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UCSD Pascal

UCSD Pascal is a Pascal programming language system that runs on the UCSD p-System, a portable machine-independent operating system. UCSD Pascal was first released in 1977, it was developed at the University of San Diego. In 1977, the University of California, San Diego Institute for Information Systems developed UCSD Pascal to provide students with a common environment that could run on any of the available microcomputers as well as campus DEC PDP-11 minicomputers; the operating system became known as UCSD p-System. UCSD p-System was one of three operating systems, along with PC DOS and CP/M-86, that IBM offered for its original IBM PC. Vendor SofTech Microsystems emphasized p-System's application portability, with virtual machines for 20 CPUs as of the IBM PC's release, it predicted that users would be able to use applications they purchased on future computers running p-System. PC Magazine denounced UCSD p-System on the IBM PC, stating in a review of Context MBA, written in the language, that it "simply does not produce good code".

The p-System did not sell well for the IBM PC, because of a lack of applications and because it was more expensive than the other choices. IBM had offered the UCSD p-System as an option for Displaywriter, an 8086-based dedicated word processing machine. Notable extensions to standard Pascal include a String type. Both of these extensions influenced the design of the Ada language; some intrinsics were provided to accelerate string processing. UCSD Pascal was based on a p-code machine architecture, its contribution to these early virtual machines was to extend p-code away from its roots as a compiler intermediate language into a full execution environment. The UCSD Pascal p-Machine was optimized for the new small microcomputers with addressing restricted to 16-bit. James Gosling cites UCSD Pascal as a key influence on the design of the Java virtual machine. UCSD p-System achieved machine independence by defining a virtual machine, called the p-Machine with its own instruction set called p-code. Urs Ammann, a student of Niklaus Wirth presented a p-code in his PhD thesis, from which the UCSD implementation was derived, the Zurich Pascal-P implementation.

The UCSD implementation changed the Zurich implementation to be "byte oriented". The UCSD p-code was optimized for execution of the Pascal programming language; each hardware platform only needed a p-code interpreter program written for it to port the entire p-System and all the tools to run on it. Versions included additional languages that compiled to the p-code base. For example, Apple Computer offered a Fortran Compiler producing p-code that ran on the Apple version of the p-system. TeleSoft offered an early Ada development environment that used p-code and was therefore able to run on a number of hardware platforms including the Motorola 68000, the System/370, the Pascal MicroEngine. UCSD p-System shares some concepts with the more current Java platform. Both use a virtual machine to hide operating system and hardware differences, both use programs written to that virtual machine to provide cross-platform support. Both systems allow the virtual machine to be used either as the complete operating system of the target computer or to run in a "box" under another operating system.

The UCSD Pascal compiler was distributed as part of the p-System. UCSD p-System began around 1974 as the idea of UCSD's Kenneth Bowles, who believed that the number of new computing platforms coming out at the time would make it difficult for new programming languages to gain acceptance, he based UCSD Pascal on the Pascal-P2 release of the portable compiler from Zurich. He was interested in Pascal as a language to teach programming. UCSD introduced two features that were important improvements on the original Pascal: variable length strings, "units" of independently compiled code. Niklaus Wirth credits the p-System, UCSD Pascal in particular, with popularizing Pascal, it was not until the release of Turbo Pascal that UCSD's version started to slip from first place among Pascal users. The Pascal dialect of UCSD Pascal came from the subset of Pascal implemented in Pascal-P2, not designed to be a full implementation of the language, but rather "the minimum subset that would self-compile", to fit its function as a bootstrap kit for Pascal compilers.

UCSD added strings from BASIC, several other implementation dependent features. Although UCSD Pascal obtained many of the other features of the full Pascal language, the Pascal-P2 subset persisted in other dialects, notably Borland Pascal, which copied much of the UCSD dialect. There were four versions of UCSD p-code engine, each with several revisions of the p-System and UCSD Pascal. A revision of the p-code engine meant a change to the p-code language, therefore compiled code is not portable between different p-Machine versions; each revision was represented with a

Rat Girl

Rat Girl is a memoir published in 2010 by Penguin Books and written by Kristin Hersh, a guitarist and singer who has performed as a solo artist, as guitarist/lead singer of the alternative rock band Throwing Muses. In the U. K. it was released with the alternate title Paradoxical Undressing. The book chronicles a year in her life during which time Throwing Muses gained fame, signed a recording contract with 4AD, recorded their eponymous debut album, Throwing Muses. Other notable subjects discussed at length in the work are Hersh's friendship with actress Betty Hutton, her much-publicized battle with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and hospitalization, her pregnancy with her first child, the experience of the band in the local music scenes in Providence, Rhode Island and Boston, Massachusetts at the time; the book provides further insight into Hersh's songwriting process, the internal dynamics within Throwing Muses in its first incarnation, Hersh's childhood, including interaction with poet Allen Ginsberg and mythologist Joseph Campbell.

Rat Girl was greeted warmly by critics upon release. Rob Sheffield described it in The New York Times Sunday Book Review as "Sensitive and raw… it’s wildly funny". In a starred review in Kirkus Reviews it is described as a "thoroughly engrossing work by an original voice". In 2012 Rolling Stone ranked it number 8 in their list of The 25 Greatest Rock Memoirs of All Time

Michael Cardoza

Michael Edmund Cardoza is a defense attorney in California. Prior to his criminal defense work, he worked in three of California's District attorney offices: Los Angeles County, San Francisco County, Alameda County. Now he operates a private practice, Cardoza Law. In 1971, Michael Cardoza received his J. D. from McGeorge School of Law. He passed the California Bar the same year, began practicing as a trial attorney in the District Attorney's Offices of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Alameda County, he worked as a prosecutor for 14 years before he opened his private practice in 1985. His current practice, Cardoza Law Offices, is located in California. Since opening his private practice, Cardoza has worked on many high-profile cases such as the Scott Peterson trial and the Barry Bonds steroid scandal. Additionally, he acts as a Judge Pro Tem in Santa Clara County and an arbitrator with the Superior Court of San Francisco. In addition to operating a private practice in the San Francisco Bay Area, he acts as a leading legal consultant for radio and television broadcast stations.

Previous appearances include: CNN's Larry King Live, 60 Minutes, HBO, The Oprah Winfrey Show, Good Morning America, NBC's Today Show, 48 Hours. Cardoza volunteers time with the trial advocacy program at Stanford University Law School and acts as a guest lecturer; some of the most notable cases Cardoza has worked on include: The Diane Whipple San Francisco Dog Mauling case: In January 2001, Diana Whipple returned home to her San Francisco apartment only to be attacked and killed by two large dogs in the apartment complex hallway. Cardoza represented Whipple's domestic partner, Sharon Smith, in her wrongful-death suit against Knoller and Noel, the dog owners; the case challenged the statutes. Cardoza helped; the 2007 SF Zoo Tiger Mauling: On Christmas Day in 2007, a tiger in the San Francisco Zoo jumped out of its enclosure, killed a 17-year-old rock throwing zoo visitor, Carlos Sousa, Jr. and wounded two others. Cardoza and his firm brought charges for negligence, wrongful death, public nuisance against the San Francisco Zoo on behalf of the parents of Sousa.

Cardoza drew particular attention to the fact that the zoo's enclosure for the animals was inadequate. He argued that regardless of the taunting that occurred, an animal with the potential to cause serious injury or death to zoo visitors should not be able to escape from its enclosure; the amount reached in the settlement was not disclosed. The Barry Bonds Steroid Scandal Cardoza represented Stevie Hoskins, best friend of San Francisco Giants hitter, Barry Bonds. Hoskins testified before the Grand Jury that indicted Barry Bonds for perjured statements about his steroid use. People v. Murphy Murder Trial: Cardoza's client, James Murphy, was charged with capital murder in a drug raid gone wrong in San Mateo, California; the murder occurred in a family home in the 1970s and remained an unsolved crime until the early 2000s. Cardoza and his litigation team worked to undermine the testimony of the witnesses; the case ended up being the first not-guilty verdict in San Mateo County in over 20 years. The Scott Peterson Case: In 2004, Scott Peterson received a guilty verdict for the murder of his wife and the couple's unborn child.

Cardoza appeared on CNN and Fox News as legal analyst in Scott Peterson Discussion Panels However, once Cardoza became involved with the case the court placed a gag order on him. As part of the preparation for the case, Peterson's attorney reached out to Cardoza for assistance in cross examining his client and determining whether Peterson should take the stand. Your Black Muslim Bakery: Cardoza defended the company in a felony assault case where the jury arrived at a not-guilty verdict; this was the lead off case in the Chauncey Bailey Murder trials. In 2010, the defendant Bey was charged with a felony assault in which the victim suffered various injuries. Bey, Cardoza's client, was one of a number of men attacking the victim; the jury found Bey not guilty because of lack of evidence. The Marlene Corrigan Trial Cardoza defended Marlene Corrigan, who faced severe charges of child abuse to her daughter, Christine. Marlene's 13-year-old daughter, weighed well over 600 pounds when she died in November 1996.

Despite Marlene's attempts to help control her daughter's weight, Christine's obesity brought about her untimely death. At the time of her demise, Christine could no longer attend school, she could not exit her home without overhearing rude and hurtful commentary from her peers and classmates. The death of Christine sparked a debate as to the responsibilities of parents in controlling obesity in their children. Cardoza worked as the lead attorney in the Christine Hubbs case. Ms. Hubbs was charged with over 60 counts of unlawful sexual encounters with two 14-year-old males, her bailed reached $4.3 million. Her case settled and she faces 5 years in state prison. Cardoza continues to handle other high-profile cases such as that of Officer Norman Wielsch; as head of the drug task force team, he stole confiscated narcotics from Contra Costa County and sold them for personal profits. His bail was reduced from $900,000 and is set at $400,000. Beyond A Reasonable Doubt In 2006, Michael Cardoza contributed an article, "Troubling Changes in the Prosecution of Cases: How Prosecutors have allowed the Media and Politics to affect their Discretion" to Larry King's book Beyond A Reasonable Doubt.

Cardoza provides an analysis of the effects of political pressures and media on the criminal justice system based on his experiences as a seasoned high-profile attorney. He draws particular

State police (United States)

In the United States, the state police is a police body unique to each U. S. state, having statewide authority to conduct law enforcement activities and criminal investigations. In general, state police officers, known as state troopers, perform functions that do not fall within the jurisdiction of the county sheriff, such as enforcing traffic laws on state highways and interstate expressways, overseeing the security of the state capitol complex, protecting the governor, training new officers for local police forces too small to operate an academy and providing technological and scientific services, they support local police and help to coordinate multi-jurisdictional task force activity in serious or complicated cases in those states that grant full police powers statewide. A general trend has been to bring all of these agencies under a state-level Department of Public Safety. Additionally, they may serve under different state departments, such as the Highway Patrol under the state Department of Transportation and the marine patrol under the Department of Natural Resources.

Twenty-three U. S. states use the term "State Police." Forty-nine states have a State Police agency or its equivalent, with Hawaii being the only state with a Sheriff Division of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety with statewide jurisdiction. The Texas Rangers are the earliest form of state law enforcement in the United States, first organized by Stephen F. Austin in 1823; the original ranger force consisted of ten men charged with protecting settlers from Native American attacks. Though the rangers of this era are today considered law enforcement officers, they wore badges and were little more than volunteers; the Rangers served as a paramilitary force on the U. S.-Mexico border and in several armed military conflicts, including the Texas Revolution, the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War. They continued to fill basic law enforcement and frontier protection roles until the close of the "wild west" era. In the early 1900s, they transformed into a criminal investigative agency; the history and legacy of the Texas Rangers has spawned numerous depictions in popular culture.

The colloquial image of a Texas Ranger "always their man" has made the Rangers a revered and competitive agency within law enforcement, with fewer than 1 in 100 applicants being considered for a single position. The Pennsylvania State Police force emerged in the aftermath of the anthracite mine strike of 1902, in Pennsylvania; the passage of legislation on May 2, 1905, did not provoke controversy because it was rushed through the mine-owner dominated legislature, but the strike-breaking role of the new police elicited strong opposition from organized labor, who likened them to the repressive Russian cossacks under the tsar. President Theodore Roosevelt, himself a former President of the New York City Police Commission, noted that the Pennsylvania State Police were intended to replace the "infamous" Coal and Iron Police, the private company police used to counter union attacks on private property: When the laboring masses rocked in mortal combat with the vested interest, the State stepped in to prove her impartial justice by selling her authority into the vested interests' hands!... whenever the miners elected to go out on strike... they invariably found the power of the State bought, paid for, fighting as a partisan on their employers' side.

Nor was there any attempt made to do this monstrous thing under mask of decency. Roosevelt's assertions notwithstanding, the Iron and Coal Police continued to operate in increasing numbers into the 1930s; the formation of the New York State Police force on April 11, 1917, was done amidst controversy and public debate, the legislation creating it passed by only one vote. Proponents of a proposal to establish the New York State Police depicted state police as the policemen-soldiers of an impartial state in labor disputes, saw in them "no gendarmerie, no carabinieri," intimating that labor's opposition was "un-American". Instead, they were to be more like the trooper police of Australia, both of which had a much more respectable reputation than the maligned forces evoked by trade unionists. Outside of Pennsylvania, the new state police were established to free up the National Guard from strikebreaking duties, extensive in the 19th century and early decades of the 20th; the strikebreaking demands on the New York state police decreased over time and their mandate modernized with the creation of the inter-state highway system and proliferation of the automobile.

While the early "state troopers", as the name implies, were mounted troops, by mid-century they were motorized police forces. Two years on June 19, 1919 the newly formed West Virginia State Police was formed to combat and put down the rising violence of organized labor in the coal and mining industry. 3 West Virginia State Troopers were killed in the two years it took to put down the uprising. The WVSP was used heavily during the prohibition era for hunting down and destroying moonshine stills/operations throughout the mountainous and rural areas of West Virginia, which resulted in some deaths of WVSP Troopers. WVSP is the 4th oldest State Police agency in the United States of America. Governor John Jacob Cornwell was insistent upon having a State Police force which he said, "was mandatory in order for him to uphold the laws of our state." Part of the compromise was the name of the organization: "West Virginia Department of Public Safety" was the official name until 1995 when the name was changed to "West Virginia State Police" during the legislative session.

The federal government in the 192

Mehmet Baydar

Mehmet Baydar was a Turkish diplomat, assassinated by Armenian Genocide survivor Gourgen Yanikian in Santa Barbara, California in 1973. He was born in Istanbul in 1924. After finishing Robert College and Law school of Istanbul University, he studied in the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris of Paris University. In 1950, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs service. After serving one year in the Economics Department, he was appointed to the newly established NATO Department of the ministry. In 1960, he was appointed as the chief secretary in the Turkish Embassy in Washington DC, USA. In 1966, he returned to Ankara to serve in the CENTO Department. In 1972, he became the chief consul in California, his service area included the most of the western states of the United States. On January 27, 1973, the 77-year-old Gourgen Yanikian, under the alias of an Iranian man named Yaniki, met with Baydar and vice-consul Bahadır Demir at the Biltmore Hotel in Santa Barbara, promising to make a gift of a bank note and a painting stolen from the Ottoman palace more than a century earlier to Turkey.

As the three men began to converse over lunch, Yanikian revealed to them that he was not Iranian, but Armenian and a survivor of the Armenian Genocide. Baydar dropped the bank note in a heated exchange took place. Yanikian pulled a Luger pistol from a hollowed-out book and emptied nine rounds at them, hitting them in the shoulders and chest, though none of the wounds were lethal; as Baydar and Demir lay on the ground Yanikian pulled out a Browning pistol from a drawer and fired two rounds into the head of each man, "what he considered mercy shots."That neither man was alive during the genocide "mattered little to Yanikian," according to journalist Michael Bobelian: "Just as Ottoman dehumanization of the Armenians a half century earlier opened the door for so many ordinary citizens to participate in the Genocide, Yanikian came to view the men not as human beings, but as symbols of decades of injustice." A high school in Istanbuland a street in Ankaraare named after Mehmet Baydar. Baydar was survived by two daughters.

List of Turkish diplomats assassinated by Armenian militant organisations

Nakayama, Yamagata

Nakayama is a town located in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. As of November 2013, the town had an estimated population of 11,663, a population density of 373 persons per km²; the total area is 31.23 square kilometres. Nakayama is located in the western end of the Yamagata Basin in central Yamagata Prefecture, surrounded by mountains; the Mogami River flows through the town. Yamagata Prefecture Yamagata Tendō Ōe Yamanobe Sagae Nakayama has a Humid continental climate with large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. Precipitation is heaviest from August to October; the area of present-day Nakayama was part of ancient Dewa Province. After the start of the Meiji period, the area became part of Higashimurayama District, Yamagata Prefecture; the modern town of Nakayama was established on October 1, 1954 by the merger of the town of Nagasaki with the village of Mogami. The economy of Nakayama is based on agriculture. JR East - Aterazawa Line Uzen-Kanezawa - Uzen-Nagasaki National Route 112 National Route 485 Media related to Nakayama, Yamagata at Wikimedia Commons Official Website