Welfare is a type of government support for the citizens of that society. Welfare may be provided to people of any income level, as with social security, but it is intended to ensure that the poor can meet their basic human needs such as food and shelter. Welfare attempts to provide poor people with a minimal level of well-being either a free- or a subsidized-supply of certain goods and social services, such as healthcare and vocational training. A welfare state is a political system wherein the State assumes responsibility for the health and welfare of society; the system of social security in a welfare state provides social services, such as universal medical care, unemployment insurance for workers, financial aid, free post-secondary education for students, subsidized public housing, pensions, etc. In 1952, with the Social Security Convention, the International Labour Organization formally defined the social contingencies covered by social security; the first welfare state was Imperial Germany, where the Bismarck government introduced social security in the late 19th century.
In the early 20th century, Great Britain introduced social security around 1913, adopted the welfare state with the National Insurance Act 1946, during the Attlee government. In the countries of western Europe and Australasia, social welfare is provided by the government out of the national tax revenues, to a lesser extent by non-government organizations, charities. In the U. S. welfare program is the general term for government support of the well-being of poor people, the term social security refers to the US social insurance program for retired and disabled people. In other countries, the term social security has a broader definition, which refers to the economic security that a society offers when people are sick and unemployed. In the U. K. government use of the term welfare includes help for poor people and benefits, including specific social services such as help in finding employment. In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month.
Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan. Trajan's program brought acclaim including Pliny the Younger; the Song dynasty government supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor..."Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of 1601, which gave parishes the responsibility for providing welfare payments to the poor. This system was modified by the 19th-century Poor Law Amendment Act, which introduced the system of workhouses. Public assistance programs were not called welfare until the early 20th century when the term was adopted to avoid the negative connotations that had become associated with older terms such as charity, it was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes. In Great Britain the Liberal government of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and David Lloyd George introduced the National Insurance system in 1911, a system expanded by Clement Attlee; the United States inherited England's poor house laws and has had a form of welfare since before it won its independence. During the Great Depression, when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment. Modern welfare states include Germany, the Netherlands, as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Norway and Finland which employ a system known as the Nordic model. Esping-Andersen classified the most developed welfare state systems into three categories. In the Islamic world, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, has been collected by the government since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century.
The taxes were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor, orphans and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali, the government was expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred; the World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on The Changing Nature of Work considers whether traditional social assistance models continue to be appropriate given that, in 2018, 8 in 10 people in developing countries still receive no social assistance while 6 in 10 work informally beyond the government's reach. Welfare can take a variety of forms, such as monetary payments and vouchers, or housing assistance. Welfare systems differ from country to country, but welfare is provided to individuals who are unemployed, those with illness or disability, the elderly, those with dependent children, veterans. A person's eligibility for welfare may be constrained by means testing or other conditions. Welfare is provided by governments or their agencies, by private organizations, or a combination of both.
Funding for welfare comes from general government revenue, but when d
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture
The UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture is a professional school at the University of California, Los Angeles. Through the four degree-granting departments, it provides a range of course programs. Additionally, there are eight centers located within the school. In 1919, UCLA's leadership demonstrated an early commitment to offer students opportunities to explore the arts by the establishment of an art gallery and a music department, but in 1939 the College of Applied Arts was founded with the addition of a Department of Art, followed by the College of Fine Arts in 1960, with degrees available in art, dance and theater arts. Following academic restructuring in the late 1980s, the UC Regents formally approved the establishment of two schools: the School of the Arts and the School of Theater and Television. In 1994 architecture and urban design joined the School of the Arts, which became the School of the Arts and Architecture. Brett Steele was appointed dean of the School of the Arts and Architecture in 2017.
Architecture and Urban Design Art Design Media Arts World Arts and Cultures/Dance Art & Global Health Center Art | Sci Center Center for Intercultural Performance Experiential Technologies Center Grunwald Center for the Graphic Arts New Wight Gallery Eli and Edythe Broad Art Center Perloff Hall Glorya Kaufman Hall Three public arts institutions, including a major performing arts program, are located within the School of the Arts and Architecture. These institutions offer access to leading anthropological and contemporary visual arts exhibitions and collections, as well as presentations by performing artists. Hammer Museum Fowler Museum at UCLA UCLA Center for the Art of Performance Rebecca Allen, Professor of Design Media Arts Casey Reas, Professor of Design Media Arts Victoria Vesna, Professor of Design Media Arts Jennifer Steinkamp, Professor of Design Media Arts Erkki Huhtamo, Professor of Design Media Arts Peter Lunenfeld, Professor of Design Media Arts Christian Moeller, Professor of Design Media Arts Eddo Stern, Professor of Design Media Arts Peter Sellars, MacArthur Fellowship, professor of world arts and cultures Catherine Opie, Professor of Photography Andrea Fraser, Professor of New Genres Barbara Kruger, Professor Lari Pittman, Professor of Painting Neil Denari, Professor of Architecture Thom Mayne, Professor of Architecture Sylvia Lavin, Professor of Architecture Greg Lynn, Professor of Architecture UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture
UCLA College of Letters and Science
The UCLA College of Letters and Science is the arts and sciences college of the University of California, Los Angeles. It encompasses the Life and Physical Sciences, Social Sciences, Honors Program and other programs for both undergraduate and graduate students; the bulk of UCLA's student body belongs to the College, which includes 34 academic departments, 21,000 undergraduate students, 2,700 graduate students and 900 faculty members. All of the academic programs in the College are ranked highly and 11 were ranked in the top ten nationally by the National Research Council; the College originated on May 23, 1919, the day when the Governor of California signed a bill into law which established the Southern Branch of the University of California. At that time, a College of Letters and Science was established as the university's general undergraduate program and it began to hold classes the following September with only 250 students in the college. In 1925, the College awarded its first bachelor's degrees.
A milestone occurred in 1927 when the southern branch was renamed the University of California at Los Angeles, although UCLA would have to wait until 1951 to achieve de jure coequal status with UC Berkeley and 1957 to achieve true de facto equality. The college is divided into four divisions — Division of Humanities, Division of Life Sciences, Division of Physical Sciences, Division of Social Sciences. Applied Linguistics, Art History, Asian Languages & Cultures, Comparative Literature, French & Francophone Studies, Germanic Languages, Indo-European Studies and Philosophy Program, Gay and Transgender Studies, Musicology, Near Eastern Languages & Cultures, Study of Religion Major, Scandinavian Section, Slavic Languages & Literatures, Spanish & Portuguese, Writing Center and Writing Programs, Psychobiology and Systems Biology and Evolutionary Biology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, Molecular and Developmental Biology, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Physiological Science. Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Biochemistry, Earth and Space Sciences, Mathematics and Astronomy, Statistics Afro-American Studies, Archaeology, Asian American Studies, Chicana/o Studies, Economics, History, Human Complex Systems, Political Science, Gender Studies Kay Ryan, English, 16th poet laureate of U.
S. Brad Delson, "Linkin Park" member Richard Heck, 2010 Nobel Prize in chemistry Paul Terasaki, organ transplant medicine and tissue typing Utpal Banerjee, Department chair and professor of molecular and developmental biology. For two years in a row, the scheduled commencement keynote speaker had canceled the engagement. Bill Clinton canceled in 2008 for not wanting to cross a picket line. Actor and alumnus James Franco canceled in 2009 because of his filming scheduling conflicts. Rock band Linkin Park's Brad Delson accepted the last minute invitation to speak at the 2009 commencement ceremony. June 11, 2010 – Columnist Gustavo Arellano of'¡Ask a Mexican!' Official website
The UCLA Bruins are the athletic teams that represent the University of California, Los Angeles. The Bruin men's and women's teams participate in NCAA Division I as part of the Pac-12 Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. For football, they are in the Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I. UCLA is second to only Stanford University as the school with the most NCAA team championships at 116 NCAA team championships. UCLA offers 11 varsity sports 14 for women; the UCLA athletic teams' colors are True Gold. In the early days of the school, UCLA had the same colors as the University of Berkeley; when football coach Red Sanders came to UCLA for the 1949 season he redesigned the football uniforms. The Yale blue was changed to a lighter shade of blue. Sanders figured that the baby blue would look better in a film, he would dub powder blue with an explosive kick. For the 1954 football season, Sanders added a gold loop on the UCLA Stripe. UCLA still uses different color blues, they have an alternate uniform, predominately Navy.
Their helmet has the UCLA script in Royal. The 2010 team, under head coach John Savage, won the Los Angeles Regional and Super-Regional, was the first team to win 48 games in a season; the Bruins joined seven other teams in the 2010 College World Series and finished in second place, behind the University of South Carolina Gamecocks. The 2011 team won the Pac-10 Conference title; the 2013 team won UCLA's 109th NCAA Championship and their first in baseball in the 2013 College World Series by beating Mississippi State 3–1 and 8–0. Many UCLA baseball players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball. In the 2009 World Series, Chase Utley hit two home runs to help the Philadelphia Phillies win Game 1. There were a total of four former UCLA baseball players in the 2009 playoffs: Philadelphia's Ben Francisco and Chase Utley, Colorado's Garrett Atkins, St. Louis' Troy Glaus, the 2002 World Series MVP for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Chris Chambliss and Gerrit Cole were No. 1 overall picks in the MLB drafts.
Trevor Bauer was drafted as the No. 3 pick by the Arizona Diamondbacks on June 6, 2011. Former UCLA shortstop Brandon Crawford hit a grand-slam home run in his major-league debut with the San Francisco Giants on May 27, 2011, helped the Giants to win the 2012 Major League World Series. Cole debuted with the Pittsburgh Pirates by winning his first four games he pitched and drove in two runs with a single in his first at-bat in the 2013 major league. Several of the most revered championships were won by the Men's Basketball team under coaches John Wooden and Jim Harrick; the rich legacy of UCLA basketball has produced 11 NCAA championships – 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1995. From 1971 to 1974, UCLA won 88 an NCAA record for men. Recent UConn Huskies women's basketball teams have set overall NCAA basketball records with 90-game and 91-game winning streaks; the 35-year period preceding and including the UCLA streak was characterized by less dynasties, however: 20 different men's teams won titles during that span.
In comparison, the women's game to date has produced 35% less parity, with 13 schools winning all 35 titles offered since its inception. Past rosters of UCLA basketball teams have included greats such as Rafer Johnson, the 1960 Olympic Decathlon Champion, Gail Goodrich, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Bill Walton, Reggie Miller and Walt Hazzard; the Bruins had a winning record for 54 consecutive seasons from the 1948–1949 season to the 2001–2002 season. In recent years, UCLA Men's Basketball has returned to prominence under Coach Ben Howland. Between 2006 and 2008, UCLA has been to three consecutive Final Fours, while UCLA's players have received numerous awards, most notably Arron Afflalo, a 2007 First-Team All American and the Pac-10 Player of the Year, Kevin Love, a 2008 First-Team All American and the Pac-10 Player of the Year. UCLA has produced the most NBA Most Valuable Player Award winners, six of them by Abdul-Jabbar and one by Walton, Abdul-Jabbar's successor. In March 2013, UCLA relieved head men's basketball coach Ben Howland of his duties after UCLA dropped an 83–63 decision to Minnesota in a second-round game of the NCAA Tournament.
The current head coach is Murry Bartow, former head coach at UAB and interim head coach of South Florida. He is the interim head coach after Steve Alford was fired on December 31st, 2018. In the 1977–78 season, the women's basketball team, with a 27–2 record, were the AIAW Champions under head coach Billie Moore; the 2014–15 team won the 2015 WNIT championship by defeating the West Virginia Mountaineers 62–60 on April 4, 2015. The UCLA Bruins men's cross country team appeared in the NCAA Tournament thirteen times, with their highest finish being 5th place in the 1980–81 and 1981–82 school years; the UCLA Bruins women's cross country team appeared in the NCAA Tournament eleven times, with their highest finish being 6th place in the 1985–86 school year. In 1954, the UCLA football team earned a share of the national title with a 9–0 record and a #1 ranking in the Coaches UPI football poll, while Ohio State was ranked #1 in the AP Poll. Owing to rules in place at the time, UCLA was unable to face off against Ohio State in the Rose Bowl, which would have resulted in one or the other being declared national champion.
The Bruins have played in the Rose Bowl Game 12 times. The Bruins have shared the conference title 17 times. Among the many former UCLA football stars are Jackie Robinson (better known for his exploits as a bas
Royce Hall is a building on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles. Designed by the Los Angeles firm of Allison & Allison and completed in 1929, it is one of the four original buildings on UCLA's Westwood campus and has come to be the defining image of the university; the brick and tile building is in the Lombard Romanesque style, once functioned as the main classroom facility of the university and symbolized its academic and cultural aspirations. Today, the twin-towered front remains the best known UCLA landmark; the 1800-seat auditorium was designed for speech acoustics and not for music. Named after Josiah Royce, a California-born philosopher who received his bachelor's degree from UC Berkeley in 1875, the building's exterior is composed of elements borrowed from numerous northern Italian sources. While different in their composition and near-symmetry, the two towers of Royce make an abstract reference to those of the famous Abbey Church of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan. A building of similar form on a much smaller scale was a centerpiece of the College of California campus in Oakland in 1860, the predecessor of the University of California.
Damaged in the 1994 Northridge earthquake, Royce Hall underwent a $70.5 million seismic renovation designed by Barton Phelps & Associates and Anshen + Allen Los Angeles, completed in 1998. This program of extensive structural strengthening, functional improvements, conservation work inserted a new building within the old; the towers were strengthened and restored on an emergency basis. The project for the rest of the 200,000 square foot building accommodated a new structural system of six-story, concrete shear panels located around the "big box" of the auditorium and connected by concrete beams to the building's historic exterior brickwork. Royce Hall's eligibility for National Register listing prompted FEMA earthquake resistance requirements beyond normal safety levels and triggered close design scrutiny by federal and state preservation officers; the new "soft" structure responds in unison with original masonry infill panels to provide sufficient lateral resistance to protect the building's historic fabric from damage.
The sidewalls of the auditorium were reconfigured to hold foot-thick concrete shear panels the volume of which could have lessened its reverberant character. New wall openings, cut into abandoned rooftop areaways, are enclosed by new structure to form operable acoustic galleries allow variable acoustic responses. Along with new ceiling coves, the galleries increase the volume of the hall by 40,000 cubic feet and lengthen its reverberation period by over a second at their maximum setting. Skylights in the gallery restore natural light to the spectacular coffered ceiling, now for the first time, brightly illuminated. Unlike the former plaster interior, the new walls are clad in brick and terra cotta identical to that on the original exterior of the building; the uneven texture of projecting blocks improves sound diffusion. Its pattern is abstracted from Lombard Romanesque motifs in Lucca and other cities in the valley of the Po River in northern Italy; the hall, post renovation, covered 191,547 square feet.
In 1936, University of California President Robert Gordon Sproul appointed a committee to oversee programming and in 1937, Royce Hall's first performing arts season was born. The first subscription series included the great contralto Marian Anderson, the Budapest String Quartet, the Los Angeles Philharmonic. In addition its world-renowned acoustics, the monument is a must-see for anyone who visits UCLA because of its asymmetrical features; the hall contains a 6,600-pipe E. M. Skinner pipe organ and expanded in 1999 by Robert Turner. During the 1930s, Salt Lake Tabernacle organist Alexander Schreiner gave public recitals three times a week on the instrument; the organ was featured in several recording sessions of the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta. It serves as one of the home venues for the Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra. Luminaries who have appeared on its stage include musicians George Gershwin, Leonard Bernstein, Ella Fitzgerald, speakers Albert Einstein and John F. Kennedy. In 1960, Henri Temianka conducted his "Let's Talk Music" series at Royce Hall.
Soloists who performed with the CCS under Temianka's direction included David Oistrakh, Jean-Pierre Rampal and Benny Goodman. A "Concerts for Youth" series included participation by children from the audience. In 1985, Patrick Stewart performed a demonstration of various plays at Royce Hall to aid a friend, a member of the faculty. During this performance, television producer Robert Justman sat in attendance. Watching Stewart convinced him that he was the right actor to portray Captain Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: The Next Generation. In 2012, the hall installed a new $128,000 Steinway concert grand piano. Nicknamed "Sapphire" by the staff, the piano has been used as the centerpiece of a $25,000-per-plate fundraising dinner to support emerging artists. Parts of the film The Nutty Professor were filmed in Royce Hall. Presentation of the annual Los Angeles Times book prizes are made during the Los Angeles Times Festival of Books in association with UCLA in Royce Hall. In Noah Hawl
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were