click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Alf Padgham

Alfred Harry Padgham was one of the leading British professional golfers of the 1930s and 1940s. He won the 1936 Open Championship at Royal Liverpool Golf Club in Hoylake, Merseyside and played for Great Britain in the Ryder Cup in 1933, 1935 and 1937, he was captain of the Professional Golfers Association in 1936. Padgham was born in Surrey, his family had close ties to Royal Ashdown Forest Golf Club in Sussex, where he served his apprenticeship under head professional Jack Rowe. As a tournament player, he came into prominence in 1931 when he won the News of the World Match Play at Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club, beating Mark Seymour in the final and receiving £300 in prize money. On 20 May 1933, Padgham took part in an exhibition match against Percy Alliss, as the main event at the opening of the reconstructed West course at Sundridge Park Golf Club, in the south east suburbs of London, near Sevenoaks in Kent. Members of the management committee at the Sundridge Park were impressed with Padgham's skill, so he was approached and he agreed to become the club professional, on a five-year contract, working as senior partner with present club pro Jack Randall, working in tandem.

Padgham's many successes in tournament golf the years to come, beside his work at the club, were of great delight of the club. He will be remembered most for his remarkable sequence of five victories between the autumn of 1935 and the summer of 1936, they included the News of the World Match Play for the second time, beating Percy Alliss in the final, The Open Championship. He captured the championships of Ireland and Holland, he built up towards his Open Championship victory in 1936. He was fourth in 1932, seventh the following year third behind Henry Cotton at Sandwich and second to Alf Perry at Muirfield in 1935 before the title became his at Royal Liverpool. On the longest course yet used for The Open at 7,708 yards, he came from behind with a last round of 71 to beat Jimmy Adams by a single stroke and Cotton by another stroke. On that final day, he had to break into the locked Hoylake pro shop to retrieve his clubs for an early tee time, but seemed unperturbed by the incident. On the final green he holed from 12 feet for a 3 to win.

Despite seeming to be a good match-play competitor, winning the News of the World Match Play twice and once being beaten in the final by Cotton, he failed to win a single point in his three Ryder Cup appearances in 1933, 1935 and 1937. Padgham was a tall and thin man with a natural smooth swing, a lot similar to that of the great Harry Vardon, but sometimes his putter let him down. Vardon, winner of six Open titles, had one word for Padgham's swing, he thought it "perfect". From a short, three-quarter backswing the club seemed to flow effortlessly into the ball and yet he was one of the longest hitters of his day. Padgham was not a charismatic person dressed in dark clothes a raincoat, he only showed his sense of humour with close friends. He lost what might have been some of his best competitive years due to World War II. During the war, Padgham joined the full-time Special Police and part of the club house and golf course at Sundridge Park was used for military purpose. In June 1940, Padgham took part in a 72-hole tournament at Sundridge Park, with gate receipts going to the Red Cross.

During the 1950s and early 1960s, Padgham took part in many exhibition matches, the money going to good causes. In 1959, he was presented with a gold watch for 25 years of service to the club; the watch did not go over his hand. Whilst Padgham was absent from the club through sickness in the beginning of the 1960s, his eldest son died, which added to his suffering, he retired from the club in 1965, with failing health, was succeeded by George Will. Padgham died on 4 March 1966 at age 59 at his home in Greater London, Kent. 1931 News of the World Match Play 1932 Irish Open 1934 German Open, Dunlop-Southport Tournament, Yorkshire Evening News Tournament 1935 News of the World Match Play 1936 The Open Championship, Daily Mail Tournament, Silver King Tournament, Dunlop-Southport Tournament, Western Province Open 1938 Dutch Open, Kent Professional Championship 1939 Silver King Tournament, News Chronicle Tournament 1946 Daily Mail Tournament 1947 Silver King Tournament Note: Padgham only played in The Open Championship NT = No tournament CUT = missed the half-way cut "T" indicates a tie for a place Ryder Cup: 1933, 1935, 1937 England–Scotland Professional Match: 1932, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938 England–Ireland Professional Match: 1932, 1933 Coronation Match: 1937 Llandudno International Golf Trophy: 1938

Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper

The Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper, or sWS, was a German World War II half-track vehicle used in various roles between 1943 and 1945. The unarmored models were used as tractors to haul artillery. Armored versions mounted a 10 barrel rocket launcher. Fewer than a thousand were built before the end of the war, but production continued after the war of an improved model in the Tatra plant in Czechoslovakia. On 7 May 1942 Hitler ordered development of a simple, low-speed, half-track, load-carrying vehicle for use on the Eastern Front. Büssing-NAG was selected to develop a new 5 t tractor to replace the earlier 5 tonne Sd. Kfz. 6 and 3 t Sd. Kfz. 11 half-tracks, as well as the various lesser-known vehicles of the same class. Production started in December 1943 at Büssing-NAG. Early examples used a truck-like, unarmored cabin similar to the earlier half-tracks it replaced, while examples featured an armored cabin and engine compartment that looked similar to the Sd. Kfz. 251 armored personnel carrier. Like the earlier Demag-designed Sd.

Kfz. 10, the sWS's suspension system consisted of five double roadwheels per side and interleaved in the Schachtellaufwerk layout, mounted on swing arms sprung by torsion bars. One idler wheel, mounted at the rear end of each track unit, was used to control track tension. Tatra joined in production, but together both factories produced only 825 vehicles in total. Tatra continued production of an improved vehicle after the war as the T809. In addition to the basic cargo role, the vehicle was adapted as a mount both for the medium 3.7 cm FlaK 43 anti-aircraft gun and the quadruple 20mm flak gun. These mounts were placed at the center of the cargo area with a large gun shield; the sides of the cargo compartment folded down to give the crew more room to serve the weapons. Ammunition was carried at the rear of the cargo area. Another modification was the Panzerwerfer 42 auf sWS, a 10-barreled 15 cm Nebelwerfer 42 rocket launcher placed over an armored ammunition storage compartment; the Panzerwerfer mount had armor 10 millimetres thick.

Chamberlain and Hilary L. Doyle. Thomas L. Jentz. Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two: A Complete Illustrated Directory of German Battle Tanks, Armoured Cars, Self-propelled Guns, Semi-tracked Vehicles, 1933–1945, London: Arms and Armour Press, 1978. ISBN 1-85409-214-6 Spielberger, Walter J. Halftracked Vehicles of the German Army 1909-1945, Atlgen, PA: Schiffer, 2008 ISBN 978-0-7643-2942-5 sWS on wwiivehicles.com all known sWS info

V (Spock's Beard album)

V is the fifth studio album of progressive rock band Spock's Beard. The release of V produced a CD single, this time promoting the track "All on a Sunday"; the track itself was re-recorded in 2001 and is different from the album track. On the single is an unreleased song called "The Truth", the music video for "All on a Sunday"; this album is available as a limited edition as well, which contains a 32-page booklet that includes an interview with the band and a personal fact-sheet on all the band members, as well as a multimedia track showing the band in the studio. "Thoughts" is the second part of a cross-album suite, with other parts being featured on the Spock's Beard album Beware of Darkness and the Neal Morse album Momentum. All songs written by Neal Morse except. Neal Morse - lead vocals, all synths, acoustic guitar Alan Morse - electric guitar, cello, sampler Dave Meros - bass, stand-up bass, French horn, vocals Nick D'Virgilio - drums, vocals Ryo Okumoto - Hammond organ, MellotronAdditional personnel Katie Hagen - French horn Chris Carmichael - violin, cello Kathy Ann Lord - English horn Joey Pippin - trumpet

Harold Alexander (Florida politician)

G. Harold Alexander was the state chairman of the Florida Republican Party from 1952 to 1964. Alexander resided on the Gulf Coast in Fort Myers in Florida. Alexander's long chairmanship corresponded with the continued but weakening one-party system in Florida. From 1953 to 1955, he handled federal patronage in Florida through the new Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, he was among those known as "Post Office Republicans" whose principal interest in the party was to locate jobs as postmasters or in other federal positions for deserving party members. However, a new breed of Republicans began to appear in Florida as early as the 1950s; such a figure was William C. Cramer, a native of Denver, who moved to St. Petersburg as a youth with his parents. In 1950, the World War II veteran was elected to the Florida House of Representatives from St. Petersburg. After a loss for the United States House of Representatives in 1952 on the Eisenhower ticket, Cramer won the congressional position in 1954 by a narrow margin.

He soon found that Alexander "did his best to put me in my place" though Cramer was the first Florida Republican to serve in Congress since 1883. According to Cramer, Alexander accented patronage under his control, rather than GOP voter registration drives or the recruitment of candidates. However, Alexander claimed an interest in campaigning. In 1955, he attended a "campaign school" for state chairmen held in Washington, D. C.. There he conferred with Vice President of the United States Richard M. Nixon. Alexander was a delegate to the 1960 and 1964 Republican National Conventions. In 1964, after nine years in the House, Cramer was elected in the primary as the Florida Republican national committeeman, a position that he held for twenty consecutive years. Cramer headed the presidential delegate slate pledged to U. S. Senator Barry M. Goldwater of Arizona though his former law partner, Herman Goldner the mayor of St. Petersburg, was supporting U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. Cramer said that Goldwater asked him to circumvent the party "regulars" led by Harold Alexander's successor, chosen in 1964, Tom Fairfield Brown, Sr. of Tampa, because the state leadership had been too passive for too long.

Cramer said that the state committee had "never been interested in electing Republicans" and had "ignored Republicans when they were elected."Edward J. Gurney, a transplanted New Englander who settled in Winter Park and was elected to the U. S. House in 1962 joined Cramer and the insurgents but withdrew his backing. Goldwater tried to "marry" the two slates, but Cramer said that Brown made such demands that no merger was feasible. Republican strategist Richard Kleindienst of Arizona halted a scheduled appearance on behalf of the Cramer slate by Goldwater's two sons; the Brown forces narrowly won the primary, but Cramer said that the insurgents may well have prevailed had Goldwater not wavered in his position. Cramer said that he believed the Brown forces would have "sold out" Goldwater had the "Stop Goldwater movement" been strong enough to coalesce behind Governor William Scranton of Pennsylvania, a late-announcing candidate prior to the 1964 convention in San Francisco. Alexander and his wife, Olive L. Alexander, had two daughters

APL (programming language)

APL is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson, its central datatype is the multidimensional array. It uses a large range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators, leading to concise code, it has been an important influence on the development of concept modeling, functional programming, computer math packages. It has inspired several other programming languages. A mathematical notation for manipulating arrays was developed by Kenneth E. Iverson, starting in 1957 at Harvard University. In 1960, he began work for IBM where he developed this notation with Adin Falkoff and published it in his book A Programming Language in 1962; the preface states its premise: Applied mathematics is concerned with the design and analysis of explicit procedures for calculating the exact or approximate values of various functions. Such explicit procedures are called programs; because an effective notation for the description of programs exhibits considerable syntactic structure, it is called a programming language.

This notation was used inside IBM for short research reports on computer systems, such as the Burroughs B5000 and its stack mechanism when stack machines versus register machines were being evaluated by IBM for upcoming computers. Iverson used his notation in a draft of the chapter A Programming Language, written for a book he was writing with Fred Brooks, Automatic Data Processing, which would be published in 1963. In 1979, Iverson received the Turing Award for his work on APL; as early as 1962, the first attempt to use the notation to describe a complete computer system happened after Falkoff discussed with William C. Carter his work to standardize the instruction set for the machines that became the IBM System/360 family. In 1963, Herbert Hellerman, working at the IBM Systems Research Institute, implemented a part of the notation on an IBM 1620 computer, it was used by students in a special high school course on calculating transcendental functions by series summation. Students tested their code in Hellerman's lab.

This implementation of a part of the notation was called Personalized Array Translator. In 1963, Falkoff and Edward H. Sussenguth Jr. all working at IBM, used the notation for a formal description of the IBM System/360 series machine architecture and functionality, which resulted in a paper published in IBM Systems Journal in 1964. After this was published, the team turned their attention to an implementation of the notation on a computer system. One of the motivations for this focus of implementation was the interest of John L. Lawrence who had new duties with Science Research Associates, an educational company bought by IBM in 1964. Lawrence asked Iverson and his group to help use the language as a tool to develop and use computers in education. After Lawrence M. Breed and Philip S. Abrams of Stanford University joined the team at IBM Research, they continued their prior work on an implementation programmed in FORTRAN IV for a part of the notation, done for the IBM 7090 computer running on the IBSYS operating system.

This work was finished in late 1965 and named IVSYS. The basis of this implementation was described in detail by Abrams in a Stanford University Technical Report, "An Interpreter for Iverson Notation" in 1966, the academic aspect of this was formally supervised by Niklaus Wirth. Like Hellerman's PAT system earlier, this implementation did not include the APL character set but used special English reserved words for functions and operators; the system was adapted for a time-sharing system and, by November 1966, it had been reprogrammed for the IBM System/360 Model 50 computer running in a time sharing mode and was used internally at IBM. A key development in the ability to use APL before the wide use of cathode ray tube terminals, was the development of a special IBM Selectric typewriter interchangeable typing element with all the special APL characters on it; this was used on paper printing terminal workstations using the Selectric typewriter and typing element mechanism, such as the IBM 1050 and IBM 2741 terminal.

Keycaps could be placed over the normal keys to show which APL characters would be entered and typed when that key was struck. For the first time, a programmer could type in and see proper APL characters as used in Iverson's notation and not be forced to use awkward English keyword representations of them. Falkoff and Iverson had the special APL Selectric typing elements, 987 and 988, designed in late 1964, although no APL computer system was available to use them. Iverson cited Falkoff as the inspiration for the idea of using an IBM Selectric typing element for the APL character set. Many APL symbols with the APL characters on the Selectric typing element, still had to be typed in by over-striking two extant element characters. An example is the grade up character, which had to be made from a Sheffer stroke; this was necessary because the APL character set was much larger than the 88 characters allowed on the typing element when letters were restricted to upper-case. The first APL interactive login and creation of an APL workspace was in 1966 by Larry Breed using an IBM 1050 terminal at the IBM Mohansic Labs near Thomas J. Watson Research Center, the home of APL, in Yorktown Heights, New York.

IBM was chiefly responsible for introducing APL to the marketplace. APL was first available in 1967 for the IBM 1130 as APL\1130, it would run in as little as 8k 16-bit words of memory, used a dedicated 1 megabyte hard disk. APL gained its foothold on mainframe timesharing systems from the late 1960s through the early 1980s, in part because it would support multiple users