National identification number
A national identification number, national identity number, or national insurance number is used by the governments of many countries as a means of tracking their citizens, permanent residents, temporary residents for the purposes of work, government benefits, health care, other governmentally-related functions. The number appears on identity documents issued by several countries; the ways in which such a system is implemented vary among countries, but in most cases citizens are issued an identification number upon reaching legal age, or when they are born. Non-citizens may be issued such numbers when they enter the country, or when granted a temporary or permanent residence permit. Many countries issued such numbers for a singular purpose, but over time, they become a de facto national identification number. For example, the United States developed its Social Security number system as a means of organizing disbursing of Social Security benefits. However, due to function creep, the number has become used for other purposes to the point where it is essential to have one to, among other things, open a bank account, obtain a credit card, or drive a car.
Although some countries are required to collect Taxpayer Identification Number information for overseas payment procedures, some countries, like the US, are not required to collect other nations' TIN if other requirements are met, such as date of birth. Authorities use databases and they need a unique identifier in order to be that data refer to the searched person. In countries where there is no established nationwide number, authorities need to create their own number for each person, though there is a risk of mismatching people; the Nigerian National Identification Number is issued and managed by National Identity Management Commission, it's a set of eleven digits, assigned to 16+ years old Nigerians and legal residents by the Government. In the Republic of South Africa every citizen must apply for an Identity Document from the age of 16 years; the ID number is allocated at the time the birth certificate is generated and required for child passport applications. This passport-size document contains only 8 pages - the first page containing the national identification number, name of bearer, district or country of birth, as well as a photograph of the bearer.
The other pages are used for recording of voting participation, a page for driver's license information, as well as pages for fire arms licenses. The document is required to apply for a passport, car learner's license, motorcycle learner's license, driving license, motorcycle license and to vote; the Identity Document is not used for international travel purposes but is acceptable photographic identification for internal flights, serves as proof of identification. Some authorities may accept the driver's license as proof of identity, but the Identity Document is the only universally accepted form of identification; the government has started issuing ID cards which contains a biometric chip which, in turn, holds biographical information, unique to the holder of that specific card. The South African government wishes to phase out the old Green Barcoded ID book and replace it with the Identity Card; the Identity number is used when the holder applies for a grant from the South African Social Security Agency.
A South African person identification number is a 13-digit number containing only numeric characters, no whitespace, punctuation, or alpha characters. It is defined as YYMMDDSSSSCAZ: YYMMDD represents the date of birth. Prior to 1994 this number was used to indicate the holder's race. Using ID Number 8001015009087 as an example, it would read as follows: The ID indicates that a male citizen was born on 1 January 1980; the checksum digit is calculated using the Luhn algorithm: A = the sum of the digits in the ID number in the odd positions B = the number formed by the concatenation of the digits in the ID number in the positions C = the sum of the digits in D = A + C Z = 10 - During the apartheid era the next to last digit, "A", denoted "race". Since these documents were not issued to the majority population, the "race" code does not include those classified as Black. I.e. 7605300675088 "A" Classification: 0: White 1: Cape Coloured 2: Malay 3: Griqua 4: Chinese 5: Indian 6: Other Asian 7: Other ColouredAfter about 1987, the racial classification was eliminated, all existing numbers were reissued with new digits in the last two fields.
In contrast to other countries the South African ID number is not unique, at least because of the use of a two-digit year. Other issues with duplications exist: however the Department of Home Affairs HANIS Project has planned to rectify that with ID smart cards; the timeline for, undetermined as the last budget request for 08/09 and 09/10 included requests for budget for it despite the project being active since 1997. Upon reaching the age of 16 the applicant has to go to the registrar generals offices in their district to obtain a national ID. Foreigners in Zimbabwe have their ID number with the di
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national defense policy may require. In some countries paramilitary forces are included in a nation's armed forces, though not considered military. Armed forces that are not a part of military or paramilitary organizations, such as insurgent forces mimic military organizations, or use ad hoc structures, while formal military organization tends to use hierarchical forms; the use of formalized ranks in a hierarchical structure came into widespread use with the Roman Army. In modern times, executive control and administration of military organization is undertaken by governments through a government department within the structure of public administration known as a Ministry of Defense, Department of Defense, or Department of War; these in turn manage Armed Services that themselves command formations and units specialising in combat, combat support and combat-service support.
The civilian or civilian executive control over the national military organization is exercised in democracies by an elected political leader as a member of the government's Cabinet known as a Minister of Defense. Subordinated to that position are Secretaries for specific major operational divisions of the armed forces as a whole, such as those that provide general support services to the Armed Services, including their dependants. There are the heads of specific departmental agencies responsible for the provision and management of specific skill- and knowledge-based service such as Strategy advice, Capability Development assessment, or Defense Science provision of research, design and development of technologies. Within each departmental agency will be found administrative branches responsible for further agency business specialization work. In most countries the armed forces are divided into three or four Armed services: army and air force. Many countries have a variation on the standard model of four basic Armed Services.
Some nations organize their marines, special forces or strategic missile forces as independent armed services. A nation's coast guard may be an independent military branch of its military, although in many nations the coast guard is a law enforcement or civil agency. A number of countries have no navy, for geographical reasons; some other variations include: Bangladesh: Army, Air Force, Border Guards, Coast Guard Brazil: Army, Air Force, Firefighters Chile: Army, Air Force, National Police Croatia: Army, Air Force and Air Defence Egypt: Army, Air Force, Air Defense France: Army, Air Force, National Guard Greece: Army, Air Force Germany: Army, Air Force, Joint Support Service, Joint Medical Services Hungary: Army, Air Force India: Army, Air Force, Strategic Forces Command, Coast Guard, Paramilitary Forces Indonesia: Army, Air Force, Marines Iran: Army, Air Force and Air Defense Force, Revolutionary Guard Italy: Army, Air Force, Military Police Japan: Japan Ground Self Defense Force, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force, Japan Air Self Defense Force Latvia: Land Forces, Naval Forces, Air Force, National Guard Netherlands: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie Norway: Army, Air Force, Home Guard, Cyber Defence Force Pakistan: Army, Air Force, Frontier Corps, Pakistan Coast Guard, Maritime Security Agency, Gilgit Scouts, Pakistan National Guard, Airports Security Force, Frontier Constabulary, National Command Authority Philippines: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard Poland: Land Forces, Air Force, Special Forces, Territorial Defence Force People's Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Strategic Rocket Force, Strategic Support Force, People's Armed Police Republic of China: Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Reserve Force, Military Police Russian Federation: Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces plus three independent arms of service South Africa: Army, Air Force, Military Health Service Spain: Army, Air Force, Civil Guard, Emergencies Unit, Royal Guard Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Army, Sri Lanka Navy, Sri Lanka Air Force, Sri Lanka Civil Security Force Turkey: Land Forces, Air Force, Naval Forces, Coast Guard, War Academies United States: Army, Air Force, Coast Guard United Kingdom: Army, Air Force, Marines Venezuela: Army, Air Force, National Guard, National Militia Vietnam: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Guard, Coast GuardIn larger armed forces the culture between the different Armed Services of the armed forces can be quite different.
Most smaller countries have a single organization that encompasses all armed forces employed by the country in question. Third-world armies tend to consist of infantry, while first-world armies tend to have larger units manning expensive equipment and only a fraction of personnel in infantry units, it is worthwhile to make mention of the term joint. In western militaries, a joint force is defined as a unit or formation comprising representation of combat power from two or more branches of the military. Gendarmeries, including equivalents such as Internal Troops, Paramilitary Forces and similar, are an internal security service common in most of the world, but uncommon in Anglo-Saxon countries where civil police are employed to enforce the law, there are tight restrictions on how the armed forces may be used to assist, it is common, at least in the European and Nort
In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence can be classified into three different types of systems: analytical, human-inspired, humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence. Human-inspired AI has elements from emotional intelligence. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies, is able to be self-conscious and is self-aware in interactions with others. Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics; the AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity. Some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding.
Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence; the study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed that "if a human could not distinguish between responses from a machine and a human, the machine could be considered "intelligent".
The first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956. Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research, they and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies (and by 1959 were playing better than the average human
Aadhaar is a 12-digit unique identity number that can be obtained by residents of India, based on their biometric and demographic data. The data is collected by the Unique Identification Authority of India, a statutory authority established in January 2009 by the government of India, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, following the provisions of the Aadhaar Act, 2016. Aadhaar is the world's largest biometric ID system. World Bank Chief Economist Paul Romer described Aadhaar as "the most sophisticated ID programme in the world". Considered a proof of residence and not a proof of citizenship, Aadhaar does not itself grant any rights to domicile in India. In June 2017 the Home Ministry clarified that Aadhaar is not a valid identification document for Indians travelling to Nepal and Bhutan. Prior to the enactment of the Act, the UIDAI had functioned, since 28 January 2009, as an attached office of the Planning Commission. On 3 March 2016 a money bill was introduced in the Parliament to give legislative backing to Aadhaar.
On 11 March 2016 2016, was passed in the Lok Sabha. Aadhaar is the subject of several rulings by the Supreme Court of India. On 23 September 2013 the Supreme Court issued an interim order saying that "no person should suffer for not getting Aadhaar", adding that the government cannot deny a service to a resident who does not possess Aadhaar, as it is voluntary and not mandatory; the court limited the scope of the program and reaffirmed the voluntary nature of the identity number in other rulings. On 24 August 2017 the Indian Supreme Court delivered a landmark verdict affirming the right to privacy as a fundamental right, overruling previous judgments on the issue. A five-judge constitutional bench of the Supreme Court heard various cases relating to the validity of Aadhaar on various grounds including privacy and exclusion from welfare benefits. On 9 January 2017 the five-judge Constitution bench of the Supreme Court of India reserved its judgement on the interim relief sought by petitions to extend the deadline making Aadhaar mandatory for everything from bank accounts to mobile services.
The final hearing began on 17 January 2018. In September 2018, the top court upheld the validity of the Aadhaar system. In the September 2018 judgment, the Supreme Court stipulated that the Aadhaar card is not mandatory for opening bank accounts, getting a mobile number, or being admitted to a school; some civil liberty groups such as the Citizens Forum for Civil Liberties and the Indian Social Action Forum have opposed the project over privacy concerns. Despite the validity of Aadhaar being challenged in the court, the central government has pushed citizens to link their Aadhaar numbers with a host of services, including mobile sim cards, bank accounts, the Employees' Provident Fund Organisation, a large number of welfare schemes including but not limited to the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, the Public Distribution System, old age pensions. Recent reports suggest that HIV patients have been forced to discontinue treatment for fear of identity breach as access to the treatment has become contingent on producing Aadhaar.
The Unique Identification Authority of India is a statutory authority and a government department, established on 12 July 2016 by the Government of India under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, following the provisions of the Aadhaar Act 2016. The UIDAI is mandated to assign a 12-digit unique identification number to all the residents of India; the implementation of the UID scheme entails assignment of UIDs to residents. The number is linked to the resident's basic demographic and biometric information such as a photograph, ten fingerprints and two iris scans, which are stored in a centralized database; the UIDAI was set up by the Government of India in January 2009, as an attached office under the aegis of the Planning Commission via a notification in the Gazette of India. According to the notification, the UIDAI was given the responsibility to lay down plans and policies to implement the UID scheme, to own and operate the UID database, to be responsible for its updating and maintenance on an ongoing basis.
The UIDAI data centre is located at the Industrial Model Township, inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Haryana Bhupinder Singh Hooda on 7 January 2013. Aadhaar data is kept in about 7,000 servers in Manesar. Starting with the issuing of the first UID in September 2010, the UIDAI has been aiming to issue an Aadhaar number to all the residents ensuring that it is robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake identities, that the number can be verified and authenticated in an easy and cost-effective way online anywhere, anytime. In a notification dated 16 December 2010 the Government of India indicated that it would recognise a letter issued by the UIDAI containing details of name and Aadhaar number, as an official, valid document. Aadhaar is not intended to replace any existing identity cards, nor does it constitute proof of citizenship. Aadhaar neither guarantees rights, benefits, or entitlements. Aadhaar is a random number that never starts with a 0 or 1, is not loa
Quincy Regional Airport
Quincy Regional Airport is a city-owned airport 12 miles east of Quincy, a city in Adams County, Illinois. It is used for general aviation but sees United Airlines partner SkyWest Airlines flights to O'Hare International Airport, a service, subsidized by the federal government's Essential Air Service program at a cost of $1,956,856. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 2,044 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 1,750 in 2009 and 7,783 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2019–2023 categorized it as a non-primary commercial service airport. The first airline flights were on Mid-Continent in 1947. TWA arrived in 1948 and left in 1953-54; the airport covers 1,101 acres at an elevation of 769 feet. It has three runways: 4/22 is 7,098 by 150 feet asphalt/concrete. In 2010 the airport had 22,595 aircraft operations, average 61 per day: 84% general aviation, 12% airline, 3% air taxi, 2% military. 48 aircraft were based at the airport: 63% single-engine, 15% multi-engine, 19% jet, 4% helicopter.
This airport operates as an uncontrolled airport. In celebration of the 2018 Illinois Bicentennial, Quincy Regional Airport was selected as one of the Illinois 200 Great Places by the American Institute of Architects Illinois component. On November 6, 2006 Mesa Airlines announced that new non-stop service to Chicago Midway International Airport and Kirksville Regional Airport would begin in February 2007 operated by subsidiary Air Midwest. Nine months after starting the service, Mesa announced they would drop Quincy on November 9, 2007; the airport was served by Trans World Express and Great Lakes Airlines. On November 19, 1996 United Express Flight 5925 from Chicago via Burlington, Iowa crashed on landing at Quincy. A Beechcraft King Air was attempting to takeoff on an intersecting runway while the United Express Beechcraft 1900 landed. All 12 on the 1900 and 2 on the King Air were killed. Airport page at City of Quincy website Aerial photo as of April 1998 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for UIN, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for UIN AirNav airport information for KUIN ASN accident history for UIN FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures Illinois Great Places - Quincy Regional Airport Society of Architectural Historians SAH ARCHIPEDIA entry on Quincy Regional Airport