Snowdonia is a mountainous region in north Wales and a national park of 823 square miles in area. It was the first to be designated of the three parks in Wales, in 1951. The English name for the area derives from Snowdon, which is the highest mountain in Wales at 3,560 ft, in Welsh, the area is named Eryri. The term ‘Eryri’ first appeared in a manuscript in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, in the Middle Ages the title Prince of Wales and Lord of Snowdonia was used by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, his grandfather Llywelyn Fawr used the title Prince of north Wales and Lord of Snowdonia. This is apparent in books published prior to 1951, such as the classic travelogue Wild Wales by George Borrow, F. J. North, as editor of the book Snowdonia, states When the Committee delineated provisional boundaries, they included areas some distance beyond Snowdonia proper. The traditional Snowdonia thus includes the ranges of Snowdon and its satellites, the Glyderau, the Carneddau and it does not include the hills to the south of Maentwrog.
As Eryri, this area has a place in Welsh history, tradition. Snowdonia National Park was established in 1951 as the national park in Britain, following the Peak District. It covers 827 square miles, and has 37 miles of coastline, the park is governed by the Snowdonia National Park Authority, which is made up of local government and Welsh representatives, and its main offices are at Penrhyndeudraeth. Unlike national parks in countries, Snowdonia are made up of both public and private lands under central planning authority. The makeup of land ownership at Snowdonia is as follows, More than 26,000 people live within the park,58. 6% of the population could speak Welsh in 2011. While most of the land is open or mountainous land. Since the local government re-organisation of 1998, the park partly in the county of Gwynedd. Unusually, Snowdonia National Park has a hole in the middle, around the town of Blaenau Ffestiniog and this was deliberately excluded from the park when it was set up to allow the development of new light industry to replace the reduced slate industry.
The Snowdonia Society is a charity formed in 1967. It is a group of people with an interest in the area. Amory Lovins led the successful 1970s opposition to stop Rio Tinto digging up the area for a massive mine. Research indicates that there were 3.67 million visitors to Snowdonia National Park in 2013, total tourist expenditure was £433.6 million in 2013
A parabola is a two-dimensional, mirror-symmetrical curve, which is approximately U-shaped when oriented as shown in the diagram below, but which can be in any orientation in its plane. It fits any of several different mathematical descriptions which can all be proved to define curves of exactly the same shape. One description of a parabola involves a point and a line, the focus does not lie on the directrix. The parabola is the locus of points in that plane that are equidistant from both the directrix and the focus, a parabola is a graph of a quadratic function, y = x2, for example. The line perpendicular to the directrix and passing through the focus is called the axis of symmetry, the point on the parabola that intersects the axis of symmetry is called the vertex, and is the point where the parabola is most sharply curved. The distance between the vertex and the focus, measured along the axis of symmetry, is the focal length, the latus rectum is the chord of the parabola which is parallel to the directrix and passes through the focus.
Parabolas can open up, left, right, or in some arbitrary direction. Any parabola can be repositioned and rescaled to fit exactly on any other parabola — that is, light that originates from a point source at the focus is reflected into a parallel beam, leaving the parabola parallel to the axis of symmetry. The same effects occur with sound and other forms of energy and this reflective property is the basis of many practical uses of parabolas. The parabola has many important applications, from an antenna or parabolic microphone to automobile headlight reflectors to the design of ballistic missiles. They are frequently used in physics and many other areas, the earliest known work on conic sections was by Menaechmus in the fourth century BC. He discovered a way to solve the problem of doubling the cube using parabolas, the name parabola is due to Apollonius who discovered many properties of conic sections. It means application, referring to application of concept, that has a connection with this curve.
The focus–directrix property of the parabola and other conics is due to Pappus, Galileo showed that the path of a projectile follows a parabola, a consequence of uniform acceleration due to gravity. The idea that a reflector could produce an image was already well known before the invention of the reflecting telescope. Designs were proposed in the early to mid seventeenth century by many mathematicians including René Descartes, Marin Mersenne, when Isaac Newton built the first reflecting telescope in 1668, he skipped using a parabolic mirror because of the difficulty of fabrication, opting for a spherical mirror. Parabolic mirrors are used in most modern reflecting telescopes and in satellite dishes, solving for y yields y =14 f x 2. The length of the chord through the focus is called latus rectum, one half of it semi latus rectum
The Lake District, known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes and mountains and its associations with the early 19th century writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets. It is located in the county of Cumbria, and all the land in England higher than 3,000 feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It contains the deepest and longest bodies of water in England, respectively Wast Water, the Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the park boundary. Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce, Most of the land in the park is in private ownership, with about 55% registered as agricultural land. Landowners include, Individual farmers and other landowners, with more than half of the agricultural land farmed by the owners.
The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area, the Forestry Commission and other investors in forests and woodland. United Utilities owns 8% Lake District National Park Authority The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal and it runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole, Coniston Boating Centre, and Information Centres. Much of the land has statutory open access rights, which cover around 50% of the park. The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery and settlement have altered the natural scenery, and the ecology has been modified by human influence for millennia and includes important wildlife habitats. However, in 2016 the English Lake District bid for World Heritage Status was submitted to UNESCO in the category of cultural landscape, a decision is expected in 2017. In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and this would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley.
The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control, a public inquiry was held into the proposals, which required a decision by the Secretary of State. The decision to recommend approval was announced on October 23,2015, the precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 912 square miles. The park extends just over 32 miles from east to west, the Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, only a handful of settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Ambleside. Villages such as Coniston, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Newby Bridge, Lindale, the economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scattering of hamlets and many isolated farmsteads, some of which are tied to agriculture
Malyovitsa is a peak and ski resort in the northwestern part of the Rila Mountains in southwestern Bulgaria. It is 2,729 m high and is one of the most popular tourist regions in the mountain, the Rila Monastery is situated at its southern foot, and Malyovitsa Ski Centre — with two downhill tracks and two ski drags — is to the north. The main starting point for treks in the region is Malyovitsa Hut, the Malyovitsa region is the cradle of Bulgarian rock climbing and mountaineering. The first organized expeditions were made in 1921-22 by tourists from the town of Samokov, the imposant north wall of the summit was first climbed in 1938 by Konstantin Savadzhiev and Georgi Stoimenov. That was the greatest success of Bulgarian climbers for its time and is deemed as the date of birth of Bulgarian mountaineering, other walls in the region were climbed too with the most difficult routes being made in the 1970s. In the last 15 years, Malyovitsa region has very attractive rock-climbing district with the possibilities it gives for mountaineering.
Other interesting walls and summits are, Zliya Zab, Iglata, Dyavolski Igli, Ushite, a wall that is available for not so experienced rock-climbers is Kuklata. It is situated across Malyovitsa hut,10 minutes walking, Malyovitsa Crag on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Malyovitsa
Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Glacier National Park is a national park located in the U. S. state of Montana, on the Canada–United States border with the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. The park encompasses over 1 million acres and includes parts of two ranges, over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants. This vast pristine ecosystem is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem, the region that became Glacier National Park was first inhabited by Native Americans. Upon the arrival of European explorers, it was dominated by the Blackfeet in the east, under pressure the Blackfoot ceded the mountainous parts of their treaty lands in 1895 to the federal government, it became part of the park. Soon after the establishment of the park on May 11,1910 and these historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places. The mountains of Glacier National Park began forming 170 million years ago when ancient rocks were forced eastward up, known as the Lewis Overthrust, these sedimentary rocks are considered to have some of the finest fossilized examples of extremely early life found anywhere on Earth.
Of the estimated 150 glaciers which existed in the park in the mid-19th century, scientists studying the glaciers in the park have estimated that all the glaciers may disappear by 2030 if the current climate patterns persist. Glacier National Park has almost all its native plant and animal species. Large mammals such as Grizzly bears and mountain goats, as well as rare or endangered species like wolverines and Canadian lynxes, hundreds of species of birds, more than a dozen fish species, and a few reptile and amphibian species have been documented. The park has numerous ecosystems ranging from prairie to tundra, the easternmost forests of western redcedar and hemlock grow in the southwest portion of the park. Large forest fires are uncommon in the park, however, in 2003 over 13% of the park burned. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, according to archeological evidence, Native Americans first arrived in the Glacier area some 10,000 years ago. The earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Flathead and Kootenai, the Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what became the park, as well as the Great Plains immediately to the east.
The park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the winter winds of the plains. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west, when the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide. This established the current boundary between the park and the reservation, while exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles of the area that is now the park. A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area became the park. In 1885 George Bird Grinnell hired noted explorer James Willard Schultz to guide him on an expedition into what would become the park
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Leh /leɪ/, was the capital of the Himalayan kingdom of Ladakh, now the Leh district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Leh district, with an area of 45,110 km2, is the second largest district in the country, after Kutch, Gujarat. Leh is at an altitude of 3,524 metres, and is connected via National Highway 1D to Srinagar in the southwest, in 2010, Leh was heavily damaged by the sudden floods caused by a cloud burst. Leh was an important stopover on routes along the Indus Valley between Tibet to the east, Kashmir to the west and between India and China for centuries. The main goods carried were salt, pashm or cashmere wool, charas or cannabis resin from the Tarim Basin, silk yarn and he conquered Western Tibet although his army originally numbered only 300 men. Several towns and castles are said to have founded by Nyima gon. In an inscription he says he had made for the religious benefit of the Tsanpo. This shows that already in this generation Langdarmas opposition to Buddhism had disappeared, just 15 km east of modern Leh, was the ancient seat of the Ladakhi kings.
During the reign of Delegs Namgyal, the Nawab of Kashmir, as payment for assisting Delegs Namgyal in the Tibet-Ladakh-Mughal war of 1679–1684, the Nawab made a number of onerous demands. One of the least was to build a large Sunni Muslim mosque in Leh at the end of the bazaar in Leh. The mosque reflects a mixture of Islamic and Tibetan architecture and can more than 500 people. This was apparently not the first mosque in Leh, there are two smaller ones which are said to be older, several trade routes have traditionally converged on Leh, from all four directions. The most direct route was the one the modern highway follows from the Punjab via Mandi, the Kulu valley, over the Rohtang Pass, through Lahaul and on to the Indus Valley, and down river to Leh. The route from Srinigar was roughly the same as the road that crosses the Zoji La to Kargil. From Baltistan there were two routes, the main on ran up the Shyok Valley from the Indus, over a pass. The other ran from Skardu straight up the Indus to Kargil, there were both the summer and winter routes from Leh to Yarkand across the Karakorum.
Finally, there were a couple of routes from Leh to Lhasa. The first Englishman to reach Leh was William Moorcroft in 1820, the first recorded royal residence in Ladakh, built at the top of the high Namgyal Peak overlooking the present palace and town, is the now-ruined fort and the gon-khang built by King Tashi Namgyal
The Altai Mountains are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters. The name Altai means Gold Mountain in Mongolian and tai and in its Chinese name, in Turkic languages altin means gold and dag means mountain. The proposed Altaic language family takes its name from this mountain range and their mean elevation is 1,500 to 1,750 m. The snow-line runs at 2,000 m on the side and at 2,400 m on the southern. Mountain passes across the range are few and difficult, the chief being the Ulan-daban at 2,827 m, and this region is studded with large lakes, e. g. The north western and northern slopes of the Sailughem Mountains are extremely steep, on this side lies the highest summit of the range, the double-headed Belukha, whose summits reach 4,506 and 4,440 m respectively, and give origin to several glaciers. Altaians call it Kadyn Bazhy, but is called Uch-Sumer, the second highest peak of the range is in Mongolian part named Khüiten Peak.
This massive peak reaches 4374 m, numerous spurs, striking in all directions from the Sailughem mountains, fill up the space between that range and the lowlands of Tomsk. The Katun and the Biya together form the Ob, the next valley is that of the Charysh, which has the Korgon and Tigeretsk Alps on one side and the Talitsk and Bashalatsk Alps on the other. The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan lake, farther west the valleys of the Uba, the Ulba and the Bukhtarma open south-westwards towards the Irtysh. The lower part of the first, like the valley of the Charysh, is thickly populated, in the valley of the Ulba is the Riddersk mine, at the foot of the Ivanovsk Peak. Its upper parts abound in glaciers, the best known of which is the Berel, on the northern side of the range which separates the upper Bukhtarma from the upper Katun is the Katun glacier, which after two ice-falls widens out to 700 to 900 metres. From a grotto in this glacier bursts tumultuously the Katun river, the high valleys farther north, on the same western face of the Sailughem range, are but little known, their only visitors being Kyrgyz shepherds.
Those of Bashkaus and Chulcha, all three leading to the lake of Teletskoye, are inhabited by Telengit people. The shores of the lake rise almost sheer to over 1,800 m, from this lake issues the Biya, which joins the Katun at Biysk, and meanders through the prairies of the north-west of the Altai. Farther north the Altai highlands are continued in the Kuznetsk district, which has a different geological aspect. But the Abakan River, which rises on the shoulder of the Sayan mountains. East of 94° E the range is continued by a series of mountain chains
It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in Jammu and Kashmir and its culture and history are closely related to that of Tibet. Ladakh is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and culture, Aksai Chin is one of the disputed border areas between China and India. It is administered by China as part of Hotan County but is claimed by India as a part of the Ladakh region of the state of Jammu. In 1962, China and India fought a war over Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. Since 1974, the Government of India has successfully encouraged tourism in Ladakh, since Ladakh is a part of strategically important Jammu and Kashmir, the Indian military maintains a strong presence in the region. The largest town in Ladakh is Leh, followed by Kargil, almost half of Ladakhis are Shia Muslims and the rest are mostly Tibetan Buddhists. In terms of pronunciation, the use of Ladakh, the Persian transliteration of the Tibetan La-dvags, is warranted by the pronunciation of the word in several Tibetan districts.
Ladakh in the Farsi transliteration of the Tibetan La-dvags, which means on the borderland of extreme Pakistan, Ladakh has been described as The Mysterious Land of the Mystic Lamas, The Broken Moonland, or The Last Shangri-La for its unique landscape and exquisite culture. One sees no horizon here but only mountain peaks soaring up to 5 to 6 km, in the prehistoric period Ladakh formed a Great Lake. Even at present the region has some of the largest and most beautiful lakes, Pangong and it is a repository of myriad cultural and religious influences from Tibet, Indian subcontinent and Central Asia. Rock carvings found in parts of Ladakh indicate that the area has been inhabited from Neolithic times. Around the 1st century, Ladakh was a part of the Kushana empire, Buddhism spread into western Ladakh from Kashmir in the 2nd century when much of eastern Ladakh and western Tibet was still practising the Bon religion. The 7th century Buddhist traveler Xuanzang describes the region in his accounts, in the 8th century, Ladakh was involved in the clash between Tibetan expansion pressing from the East and Chinese influence exerted from Central Asia through the passes.
Suzerainty over Ladakh frequently changed hands between China and Tibet, in 842 Nyima-Gon, a Tibetan royal prince annexed Ladakh for himself after the break-up of the Tibetan empire, and founded a separate Ladakhi dynasty. During this period, Ladakh acquired a predominantly Tibetan population, the dynasty spearheaded the second spreading of Buddhism, importing religious ideas from north-west India, particularly from Kashmir. The first spreading of Buddhism was the one in Tibet proper, according to Rolf Alfred Stein, author of Tibetan Civilization, the area of Zhangzhung was not historically a part of Tibet and was a distinctly foreign territory to the Tibetans. Then further west, The Tibetans encountered a distinctly foreign nation—Shangshung, mt. Kailāśa and Lake Manasarovar formed part of this country, whose language has come down to us through early documents. Though still unidentified, it seems to be Indo-European, geographically the country was certainly open to India, both through Nepal and by way of Kashmir and Ladakh
Montana /mɒnˈtænə/ is a state in the Western region of the United States. The states name is derived from the Spanish word montaña, Montana has several nicknames, although none official, including Big Sky Country and The Treasure State, and slogans that include Land of the Shining Mountains and more recently The Last Best Place. Montana has a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, Montana is ranked 4th in size, but 44th in population and 48th in population density of the 50 United States. The western third of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, smaller island ranges are found throughout the state. In total,77 named ranges are part of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern half of Montana is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands. The economy is based on agriculture, including ranching and cereal grain farming. Other significant economic activities include oil, gas and hard rock mining, the health care and government sectors are significant to the states economy.
Millions of tourists annually visit Glacier National Park, the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, the name Montana comes from the Spanish word Montaña and the Latin word Montana, meaning mountain, or more broadly, mountainous country. Montaña del Norte was the name given by early Spanish explorers to the mountainous region of the west. The name was changed by Representatives Henry Wilson and Benjamin F. Harding, when Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. This time Rep. Samuel Cox, of Ohio, objected to the name, Cox complained that the name was a misnomer given most of the territory was not mountainous and that a Native American name would be more appropriate than a Spanish one. Other names such as Shoshone were suggested, but it was decided that the Committee on Territories could name it whatever they wanted, with an area of 147,040 square miles, Montana is slightly larger than Japan.
It is the fourth largest state in the United States after Alaska and California, the largest landlocked U. S. state, and the worlds 56th largest national state/province subdivision. To the north, Montana shares a 545-mile border with three Canadian provinces, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, the state to do so. It borders North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, the states topography is roughly defined by the Continental Divide, which splits much of the state into distinct eastern and western regions. Most of Montanas 100 or more named mountain ranges are in the western half. The Absaroka and Beartooth ranges in the states south-central part are part of the Central Rocky Mountains
Trollstigen is a serpentine mountain road in Rauma Municipality, Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It is part of Norwegian County Road 63 that connects the town of Åndalsnes in Rauma and it is a popular tourist attraction due to its steep incline of 10% and eleven hairpin bends up a steep mountainside. During the top tourist season, about 2,500 vehicles pass daily, during the 2012 season,161,421 vehicles traversed the route, compared to 155,230 vehicles during 2009. The road is narrow with sharp bends, and although several bends were widened during 2005 to 2012. During the 2011 and 2012 seasons, buses up to 13.1 metres were allowed as a trial. At the 700-metre plateau there is a car park and several viewing balconies overlooking the bends, Stigfossen falls 320 metres down the mountainside. The pass has an elevation of approximately 850 metres, Trollstigen is closed during late autumn and winter. A normal operating season stretches from mid-May to October, but may sometimes be shorter or longer due to weather conditions, Trollstigen was opened on 31 July 1936, by King Haakon VII after eight years of construction. A major tourist facility including a museum was completed in 2012, several viewing platforms have been constructed and older constructions improved upon.
Trollstigen was officially opened as a national tourist route by the Minister of Transport, Trollstigen itself lies within the Trollstigen landscape protection area, while the alpine area east of Trollstigen, notably Trolltindene range, is part of Reinheimen National Park. In the summer of 2005, the road was repaired and about 16 million kr was spent on protection against rockfall,1960 - December 241994 - September 271997 - September 241998 - October 15