Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
Mount Magazine, officially named Magazine Mountain, is the highest mountain in the state of Arkansas and the site of Mount Magazine State Park. The mountain is a plateau with a sandstone cap rimmed by precipitous rock cliffs. Two peaks are situated atop the plateau, Signal Hill, which reaches 2,753 feet, and Mossback Ridge, which reaches 2,700 feet. Magazine Mountain sits in the midst of the Ozark National Forest in the Arkansas River Valley approximately 17 miles south of Paris, Logan County, the most scenic route to the top is a 10 miles drive north from Havana, Arkansas. Views of Blue Mountain Lake will be enjoyed throughout the journey
St. Francois Mountains
The St. Francois Mountains in southeast Missouri are a range of Precambrian igneous mountains rising over the Ozark Plateau. This range is one of the oldest exposures of rock in North America. The name of the range derives from the St. Francis River, the origin of the rivers name, which was originally spelled Francois in the French manner, is unclear. The area, as part of the Louisiana district of New France, is some of the earliest French settlements in Missouri where many French place names survive. Some sources conjecture that the name honors St. Francis of Assisi, the saint of the Franciscan order. Others propose that Jacques Marquette, a French Jesuit, named the river when he explored its mouth in present-day Arkansas in 1673, before his voyage down the Mississippi Marquette had spent some time at the mission of St. Francois Xavier, named for the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier. The spelling of the name shifted from Francois to Francis in the early 20th century. The St. Francois Mountains were formed by volcanic and intrusive activity 1.485 billion years ago, by comparison, the Appalachians started forming about 460 million years ago, and the Rockies a mere 140 million years ago.
When the Appalachians started forming, the St. Francois range was already twice as old as the Appalachians are today, the intrusive rocks of the area are composed of three types, subvolcanic massifs, ring intrusions and central plutons. The subvolcanic intrusives are similar in geochemistry to the associated rhyolite volcanics and they are granite with granophyric quartz, perthitic potassium feldspar and magnetite. They are intrusive into the rhyolites with development of fine grained granophyre at the contact, at depth they exhibit a coarse-grained rapakivi texture. The subvolcanic granites are the most widespread igneous rocks and were thought to have been covered with extensive volcanics that have been removed by erosion, the ring intrusives are high silica bodies which were intruded along ring faults associated with caldera collapse. Rock types include trachyandesite, trachyte and amphibole - biotite granite, the central plutons are highly evolved two mica granites. Distinctive accessory minerals include, topaz, spinel, allanite and they are enriched in tin, beryllium, barium, niobium, uranium and fluorine and are referred to as tin granites.
Their circular to oval shape in plan view is consistent with emplacement within resurgent calderas, the exposed igneous rocks of the St. Francois are surrounded at depth by the slightly younger widely distributed igneous Spavinaw terrane. The Spavinaw rocks are intersected in drill core across southern Missouri, southern Illinois, northern Arkansas, southern Kansas, the Spavinaw rocks occur in outcrop only near Spavinaw, Oklahoma. The rhyolites and ash flow tuffs of the Spavinaw are essentially identical to the volcanics of the St. Francois mountains, the Saint Francois Mountains were formed by igneous activity, whereas most of the surrounding Ozarks are developed on Paleozoic sedimentary rocks as a dissected plateau. The localized vertical relief was caused by erosion following uplift during the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods produced by the Ouachita orogeny to the south and strata dips in the Ozark structural dome generally radiate downward and outward away from the Saint Francois mountains
Arkansas River Valley
The Arkansas River Valley is a region in Arkansas defined by the Arkansas River in the western part of the state. The Arkansas River Valley is not formally defined along county boundaries, including all of Logan and Sebastian counties and portions of Conway, Perry and Yell counties. Most first encounters describe scattered villages and individual farmsteads in the River Valley, unlike the organized towns and groves and orchards encountered in eastern Arkansas. Research at the site has linked artifacts to cave art in a cave on Petit Jean Mountain, as well as establishing links to the Caddo, hernando de Soto became the first European explorer to enter Arkansas in 1541. His expedition of 600 Spanish explorers searching for gold and riches crossed into Arkansas across the Mississippi River, the expedition traveled to Tanico, an important city somewhere in the River Valley, in September 1542. The following month, the expedition fought with a tribe referred to as the Tula somewhere near Fort Smith and this fighting apparently caused de Soto to turn the expedition back east, leaving the River Valley.
Following the war, the Southern economy was in shambles, including Arkansas, the cost of the war effort, loss of human capital, and Confederate currency losing value were serious issues for the South in addition to the destruction of property and crops. Many parts of Arkansas had descended into lawlessness and violence between whitecapping groups, freedmen and unaffiliated bandits taking advantage of the chaos, indicative of the disarray, Radical Republican Governor Powell Clayton declared martial law in ten counties following reelection in 1868. Although no River Valley counties were subject to the proclamation, Clayton added four more counties, including one partial-River Valley county. The Klan had limited support, and much of the area was viewed steadily Republican, due to its relatively strong position following the Civil War, the River Valley attracted new settlement throughout Reconstruction. Populations of Austrian Catholics, German Catholics, and German Catholics, some immigrated directly from Europe, but most came from early settlements in the Ohio River Valley.
The Lutherans generally immigrated in organized companies, where the Catholics came independently, although some Catholic settlements like Clarksville and these settlements received support from existing immigrant populations in Little Rock and Fort Smith, and groups of Protestant settlers establishing settlements in the area. Several of the River Valleys small towns were founded by groups, beginning as small clusters of immigrants. Upon arriving in the region, many found only densely forested upland to be the property they could afford. River Valley soil and climate are much less conducive to cultivation than the Arkansas Delta. Eventually, a preference for mixed farming emerged, including potatoes and other garden vegetables, Coal mining was an important industry in the River Valleys early history. Dangerous and demanding, the industry attracted Swiss and German immigrants who were unable to establish productive farms, mining became prominent by 1873, especially around the Altus area. The Swiss and German immigrants found the rolling hills similar to the topography of their homeland, due to the climate, fertile soil and immigrants accustomed to wine with their meals, several wineries were established in the River Valley
Mark Twain National Forest
Mark Twain National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in the southern half of Missouri. MTNF was established on September 11,1939 and it is named for author Mark Twain, a Missouri native. The MTNF covers 3,068,800 acres of which 1,506,100 acres is owned,78,000 acres of which are Wilderness. MTNF spans 29 counties and represents 11% of all forested land in Missouri, MTNF is divided into six distinct ranger districts, Ava-Cassville-Willow Springs, Eleven Point, Houston-Rolla, Cedar Creek, Poplar Bluff, Potosi-Fredericktown, and the Salem. The six ranger districts actually comprise nine overall unique tracts of forests and its headquarters are in Rolla, Missouri. The public can visit the Glade Top Trail National Scenic Byway. The 350-mile Ozark Trail system winds through much of the National Forest, the Mark Twain National Forest, as we know it today, was created on February 17,1976. The Mark Twain National forest has an unusual history – for it was once known as both the Clark National Forest and the Mark Twain National Forest – both being proclaimed on September 11,1939.
In June 1973 the Clark and Mark Twain NF were brought under one headquarters in Rolla, on Feb.17,1976, the forests were combined and renamed the Mark Twain National Forest. Missouri’s only national forest, The Mark Twain, encompasses roughly 1.5 million acres, portions of the Ozarks were never under oceans, nor were the areas glaciated. In the 1870s, citizens of southern Missouri began an era of extensive logging of the native oak, hickory. Lumber mills were commonplace, but by the 1920s they had disappeared, thus, in 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the MTNF into existence. In March 1933, he created the Emergency Conservation Work Act. Many of their contributions can still be visited and enjoyed today including the Rolla Ranger Station Historic District, although it is far from being the largest National Forest in acreage, Mark Twain National Forest is located in more counties than any other. As of September 30,2007, its 1,490,862 acres were spread over parts of 29 counties in southern and central Missouri
Pilot Knob (Iron County, Missouri)
Pilot Knob is located in the Arcadia Valley of Iron County, Missouri between the towns of Ironton and Pilot Knob, Missouri. Pilot Knob in one peak in the St. Francois Mountains, the mountain was heavily mined in the 19th century, leaving many open mine shafts. The summit of the consists of the 90-acre Pilot Knob National Wildlife Refuge which is the home for nearly 1⁄3 of the worlds population of Indiana bats. The bats hibernate in the mine shafts. Pilot Knob Ore Company donated the land, after ceasing its operations, on July 22,1987. Currently the Pilot Knob National Wildlife Refuge is closed to the public to protect habitat for the endangered Indiana bat, there is an eight-foot-tall chain link fence around 40 acres of the land for safety reasons, keeping individuals away from the open mine shafts. The rock formation is approximately 1450 million years old, the date being September 7. They reportedly crossed some mountains and came into the region where Ironton is now located, there they found a good salt spring for making of salt cakes.
The next day the armys stragglers caught up to the body where Pilot Knob is now located. The following day de Sotos band departed the area, moving towards present day Lesterville, by 1800 members of the Algonquian peoples of Native Americans had moved into the area with a village of the Delaware Tribe established at the base of Pilot Knob. This village existed as late as 1819, in the late 1830s during the infamous forced relocation march named the Trail of Tears the Cherokee Tribe came through the valley. The completion of the Iron Mountain Railroad all the way to the town of Pilot Knob in 1857 provided easy the transportation of ore mined from the Pilot Knob to the growing St. Louis. In September 1864 the invasion materialized and the Battle of Fort Davidson was fought in the valley below Pilot Knob. During the years before Pilot Knob was closed to the public, one could hike to the top, in the early 20th century Easter Sunrise services were held on the top of Pilot Knob. Pilot Knob Wildlife Refuge, U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, encyclopedia of the History of Missouri. Readers Digest, v.131, nos. 783-787, page 61,19 Hours in Devils Icebox Mention of Devils Icebox Historic Missouri Towns. Photo of Glade at the summit of Pilot Knob, historical Photographs & Postcards of Iron County, Missouri 1. Historical Photographs & Postcards of Iron County, Missouri 7
Taum Sauk Mountain
Taum Sauk Mountain /ˈtɔːm ˈsɔːk/ in the Saint Francois Mountains is the highest natural point in the U. S. state of Missouri at 1,772 feet. The topography of Taum Sauk is that of a flat ridge rather than a peak. While relatively low in terms of elevation at 1,772 feet compared to peaks, Taum Sauk. Geologists believe that Taum Sauk and its neighbors may be among the few areas in the US never to have been submerged in ancient seas. The peaks of the St. Francois range existed as islands in the shallow seaway throughout most of the Paleozoic Era as the sandstones, limestones and erosion of these ancient peaks provided the clastic sediments of the surrounding rock layers. Taum Sauk is said to be named for a Piankeshaw chief named Sauk-Ton-Qua, though Taum Sauk Mountain is the highest mountain in Missouri, it is not the most prominent. Taum Sauk rises 522 feet from an elevated base. Mudlick Mountain rises 693 feet from a base to an elevation of 1,313 feet. Black Mountain, in Madison County, has the highest rise in elevation in Missouri, from its base, along the St.
Francis River to its summit, Black Mountain rises just under 1,000 feet in elevation from the valley below. Taum Sauk State Park is in a jurisdiction with nearby Johnsons Shut-ins State Park. These parks and the adjacent Bell Mountain Wilderness Area make up part of a wilderness area that is very popular with hikers and backpackers. The 33-mile Taum Sauk section of the Ozark Trail is considered by the Ozark Trail Association to be one of the finest trails in Missouri. Mina Sauk Falls, the highest waterfall in Missouri, is on Taum Sauk and these falls normally have water cascading over them only during times of wet weather. At other times they are reduced to a trickle or less, the Taum Sauk pumped storage plant, which failed on December 14,2005 sending a flash flood 20 feet deep down the Black River, is not actually on Taum Sauk Mountain. It is on Proffit Mountain, about five miles southwest, outline of Missouri Index of Missouri-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation Specific references, General references, Taum Sauk Mountain
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its resources. The organization has four science disciplines, concerning biology, geology. The USGS is a research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior, the USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, the current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is science for a changing world. The agencys previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its anniversary, was Earth Science in the Public Service. Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment and it was charged with the classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain.
This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the legislation provided that the Hayden and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30,1879. Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies, after a short tenure, King was succeeded in the directors chair by John Wesley Powell. Administratively, it is divided into a Headquarters unit and six Regional Units, Other specific programs include, Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide. The National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location, the USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System. The USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, and it maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research.
It conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards, USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time, the USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online, since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. USGS operates a number of related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program. USGS Water data is available from their National Water Information System database
Ouachita National Forest
The Ouachita National Forest is a National Forest that lies in the western portion of Arkansas and portions of eastern Oklahoma. The Ouachita National Forest is the oldest National Forest in the southern United States, the forest encompasses 1,784,457 acres, including most of the scenic Ouachita Mountains. Six locations in the forest, comprising 65,000 acres, have designated as wilderness areas. Ouachita is the French spelling of the Indian word Washita, which means hunting grounds. The forest was known as Arkansas National Forest on its establishment on December 18,1907, Rich in history, the rugged and scenic Ouachita Mountains were first explored in 1541 by Hernando de Sotos party of Spaniards. French explorers followed, flavoring the region with names like Fourche La Fave River, the area including the forest nearly became a 165, 000-acre national park during the 1920s, but a last-minute pocket veto by U. S. President Calvin Coolidge ended the effort. The bill had been pushed by U. S, senator Joseph T.
Robinson and U. S. Representative Otis Wingo, both Democrats, and State Representative Osro Cobb, the only Republican in the Arkansas legislature and he compared flora and fauna in the Ouachita forest to those of the southern Alleghenies, a division of the Appalachian Mountains. Cobb continues, A visitor standing upon one of the majestic peaks in the area of the proposed park is thrilled by a panoramic view that cannot be had elswwhere in the South Central States. There are many streams, now moving slowly in narrow but deep pools, churning with savage ferocity down some water-worn precipice. Fed by crystal springs and like so much molten silver these streams flow their turbulent courses unappreciated, the Forest contains extensive woodlands of stunted Northern Red Oak, White Oak, Post Oak, and Blackjack Oak at elevations over 2,500 feet and on steep, dry slopes. These woodlands, of commercial value, were never logged. There are old-growth woodlands of Eastern Redcedar, Gum Bumelia, Winged Elm, two wilderness areas are found in the forest, protecting the sections of the forest that have had the least amount of human intervention.
The 13, 139-acre Black Fork Mountain Wilderness is located in both Arkansas and Oklahoma and contains significant old-growth forests, the 9, 754-acre Upper Kiamichi River Wilderness is located solely in Oklahoma. The Scenic Drive passes through oak woodlands on Winding Stair. Forest headquarters are located in Hot Springs, the forest contains a number of hiking, mountain biking, and horseback riding trails. The most extensive hiking trail is the Ouachita National Recreation Trail and this is a well-maintained backpacking, hiking trail with overnight shelters in several portions of the trail. Mountain biking is allowed for some sections of the trail
Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribes name is said to mean people of the wind or people of the south wind. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous, tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison. When it was opened to settlement by the U. S. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in its early days as these forces collided. The abolitionists eventually prevailed, and on January 29,1861, after the Civil War, the population of Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the prairie into farmland. By 2015, Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states, producing high yields of wheat, corn and soybeans. Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles is the 15th largest state by area and is the 34th most populous of the 50 United States with a population of 2,911,641, residents of Kansas are called Kansans, officially.
Mount Sunflower is Kansass highest point at 4,041 feet, for a millennia, the land that is currently Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas was Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, in 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. Southwest Kansas, was still a part of Spain, from 1812 to 1821, Kansas was part of the Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail traversed Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods from Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, wagon ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today. In 1827, Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of white Americans in the future state, the Kansas–Nebraska Act became law on May 30,1854, establishing the U. S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites. Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and included the sites of present-day Denver, Colorado Springs and Arkansas sent settlers into Kansas all along its eastern border.
These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery, the secondary settlement of Americans in Kansas Territory were abolitionists from Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas, Kansas was admitted to the United States as a free state on January 29,1861, making it the 34th state to enter the Union. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri legislature and his application to that body for a commission was flatly rejected due to his pre-war criminal record
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period and it once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before naturally occurring erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east-west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines, definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range.
Most broadly, it refers to the mountain range with its surrounding hills. The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were originally part of the Appalachians as well, the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváezs expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15,1528, now spelled Appalachian, it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves. The first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrezs map of 1562, the name was not commonly used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century. A competing and often more popular name was the Allegheny Mountains, Alleghenies, in the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the regions of the Appalachians.
In northern parts of the range, it is pronounced /ˌæpəˈleɪtʃᵻnz/ or /ˌæpəˈleɪʃᵻnz/, the third syllable is like lay. There is often debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a commonly accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is /ˌæpəˈlætʃiən/, the whole system may be divided into three great sections, The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians, The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia. Southern, The southern section runs from the New River onwards and it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, which is divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, and the Cumberland Plateau