There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants, health care planning has been described as often evolutionary rather than revolutionary. According to WHO, healthcare systems goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions, provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of systems include quality, acceptability. They have described in the United States as the five Cs, Coverage, Complexity. Also, continuity of care is a major goal. Often health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably, the World Health Organization defines health systems as follows, A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities, a health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services. It includes inter-sectoral action by staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education. Healthcare providers are institutions or individuals providing healthcare services and they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance are compatible with an efficient health system, the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses. It is sometimes used broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs.
It may be provided through an insurance program, or from private insurance companies. It may be obtained on a basis or purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from high or unexpected health care expenses, the benefit is typically administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a corporation operating seeking to make a profit. Many government schemes have co-payment schemes but exclusions are rare because of political pressure, the larger insurance schemes may negotiate fees with providers
Golden Gate Transit
Golden Gate Transit is a public transportation system serving the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area in California, United States. It primarily serves Marin and Sonoma counties, and limited service to San Francisco. Funding for cross-bridge Transbay bus service is subsidized by Golden Gate Bridge tolls in addition to traditional federal. GGT provides some bus service within Marin County under contract with Marin Transit, Golden Gate Transit is constituted as a special district under California State Law, as evidenced by Assembly Bill 584, creating the Golden Gate Bridge and Transportation District. Napa and Del Norte,1 Director each, Golden Gate Transit has alleviated congestion on the Golden Gate Bridge and along the Golden Gate Corridor since 1972. A history of service is listed below, with average annual increase in traffic of 70% over 30 years, the Bridge was close to reaching its saturation point. As congestion mounted, several studies were undertaken to identify alternate means of travel between Marin County and San Francisco, the San Francisco-Marin Crossings report of May 1967 looked at the possibility of building another bridge.
The District considered adding a second deck to the Bridge, the Marin County Transit District considered taking over the existing Greyhound system as a commute service to San Francisco. Greyhound provided transit between Marin County and San Francisco at the time and it was unprofitable, so Greyhound management planned to abandon it. As air pollution increased and congestion took its toll on commuters, San Francisco, the plan called for bus service from neighborhoods in Marin and Sonoma Counties to the San Francisco Financial District and Civic Center areas. By the late 1960s, the Bridge was operating at capacity during the commute period. Original Bridge construction bonds were due to be retired in 1971, and this included any and all forms of transit, including buses and ferries. The word Transportation was added to the Districts name at that time to indicate its new commitment to public transportation, the legislature did not give the District the authority to levy taxes. Legislation restricted the use of Bridge tolls to support only regional transit services, on 10 December 1971, Assembly Bill 919 was passed, requiring the District to develop a long-range transportation program for the corridor.
Bus service began in December 1970 when the District initiated a service to the Sausalito Ferry Terminal using 5 buses leased from Greyhound on 4 bus routes driven by 4 drivers. The District soon bought 132 buses to start its operations, in September 1971, the District hired 30 experienced Greyhound drivers to operate the new bus service. GGT began operating bus service in December 1971 under contract with MCTD. The initial GGT system was operated with 152 buses and facilities in Novato and Santa Rosa, in 1974, the District opened its permanent bus administration and central maintenance facility at 1011 Andersen Drive in San Rafael
U.S. News & World Report
U. S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, consumer advice and analysis. Founded as a magazine in 1933, U. S. News transitioned to primarily web-based publishing in 2010. The rankings are popular in North America but have drawn criticism from colleges and students for their dubious, disparate. The ranking system by U. S. News is usually contrasted with the Washington Monthly, United States News was founded in 1933 by David Lawrence, who started World Report in 1946. The two magazines covered national and international news separately, but Lawrence merged them into U. S. News & World Report in 1948 and subsequently sold the magazine to his employees. Historically, the magazine tended to be more conservative than its two primary competitors and Newsweek, and focused more on economic, health. It eschewed sports and celebrity news, important milestones in the early history of the magazine include the introduction of the Washington Whispers column in 1934 and the News You Can Use column in 1952.
In 1958, the magazines circulation passed one million and reached two million by 1973. Since 1983, it has become known primarily for its influential ranking and annual reports of colleges and graduate schools, spanning across most fields and its print edition was consistently included in national bestseller lists, augmented by online subscriptions. Additional rankings published by U. S. News & World Report include hospitals, in October 1984, publisher and real estate developer Mortimer B. Zuckerman purchased U. S. News & World Report. Zuckerman is the owner of the New York Daily News, in 1993, U. S. News & World Report entered the digital world by providing content to CompuServe and in 1995, the website usnews. com was launched. In 2001, the won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence Online. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report published its first list of the nations best high schools and its ranking methodology includes state test scores and the success of poor and minority students on these exams, and schools performance in Advanced Placement exams.
Starting in June 2008, the magazine reduced its frequency in three steps. It switched in June 2008 from weekly to biweekly, in November 2008 it decreased to monthly. In November 2010, it was reported that U. S, moving forward, the publication expressed its plans to focus mainly on research and the provision of relevant information to students pursuing higher education. Its rankings and university guide books are available in print at the majority of bookstores and magazine vendors in the United States, selling millions of copies on an annual basis. In June 2008, citing the overall magazine circulation and advertising, U. S. News & World Report announced that it would become a biweekly publication
Mission Bay, San Francisco
Mission Bay is a 303-acre neighborhood in San Francisco, California. It is the home of the Chase Center that will open in 2019 and it is located on the east side of the city, outside Downtown San Francisco. Mission Bay is one of the apartment neighborhoods in San Francisco, which borders South of Market, China Basin to the north, and South Beach in San Francisco. Mission Bay is roughly bounded by Townsend Street on the north, Third Street and San Francisco Bay on the east, Mariposa Street on the south, and 7th Street and Interstate 280 on the west. Before urbanization, Mission Bay was nestled inside of a +500 acre salt marsh and lagoon and this area was a natural habitat and refuge for large water fowl populations that included ducks, herons, egrets and gulls. The Native American tribes who resided in this area were the Costanoan people who spoke eight different languages which delineated between the various tribelets, the tribe most prevalent in the Bay area was the Patwin people who resided in the area for over 5,000 years.
As the marsh stabilized with the weight of the infill. By 1850 the area was used for shipbuilding and repair and meat production, with the addition of the railroad, Mission Bay became the home to shipyards, canneries, a sugar refinery and various warehouses. In 1998 the area was announced by the Board of Supervisors as a redevelopment project, catellus subsequently sold or sub-contracted several parcels to other developers. It has rapidly evolved into a neighborhood of luxury condominiums, hospitals. Mission Bay is currently the headquarters of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine and it is the headquarters, at 550 Terry Francois Blvd, of the Old Navy brand of The Gap clothing retailer. Salesforce sold the property it owned to the NBAs Golden State Warriors, the northern terminus of the Third Street Light Rail Project of the San Francisco Municipal Railway. An AT&T Fiber to the premises greenfield project, the first new branch of the San Francisco Public Library in over 40 years, The Mission Bay Branch Library, opened on July 8,2006.
It is located on the floor of a new multi-use facility, which includes an adult day health center, affordable senior housing, retail space. The new library is approximately 7,500 square feet, and is the 27th branch of the San Francisco Public Library, the other half of the building will be occupied by Bayers U. S. Location of the San Francisco Public Safety Building at Third Street and it will include a Police headquarters, Police Station and Mission Bay Fire Station. Funding for the building was passed with a 79.4 percent positive vote on Proposition B, the future location of Rock Health, a seed accelerator for digital health startups. An estimated 56 biotech companies were clustered in Mission Bay in mid-2010, Mission Bay is served by the N Judah and T Third Street lines of San Franciscos Muni Metro
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Mount Sutro is a hill in central San Francisco, California. It was originally named Mount Parnassus, the low mountain is 909 feet in elevation. Mount Sutro is one of the many named hills within San Francisco, most of Mount Sutro is owned by the University of California, San Francisco. A 61-acre parcel, including the summit, is protected as the Mount Sutro Open Space Reserve by UCSF, Sutro Tower, a large television and radio broadcasting tower for the San Francisco Bay Area and very visible City landmark is not on Mount Sutro. It stands on a hill to the south between it and Twin Peaks. Mount Sutro has been covered by a dense forest, with about 80% being introduced eucalyptus trees, the older trees are now over 100 feet tall. The mountain is within San Franciscos fog belt, receiving fog throughout the summer, the tall trees precipitate the fog, with the moisture being absorbed by the duff and tree roots, and the forest remains damp through the summer months. It receives some 30 to 40% of its moisture from fog drip, there is a dense understory of non-native Himalayan blackberry and several other plants.
The forest provides habitat for a number of species, including great horned owls. Over thirty species were recorded in a morning of bird watching. The 19-acre city-owned portion of Mount Sutro and the eucalyptus forest, Rotary Meadow, a garden of California native plants, is at the summit within the Mount Sutro Open Space Reserve. It was funded by a $100,000 grant from the Rotary Club, the garden is maintained by the Sutro Stewards volunteers, and has water supplied by UCSF. It is accessible by paved road from Clarendon Avenue through UCSFs Aldea San Miguel housing complex, most of the gardens plants reach peak bloom in the spring. It is encircled by the Eucalyptus forest, and therefore has no views of the city, as the nearby non-forested Twin Peaks, the hill and forest are accessible by hiking trails, many of which are suitable for mountain bikes. In 2009, UCSF applied for a grant from FEMA to remove a majority of the trees on 23% of its land, for campus. It was supported by native habitat restoration advocates, for the return and expansion of indigenous habitats that support native flora, after over four years, the first step, a preliminary Draft EIR for public review and comments, has yet to be completed by UCSF.
Much of 19th century Mount Sutro was within the Rancho San Miguel of Alta California, the ranch property was acquired by Adolph Sutro in 1879, shortly after his Comstock Lode stock was bought out by his partners, the Silver Big 4. That enabled Sutro to invest in San Francisco real estate on a large scale
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. The University of California was founded in 1868 and operated temporarily in Oakland until opening its first campus in Berkeley in 1873 and its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll both undergraduate and graduate students, one campus, UC San Francisco, enrolls only graduate and professional students in the medical and health sciences. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC. The University of Californias campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in almost every academic discipline, as of 2016, UC faculty and researchers have won 62 Nobel Prizes. UC campuses are perennially ranked highly by various publications, internationally, UC Berkeley, UCLA, and UC San Diego are respectively ranked 3rd, 12th, and 14th worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866.
However, it existed only on paper, as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20,1853, in Oakland, California. The initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison, the Colleges trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the Colleges trustees began to acquire parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland. But first, they needed to secure the Colleges water rights by buying a farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town.
But sales of new homesteads fell short, at the College of Californias 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low reportedly first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the state college. The University of Californias second president, Daniel Coit Gilman, opened its new campus in Berkeley in September 1873, earlier that year, Toland Medical College in San Francisco had agreed to become the Universitys Medical Department, it evolved into UCSF. In 1878, the University established Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco as its first law school, the California Constitution was amended to designate Hastings as the Law Department of the University of California in consideration of a $100,000 gift from Serranus Clinton Hastings. Hastings is the only UC campus not governed by the Regents of the University of California, in August 1882, the California State Normal School opened a second school in Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
In 1927, it became the University of California at Los Angeles, during the 20th century, UC acquired additional satellite locations which, like Los Angeles, were all subordinate to administrators at the Berkeley campus
Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. It aims to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults, there is no set age at which patients may be under the care of a geriatrician or geriatric physician, a physician who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather, this decision is determined by the patients needs. It is important to note the difference between geriatrics, the care of aged people, and gerontology, which is the study of the process itself. The term geriatrics comes from the Greek γέρων geron meaning old man, geriatrics is sometimes called medical gerontology. Geriatrics differs from standard adult medicine because it focuses on the needs of the elderly person. The aged body is different physiologically from the adult body, and during old age. Previous health issues and lifestyle choices produce a different constellation of diseases, the appearance of symptoms depends on the remaining healthy reserves in the organs.
Smokers, for example, consume their respiratory system reserve early and rapidly, geriatricians distinguish between diseases and the effects of normal aging. For example, renal impairment may be a part of aging, geriatricians aim to treat diseases that are present and achieve healthy aging. The decline in physiological reserve in organs makes the elderly develop some kinds of diseases and have more complications from mild problems. Multiple problems may compound, A mild fever in elderly persons may cause confusion, elderly people require specific attention to medications. Elderly people particularly are subjected to polypharmacy, some elderly people have multiple medical disorders, some have self-prescribed many herbal medications and over-the-counter drugs. This polypharmacy may increase the risk of interactions or adverse drug reactions. Drugs metabolites are excreted mostly by the kidneys or the liver, the presentation of disease in elderly persons may be vague and non-specific, or it may include delirium or falls.
Some elderly people may find it hard to describe their symptoms in words, especially if the disease is causing confusion, delirium in the elderly may be caused by a minor problem such as constipation or by something as serious and life-threatening as a heart attack. Many of these problems are treatable, if the cause can be discovered. The so-called geriatric giants are the categories of impairment that appear in elderly people
Medical centers in the United States
This article discusses the major medical centers in the U. S. For all hospitals, see List of hospitals in the United States, for a general discussion about U. S. health care see Health care in the United States. The major medical centers represent the crown jewels of health care in the United States and they vary greatly in their organization, the services they provide, and their ownership and operation. In the United States, ownership of the care system is mainly in private hands, though federal, county. Many major hospitals, generally the backbone of any medical center, are non-profit, despite their non-profit status, affiliation with private ventures and major medical schools often allows them to maintain state-of-the-art facilities and services. The non-profit hospitals share of hospital capacity has remained relatively stable for decades. There are privately owned for-profit hospitals as well as government hospitals in some locations, major medical centers provide many specialized services, some even containing multiple specialized hospitals and clinics each dedicated to specific types of patients and/or services.
Additionally they are centers of education, centers of medical research. A given medical center may include a school in the same complex as the rest of the facilities or may be closely affiliated with a medical school on a nearby campus. There are about 1,100 teaching hospitals in the United States, approximately 375 of the larger institutions belong to the Association of American Medical Colleges’ Council of Teaching Hospitals and Health Systems. COTH teaching hospitals train about 75 percent of residents yearly and provide more than 40 percent of all hospital charity care in the nation, although any rankings of medical centers are highly subjective, this section describes some of the largest and most prominent centers in the nation. Note that the rankings and importance of individual hospital facilities may be different from the centers that they belong to. Intramural research is conducted at the main campus in Bethesda, immediately adjacent to the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and right outside Washington.
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in Los Angeles. As of 2013, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #13 out of hospitals across the United States and #3 in the western United States, behind only UCLA Medical Center and it was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins. The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the birthplace of medical specialties including neurosurgery, endocrinology, cardiac surgery. It is widely regarded as one of the greatest hospitals in the United States and it has been ranked by U. S. News and World Report as the best overall hospital in America for 20 consecutive years. Mayo Clinic is an organization and internationally renowned group medical practice headquartered in Rochester
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education, the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means community of teachers and scholars. Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages, the original Latin word universitas refers in general to a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members, an important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university, the University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education.
Today this is claimed as the origin of academic freedom and this is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988,430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bolognas foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, the university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and it is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries, the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford.
The students had all the power … and dominated the masters and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. The rediscovery of Aristotles works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated–fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotles works a turning point in the history of Western thought and this became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures and examinations.
Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, while Hippocrates, outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5,12 a. m. on April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.8 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI. Severe shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. As a result, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed, the events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a disaster in Californias history. The San Andreas Fault is a transform fault that forms part of the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate. The strike-slip fault is characterized by mainly lateral motion in a dextral sense, the 1906 rupture propagated both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino in the north, the maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet.
The 1906 earthquake preceded the development of the Richter magnitude scale by three decades. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the quake on the moment magnitude scale is 7.8. According to findings published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, severe deformations in the earths crust took place both before and after the earthquakes impact. Accumulated strain on the faults in the system was relieved during the earthquake, the main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles from the city, near Mussel Rock. Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada, a strong foreshock preceded the main shock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds, there were decades of minor earthquakes – more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California – before the 1906 quake. For years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement.
In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, at the time,375 deaths were reported, partly because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded. The total number of deaths is uncertain today, and is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at minimum. Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in the Bay Area, nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa and San Jose, in Monterey County, the earthquake permanently shifted the course of the Salinas River near its mouth. Where previously the river emptied into Monterey Bay between Moss Landing and Watsonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a new channel just north of Marina