid Commandos first appeared as a team in Invaders #28, were created by Roy Thomas and Frank Robbins. The Kid Commandos received an entry in the original Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe #13. in 2014, a flashback story featuring the Kid Commandos is in All-New Invaders Issues 6-7. The Kid Commandos were a team of teenage costumed adventurers who aided the Allies during World War II. During World War II, teenaged Gwenny Lou Sabuki, the daughter of Japanese American scientist Dr. Sam Sabuki, was present at a stateside battle in which sidekicks Bucky and Toro of the superhero team the Invaders fought the supervillain Agent Axis. There one of Dr. Sabuki's inventions accidentally gave Gwenny Lou and her friend David "Davey" Mitchell superhuman powers. Gwenny Lou became Golden Girl, Davey became the Human Top; the four youthful heroes defeated Agent Axis, formed the Kid Commandos, who were allied with the adult Invaders.
The Kid Commandos fought Nazi espionage at home in America. The Kid Commandos fought the Invaders, when they disagreed with the military's use of a Tsunami Bomb, which would have caused too much collateral damage; the bomb was never used. After the war, Golden Girl and Human Top were part of the V-Battalion. Kid Commandos at the Superhero Database
Lady Lotus is a fictional supervillainess appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She first appeared in Invaders #37 in February 1979. Lady Lotus first appeared in Invaders #37, was created by Don Glut, Rick Hoberg, Chic Stone and Alan Kupperberg. Lady Lotus was born in Japan, exhibited strong psychic powers at a young age, she developed these abilities through constant meditation, supplemented her powers with the sacred lotus flower. At the age of 21, she moved to the United States. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States began holding Japanese-Americans in concentration camps to determine their loyalties. Disgusted by this, Lady Lotus took refuge in New York's Chinatown and opened a curio shop called "The House of Lotus", she cast a subtle hypnotic suggestion over anyone who came into the store, convincing her customers that she was Chinese. Angered at how her people were being treated by the Americans, she vowed to destroy the United States, allied with the Axis Powers.
When U-Man was about to attempt an attack upon the Sub-Mariner's flagship, he was compelled away by the mental powers of Lady Lotus, who commanded him to come to her lair. When U-Man arrived at the House of Lotus, Lady Lotus sent her guards to test his strength, was impressed; when U-Man tried to fight back against her, he was powerless because of her mental abilities. She told him she was interested in Golden Girl. With her powers, she made sure that Japanese saboteurs would make an attempt at the Santa Monica Pier which would be stopped by the Kid Commandos. After they had beaten the saboteurs, she sent U-Man to capture Golden Girl and he brought her back to a warehouse at Lady Lotus's request. There, Golden Girl was treated with utmost respect and was offered tea as Lady Lotus retold her story to her, she attempted to appeal to their common Japanese ancestry so they could work together to take over the U. S. but Golden Girl was unshaken in her commitment to America, despite what she and her father, Dr. Sam Sabuki, had suffered.
Lady Lotus tried to take over her mind. The Invaders and the other Kid Commandos arrived just as U-Man and Lady Lotus' soldiers attempted to capture Golden girl, causing Lady Lotus to flee with U-Man. Meanwhile, some of Lady Lotus' agents attempted to revive Baron Blood and when he came to, Lady Lotus directed him to the House of Lotus to join her forces. After bathing in lotus petals and scented water, Lady Lotus confronted Baron Blood and U-Man, demonstrated to Baron Blood that she could control him as as Dracula, she provided him with a coffin and soil from England for him to rest in, a new costume to replace his tattered garment. She sent Baron Blood to help Master Man and Warrior Woman smuggle into America; the Invaders interfered. Lady Lotus captured a number of men and women from Chinatown and hypnotized them to have the men serve as her guards and the women as her maids. With the four costumed Axis agents assembled, Lady Lotus declared that they would join forces as the Super-Axis. Warrior Woman and Master Man refused to obey a Japanese woman, but Lady Lotus drove them into compliance with hypnotic illusions.
Meanwhile, the Human Torch arrived at the House of Lotus, wondering if there was a connection to Lady Lotus. She greeted him and took control of him with hypnosis, offering her love to him, playing on his feelings of rejection after Spitfire chose Captain America, she sent the Super-Axis and Human Torch to destroy Chicago's railroad center to hamper American supplies, directed them mentally from a distance. When the Torch nearly killed Miss America and the Whizzer, Captain America was able to help him regain his senses. Angered at how she played with his emotions, the Torch attacked the House of Lotus solo, she sent her samurai to fight him, but he released a bright flash of light that broke her spell over them. Lady Lotus escaped during the melee. With the Super-Axis' defeat, Lady Lotus retreated into Chinatown. Days she chanced to encounter the Yellow Claw and his young niece, Suwan, in the rain, she was taken aback. The Claw said that he admired her ambition, but promised that if it took him another decade to it, he would be the one to conquer the United States.
U-Man had his revenge upon Lady Lotus for making him her slave by raping her and she gave birth to his daughter, Nia. Lady Lotus was revealed to be the true identity of contemporary Los Angeles crime lord "Lotus Newmark" in Captain America: Forever Allies #1; as Lotus Newmark, she had appeared in storylines in Avengers Spotlight, Wonder Man and Nomad. Lady Lotus possesses the ability to hypnotize others from miles away, she can psychically project images into a crystal ball, cast mental illusions and had limited powers of precognition. Exposure to lotus flowers heightened her powers, she would bathe for an hour in a bath of the flowers to increase her abilities. Due to apparent mystical means, she does not age. Lady Lotus Marvel Wikia Lady Lotus at the Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Mister Fantastic is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is a founding member of the Fantastic Four. Richards possesses a mastery of mechanical and electrical engineering, all levels of physics, human and alien biology. BusinessWeek listed Mr. Fantastic as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics, he is the inventor of the spacecraft, bombarded by cosmic radiation on its maiden voyage, granting the Fantastic Four their powers. Richards gained the ability to stretch his body into any shape. Mister Fantastic acts as the leader and father figure of the Fantastic Four, although in recent years he has been portrayed as being cold and distant towards his teammates due to his scientific, methodical nature; this is true with his best friend, Ben Grimm, who blames Richards for his transformation into a large, rocky creature called the Thing. Whenever Richards is confronted with a challenge, his attention can be so focused that he can neglect his own family.
Regardless, he is the loving husband of Susan Storm, father of son Franklin Richards and daughter Valeria Richards, mentor of his brother-in-law, Johnny Storm. He was first speculated, confirmed that he had diagnosed himself to be on the autism spectrum; the character of Reed Richards was portrayed by actors Alex Hyde-White in the 1994 The Fantastic Four film, Ioan Gruffudd in the 2005 film Fantastic Four and its 2007 sequel Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, Miles Teller in the 2015 film Fantastic Four. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1, he was one of the four main characters in the title. Lee has stated the stretch powers were inspired by DC's Plastic Man, which had no equivalent in Marvel. Reed Richards has continued to appear in the Fantastic Four comic for the majority of its publication run. Born in Central City, Reed Richards is the son of Evelyn and Nathaniel Richards. Nathaniel was a scientific genius, Reed inherited a similar level of intellect and interests.
A child prodigy with special aptitude in mathematics and mechanics, Reed Richards was taking college-level courses when he was 14 He attended such prestigious universities as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Columbia University, the fictional Empire State University. By the age of 20, he had several degrees in the sciences under his belt, it was at Empire State University. Reed had begun designing a starship capable of traveling in hyperspace. Sharing his plans with his new roommate, Grimm jokingly volunteered to pilot the craft. While at State U he met a brilliant fellow student, Victor Von Doom. In Richards, Doom met the first person. Determined to prove he was better, Doom conducted reckless experiments which scarred his face and would lead him to become Doctor Doom. During the summer months, Reed rented a room in a boarding house owned by the aunt of a young woman named Susan Storm, an undergraduate student at the time. Reed fell in love with Sue and began courting her.
Reed was too distracted from his work on his dissertation due to his romance with Sue and decided that the best thing for the both of them was to move out of Marygay's home. Moving on to Harvard, Reed earned Ph. D.s in Physics and Electrical Engineering while working as a military scientist, all this by the age of 22. He worked in communications for the Army. Three years in his mid-20s, Reed used his inheritance, along with government funding, to finance his research. Determined to go to Mars and beyond, Richards based the fateful project in Central City. Susan Storm moved into the area, within a short time, found herself engaged to Reed. Reed's old college roommate, Ben Grimm, now a successful test pilot and astronaut, was indeed slated to pilot the craft. All seemed well, they knew they had not completed all the testing, planned, but Reed was confident they would be safe. Ben was skeptical about the unknown effects of radiation, while Reed theorized that their ship's shielding would be adequate to protect them.
It was on Reed's initiative that the fateful mission which had Susan Storm, Johnny Storm and Ben Grimm accompanying him into space took place. When their ship passed through the Van Allen belt they found their cockpit bombarded with nearly lethal doses of cosmic radiation. Reed had neglected to account for the abnormal radiation levels in the belt's atmosphere; the cosmic rays wreaked havoc on the starship's insufficient shielding and they were forced to return to Earth immediately. When they crash-landed they found. Reed's body was elastic and he could reshape any portion of his body at will. At his suggestion, they decided to use their new abilities to serve mankind as the Fantastic Four. Reed was chosen to lead the group, under the name "Mr. Fantastic", he told his daughter, by way of a bedtime story, that the reason he suggested they become adventurers and gave them such outlandish costumes and names as "Mister Fantastic" and "The Thing" was that he knew they would be hated and feared for their powers without such an over-the-top public image.
This history has been changed over the years in order to