Southern African Development Community
The Southern African Development Community is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among 16 southern African states. SADC has 16 member states: The Union of Comoros was admitted into SADC at the 37th SADC Summit of Heads of State and Government held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2017, bringing the total number of Member States to 16. Additionally, Burundi has requested to join; the origins of SADC are in the 1960s and 1970s, when the leaders of majority-ruled countries and national liberation movements coordinated their political and military struggles to bring an end to colonial and white-minority rule in southern Africa. The immediate forerunner of the political and security cooperation leg of today's SADC was the informal Frontline States grouping, it was formed in 1980. The Southern African Development Coordination Conference was the forerunner of the socio-economic cooperation leg of today's SADC.
The adoption by nine majority-ruled southern African countries of the Lusaka declaration on 1 April 1980 paved the way for the formal establishment of SADCC in April 1980. Membership of the FLS and SADCC sometimes differed. SADCC was transformed into SADC on 17 August 1992, with the adoption by the founding members of SADCC and newly independent Namibia of the Windhoek declaration and treaty establishing SADC; the 1992 SADC provided for political and security cooperation. In reality, the FLS was dissolved only after South Africa's first democratic elections. Subsequent efforts to place political and security cooperation on a firm institutional footing under SADC's umbrella failed. On 14 August 2001, the 1992 SADC treaty was amended; the amendment heralded the overhaul of the structures and procedures of SADC, a process, ongoing. One of the changes is that political and security cooperation is institutionalised in the Organ on Politics and Security. One of the principal SADC bodies, it is subject to the oversight of the organisation's supreme body, the Summit, which comprises the heads of state or government.
The organisation holds its own multi-sport event in the form of the SADC Games, first held in 2004 in Maputo. Planned for an earlier date in Malawi and Lesotho, organisational issues led to abandonment of the plan and the SADC issuing a fine of $100,000 against Malawi; the first event in 2004 in Maputo resulted in over 1000 youths under-20 from 10 countries taking part in a sports programme including athletics, netball and basketball. SADC has 27 binding protocols dealing with issues such as Defence, Illicit Drug Trade, Free Trade and Movement of People. Protocol on Energy – Intended to promote harmonious development of national energy policies; these development strategies set out tangible objectives for SADC and its Member States for infrastructure development in energy and its subsectors of woodfuel and natural gas, goal, renewable energy, energy efficiency and conservation. Protocol on Gender and Development – Member states are urged to accelerate implementation efforts towards the achievements of concrete and transformative changes in the lives of women and girls in our region.
H. E. President Mutharika expressed concern on the escalating incidents of gender based violence in the region those perpetrated against women and girls, used this occasion to sign a commitment to end child marriages, as part of the AU campaign to end Child Marriages in Africa. Protocol on Politics and Security Co-operation - Intended to foster regional security and defence cooperation, promote peace, political stability and conflict-management; the protocol initiated an institutional reform of the SADC's Organ for Politics and Security. The SADC Free Trade Area was established in August 2008, after the implementation of the SADC Protocol on Trade in 2000 laid the foundation for its formation, its original members were Botswana, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, with Malawi and Seychelles joining later. Of the 15 SADC member states, only Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo are not yet participating, however Angolan trade minister Joffre Van-Dúnen Júnior said in Luanda that his ministry is working to create conditions for Angola’s accession to the SADC Free Trade Area in 2019.
The SADC-Customs Union, scheduled to be established by 2010 according to SADC's Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan, is unlikely to become reality in the near future. This is because the European Union's Economic Partnership Agreements with their inherent extra-regional freetrade regimes provided for several SADC members more benefits than deeper regional market integration within the framework of a SADC-Customs Union. Since these SADC countries formed four different groupings to negotiate and implement different Economic Partnership Agreements with European Union, the chance to establish a SADC-wide common external tariff as prerequsite for a regional customs union is missed. On Wednesday 22 October 2008, SADC joined with the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa and the East African Community to form the African Free Trade Zone, including all members of each of the organizations; the leaders of the three trading blocs agreed to create a single free trade zone, the African Free Trade Zone, consisting of 26 countries with a GDP of an estimated $624bn.
It is hoped the African Free Trade Zone agreement would ease access to markets within the zone and end problems arising from the fact that several of the memb
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership
The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership is a proposed trade agreement between the European Union and the United States, with the aim of promoting trade and multilateral economic growth. According to Karel de Gucht, European Commissioner for Trade between 2010 and 2014, the TTIP is the largest bilateral trade initiative negotiated, not only because it involves the two largest economies in the world but "because of its potential global reach in setting an example for future partners and agreements". Negotiations were halted by President Donald Trump, who initiated a trade conflict with the EU. Trump and the EU declared a truce of sorts in July 2018, resuming talks that appeared similar to TTIP; the reports on the ongoing negotiations and the contents of the negotiated TTIP proposals are classified from the public, can be accessed only by authorised persons. Multiple leaks of proposed TTIP contents into the public caused controversy; the European Commission says that the TTIP would boost the EU's economy by €120 billion, the US economy by €90 billion and the rest of the world by €100 billion.
According to Anu Bradford, law professor at Columbia Law School, Thomas J. Bollyky of the Council on Foreign Relations, TTIP aims to "liberalise one-third of global trade" and could create millions of new jobs. A Guardian article by Dean Baker of the US thinktank Center for Economic and Policy Research argued that the economic benefits per household would be small. According to a European Parliament report, impacts on labour conditions range from job gains to job losses, depending on economic model and assumptions used for predictions; the agreement has been criticized and opposed by some unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists in Europe. The Independent describes common criticisms of TTIP as "reducing the regulatory barriers to trade for big business, things like food safety law, environmental legislation, banking regulations and the sovereign powers of individual nations", or more critically as an "assault on European and US societies by transnational corporations"; the Guardian noted the criticism of TTIP's "undemocratic nature of the closed-door talks", "influence of powerful lobbyists", TTIP's potential ability to "undermine the democratic authority of local government", described it as "the most controversial trade deal the EU has negotiated".
German economist Max Otte argued that by putting European workers into direct competition with Americans, TTIP would negatively impact the European social models. An EU direct democracy mechanism, the European Citizens' Initiative, which enables EU citizens to call directly on the European Commission to propose a legal act, acquired over 3.2 million signatures against TTIP and CETA within a year. Economic barriers between the EU and the United States are low, not only due to long-standing membership in the World Trade Organization but recent agreements such as the EU–US Open Skies Agreement and work by the Transatlantic Economic Council; the European Commission claims that passage of a trans-Atlantic trade pact could boost overall trade between the respective blocs by as much as 50%. Economic gains from a Trade Treaty were predicted in the joint report issued by the White House and the European Commission; some form of Transatlantic Free Trade Area had been proposed in the 1990s and in 2006 by German Chancellor Angela Merkel in reaction to the collapse of the Doha world trade talks.
However, protectionism on both sides may be a barrier to any future agreement. It was first initiated in 1990, shortly after the end of the Cold War, with the world no longer divided into two blocs, the European Community and the US signed a "Transatlantic Declaration"; this called for the continued existence of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, as well as for yearly summits, biannual meetings between ministers of State, more frequent encounters between political figures and senior officials. Subsequent initiatives taken by the European deciders and the US government included: in 1995, the creation of a pressure group of business people, the Transatlantic Business Dialogue by public authorities on both sides of the Atlantic. On 12 February 2013, President Barack Obama called in his annual State of the Union address for such an agreement; the following day, EU Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso announced that talks would take place to negotiate the agreement. The United States and European Union together represent 60% of global GDP, 33% of world trade in goods and 42% of world trade in services.
There are a number of trade conflicts between the two powers, but both depend on the other's economic market and disputes only affect 2% of total trade. A free trade area between the two would represent the largest regional free-trade agreement in history, covering 46% of world GDP; the United States investment in the European Union is three times greater than US investment in the entire continent of Asia and EU investment in the United States is eight times that of European Union investment in India and China combined. Intra-company transfers are estimated to constitute a third of all transatlantic trade; the United States and European Union are the largest trading partner
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
The Andean Community is a free trade area with the objective of creating a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. The trade bloc was called the Andean Pact until 1996 and came into existence when the Cartagena Agreement was signed in 1969, its headquarters are in Peru. The Andean Community has 98 million inhabitants living in an area of 4,700,000 square kilometers, whose Gross Domestic Product amounted to US$745.3 billion in 2005, including Venezuela, a member at that time. Its estimated GDP PPP for 2011 amounts excluding Venezuela; the original Andean Pact was founded in 1969 by Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. In 1973 the pact gained Venezuela. In 1976 however, its membership was again reduced to five. Venezuela announced its withdrawal in 2006. With the new cooperation agreement with Mercosur, the Andean Community gained four new associate members: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay; these four Mercosur members were granted associate membership by the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers meeting in an enlarged session with the Commission on July 7, 2005.
This moves reciprocates the actions of Mercosur which granted associate membership to all the Andean Community nations by virtue of the Economic Complementarity Agreements signed between the CAN and individual Mercosur members. Current members: Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Peru Associate members: Argentina Brazil Paraguay Uruguay Chile Observer countries: Spain Former full members: Venezuela, joined Mercosur Chile The Andean Community and Mercosur comprise the two main trading blocs of South America. In 1999, these organizations began negotiating a merger with a view to creating a "South American Free Trade Area". On December 8, 2004, the Andean Community signed a cooperation agreement with Mercosur and they published a joint letter of intention for future negotiations towards integrating all of South America in a Union of South American Nations, patterned after the European Union, it was formally established by the Constitutive Treaty of the USAN signed in Brasília. During 2005, Venezuela decided to join Mercosur.
Venezuela's official position first appeared to be that, by joining Mercosur, further steps could be taken towards integrating both trade blocs. CAN Secretary General Allan Wagner stated that the Venezuelan Foreign Minister Alí Rodríguez had declared that Venezuela did not intend to leave the CAN, its simultaneous membership to both blocs marked the beginning of their integration; however some analysts interpreted that Venezuela might leave the CAN in the process. As Colombia and Peru signed free trade agreements with the United States, in protest the Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez indeed announced in April 2006 his country's withdrawal from the CAN, stating that the Community is "dead". Officials in Colombia and Peru expressed their disagreement with this view, as did representatives from Venezuela's industrial sector. In spite of this announcement, Venezuela still had not formally completed all the necessary withdrawal procedures. According to Venezuela's Commerce Minister María Cristina Iglesias, the entire process was going to take up five years.
Until Venezuela and its partners would remain bound by the effects of the community's preexisting commercial agreements. During a visit to Colombia in August 2007, President Hugo Chávez was asked by the presidents of Ecuador and Bolivia to rejoin the Andean Community of Nations, he responded that he would agree. Meanwhile, at that time the Mercosur's relations with Venezuela were weakening as Mercosur was not agreeing with some of the Hugo Chávez's proposals. Venezuela achieved the full membership of the Mercosur in 2012, making the Mercosur bigger in number of members than the CAN for the first time. In addition to CAN, Bolivia is a member of the WTO, UNASUR, ALBA, its attitude is considered crucial to relations between UNASUR and ALBA says Marion Hörmann, since Bolivia is traditionally seen as a mediator between the Andean countries and the rest of South America. Furthermore, in December 7, 2012, the Bolivian nation was accepted by the Mercosur countries to start the incorporation protocols to achieve the Mercosur full membership in a matter of 4 years, receiving the proclamation of an accessing member, further consolidating itself as a strategic geopolitical nation.
The groundwork for the Community was established in 1969 in the Cartagena Agreement In 1973 Venezuela joins Andean Pact In 1976, Augusto Pinochet withdrew Chile from the Andean Community claiming economic incompatibilities In 1979, the treaty creating the Court of Justice was signed and the Andean Parliament created and the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers were created In 1983, the treaty creating the Court of Justice entered into effect In 1991, the presidents approved the open skies policy and agree to intensify integration In 1992, Peru temporarily suspended its obligations under the Liberalization Program In 1993, the Free Trade Zone entered into full operation for Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela In 1994, the Common External Tariff was approved In 1996, the Cartagena Agreement Commission approved the regulatory context for the establishment and exploitation of the Simón Bolívar Satellite System In 1997, an agreement was reached for Peru's gradual incorporation into the Andean Free Trade Zone In 1998, the Framework Agreement for the crea
East African Community
The East African Community is an intergovernmental organization composed of six countries in the African Great Lakes region in eastern Africa: Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan and Uganda. Paul Kagame, the president of Rwanda, is the EAC's chairman; the organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, was revived on 7 July 2000. In 2008, after negotiations with the Southern African Development Community and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the EAC agreed to an expanded free trade area including the member states of all three organizations; the EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community. The EAC is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its members into a single sovereign state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods and capital within the region, with the goal of creating a common currency and a full political federation. In 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years.
In September 2018 a committee was formed to begin the process of drafting a regional constitution. Kenya and Uganda have cooperated with each other since the early 20th century; the customs union between Kenya and Uganda in 1917, which Tanganyika joined in 1927, was followed by the East African High Commission from 1948 to 1961, the East African Common Services Organization from 1961 to 1967, the 1967 to 1977 EAC. Burundi and Rwanda joined the EAC on 6 July 2009. Inter-territorial co-operation between the Kenya Colony, the Uganda Protectorate, the Tanganyika Territory was formalised in 1948 by the EAHC; this provided a customs union, a common external tariff and postage. It dealt with common services in transport and communications and education. Following independence, these integrated activities were reconstituted and the EAHC was replaced by the EACSO, which many observers thought would lead to a political federation between the three territories; the new organisation ran into difficulties because of the lack of joint planning and fiscal policy, separate political policies, Kenya's dominant economic position.
In 1967, the EACSO was superseded by the EAC. This body aimed to strengthen the ties between the members through a common market, a common customs tariff, a range of public services to achieve balanced economic growth within the region. In 1977, the EAC collapsed; the causes of the collapse included demands by Kenya for more seats than Uganda and Tanzania in decision-making organs, disagreements with Ugandan dictator Idi Amin who demanded that Tanzania as a member state of the EAC should not harbour forces fighting to topple the government of another member state, the disparate economic systems of socialism in Tanzania and capitalism in Kenya. The three member states lost over sixty years of co-operation and the benefits of economies of scale, although some Kenyan government officials celebrated the collapse with champagne. Presidents Daniel arap Moi of Kenya, Ali Hassan Mwinyi of Tanzania, Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda signed the Treaty for East African Co-operation in Kampala on 30 November 1993 and established a Tri-partite Commission for Co-operation.
A process of re-integration was embarked on involving tripartite programmes of co-operation in political, economic and cultural fields and technology, defence and legal and judicial affairs. The EAC was revived on 30 November 1999, it came into force on 7 July 2000, 23 years after the collapse of the previous community and its organs. A customs union was signed in March 2004, which commenced on 1 January 2005. Kenya, the region's largest exporter, continued to pay duties on goods entering the other four countries on a declining scale until 2010. A common system of tariffs will apply to goods imported from third-party countries. On 30 November 2016 it was declared that the immediate aim would be confederation rather than federation; the presidents of Kenya and Rwanda invited the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan to apply for membership upon the independence of South Sudan in 2011, South Sudan was an applicant country as of mid-July 2011. Analysts suggested that South Sudan's early efforts to integrate infrastructure, including rail links and oil pipelines, with systems in Kenya and Uganda indicated intention on the part of Juba to pivot away from dependence on Sudan and toward the EAC.
Reuters considers South Sudan the likeliest candidate for EAC expansion in the short term, an article in Tanzanian daily The Citizen that reported East African Legislative Assembly Speaker Abdirahin Haithar Abdi said South Sudan was "free to join the EAC" asserted that analysts believe the country will soon become a full member of the regional body. On 17 September 2011, the Daily Nation quoted a South Sudanese MP as saying that while his government was eager to join the EAC, it would delay its membership over concerns that its economy was not sufficiently developed to compete with EAC member states and could become a "dumping ground" for Kenyan and Ugandan exports; this was contradicted by President Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan had begun the application process one month later. The application was deferred by the EAC in December 2012, however incidents with Ugandan boda-boda operators in South Sudan have created political tension and may delay the process. In December 2012, Tanzania agreed to South Sudan’s bid to join the EAC, clearing the way for the world’s newest state to become the regional bloc’s sixth member.
In May 2013 the EAC set aside US$82,000 for the admission of South Sudan into the bloc though admission may not happen until 2016. Th
Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement
The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement is a free-trade agreement between Canada, the European Union and its member states. It has been provisionally applied, so the treaty has eliminated 98% of the tariffs between Canada and the EU; the negotiations were concluded in August 2014. All 28 European Union member states approved the final text of CETA for signature, with Belgium being the final country to give its approval. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, travelled to Brussels on 30 October 2016 to sign on behalf of Canada; the European Parliament approved the deal on 15 February 2017. The agreement is subject to ratification by the EU and national legislatures and can only enter into force if no adverse opinion is given by the European Court of Justice following a request for an opinion by Belgium; until its formal entry into force, substantial parts are provisionally applied from 21 September 2017. The European Commission indicates the treaty will lead to savings of just over half a billion euros in taxes for EU exporters every year, mutual recognition in regulated professions such as architects and engineers, easier transfers of company staff and other professionals between the EU and Canada.
The European Commission claims CETA will create a more level playing field between Canada and the EU on intellectual property rights. Proponents of CETA emphasize that the agreement will boost trade between the EU and Canada and thus create new jobs, facilitate business operations by abolishing customs duties, goods checks, various other levies, facilitate mutual recognition of diplomas and regulate investment disputes by creating a new system of courts. Opponents consider that CETA would weaken European consumer rights, including high EU standards concerning food safety, criticize it as a boon only for big business and multinational corporations, while risking net-losses and environmental damage impacting individual citizens; the deal includes a controversial investor-state dispute settlement mechanism which makes critics fear that multinational corporations could sue national governments for billions of dollars if they thought that the government policies had a bad impact on their business.
A poll conducted by Angus Reid Institute in February 2017 concluded that 55 percent of Canadians support CETA, while only 10 percent oppose it. The support, has waned when compared to the poll conducted in 2014. In contrast, the North American Free Trade Agreement has a 44 percent support rate among Canadians in February 2017. In contrast to Canada, the agreement has prompted protests in a number of European countries. CETA is Canada's biggest bilateral initiative since NAFTA, it was started as a result of a joint study "Assessing the Costs and Benefits of a Closer EU-Canada Economic Partnership", released in October 2008. Officials announced the launch of negotiations on 6 May 2009 at the Canada-EU Summit in Prague. This, after the Canada-EU Summit in Ottawa on 18 March 2004 where leaders agreed to a framework for a new Canada-EU Trade and Investment Enhancement Agreement; the TIEA was intended to move beyond traditional market access issues, to include areas such as trade and investment facilitation, mutual recognition of professional qualifications, financial services, e-commerce, temporary entry, small- and medium-sized enterprises, sustainable development, sharing science and technology.
The TIEA was to build on a Canada-EU regulatory co-operation framework for promoting bilateral co-operation on approaches to regulatory governance, advancing good regulatory practices and facilitating trade and investment. In addition to lowering barriers, the TIEA was meant to heighten Canadian and European interest in each other's markets; the TIEA continued until 2006 when the EU decided to pause negotiations. This led to negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement, this agreement will go beyond the TIEA toward an agreement with a much broader and more ambitious scope. An agreement in principle was signed by Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and European Commission President José Manuel Barroso on 18 October 2013; the negotiations were concluded on 1 August 2014. The trade agreement was presented on 25 September 2014 by Harper and Barroso during an EU - Canada Summit at the Royal York Hotel in downtown Toronto; the Canada Europe Roundtable for Business has served as the parallel business process from the launch to the conclusion of the CETA negotiations.
After it had been leaked by German public television on 14 August, the 1634 pages long Consolidated CETA text was published on the EU's official website on 26 September 2014. Completion, translation of the final text into 24 EU languages, ratification is expected to take years since the passage of the deal approval of the European Parliament and the European Council as well as Canada and the individual 28 EU member states as well; the EU-Canada Trade Sustainability Impact Assessment, a three-part study commissioned by the European Commission to independent experts and completed in September 2011, provides a comprehensive prediction on the impacts of CETA. It predicts a number of macro-economic and sector-specific impacts, suggesting the EU may see increases in real GDP of 0.02–0.03% in the long-term from CETA, whereas Canada may see increases of 0.18–0.36%. At the sectoral level, the study predicts the greatest gains in output and trade to be stimulated by services liberalization and by the removal of tariffs applied on sensitive agricultural products.
Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as