Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II. He first came to international prominence as a close collaborator of explorer Fridtjof Nansen, organizing humanitarian relief during the Russian famine of 1921 in Povolzhye, he was posted as a Norwegian diplomat to the Soviet Union, for some time managed British diplomatic affairs there. He returned to Norway in 1929, served as Minister of Defence in the governments of Peder Kolstad and Jens Hundseid, representing the Farmers' Party. In 1933, Quisling founded the fascist party Nasjonal Samling. Although he achieved some popularity after his attacks on the political left, his party failed to win any seats in the Storting and by 1940 it was still little more than peripheral. On 9 April 1940, with the German invasion of Norway in progress, he attempted to seize power in the world's first radio-broadcast coup d'état, but failed after the Germans refused to support his government.
From 1942 to 1945 he served as Prime Minister of Norway, heading the Norwegian state administration jointly with the German civilian administrator Josef Terboven. His pro-Nazi puppet government, known as the Quisling regime, was dominated by ministers from Nasjonal Samling; the collaborationist government participated in Germany's genocidal Final Solution. Quisling was put on trial during the legal purge in Norway after World War II, he was found guilty of charges including embezzlement and high treason against the Norwegian state, was sentenced to death. He was executed by firing squad at Akershus Fortress, Oslo, on 24 October 1945; the word "quisling" became a byword for "collaborator" or "traitor" in several languages, reflecting the contempt with which Quisling's conduct has been regarded, both at the time and since his death. Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling was born on 18 July 1887 in Fyresdal, in the Norwegian county of Telemark, he was the son of Church of Norway pastor and genealogist Jon Lauritz Qvisling and his wife Anna Caroline Bang, the daughter of Jørgen Bang, ship-owner and at the time the richest man in the town of Grimstad in South Norway.
The elder Quisling had lectured in Grimstad in the 1870s. The newly-wed couple promptly moved to Fyresdal, where his younger siblings were born; the family name derives from Quislinus, a Latinised name invented by Quisling's ancestor Lauritz Ibsen Quislin, based on the village of Kvislemark near Slagelse, whence he had emigrated. Having two brothers and a sister, the young Quisling was "shy and quiet but loyal and helpful, always friendly breaking into a warm smile." Private letters found by historians indicate a warm and affectionate relationship between the family members. From 1893 to 1900, his father was a chaplain for the Strømsø borough in Drammen. Here, Vidkun went to school for the first time, he was bullied by other students at the school for his Telemark dialect, but proved a successful student. In 1900, the family moved to Skien. Academically Quisling proved talented in humanities history, natural sciences. At this point, his life had no clear direction. In 1905, Quisling enrolled at the Norwegian Military Academy, having received the highest entrance examination score of the 250 applicants that year.
Transferring in 1906 to the Norwegian Military College, he graduated with the highest score since the college's inception in 1817, was rewarded by an audience with the King. On 1 November 1911, he joined the army General Staff. Norway was neutral in the First World War. In March 1918, he was sent to Russia as an attaché at the Norwegian legation in Petrograd, to take advantage of the five years he had spent studying the country. Though dismayed at the living conditions he experienced, Quisling nonetheless concluded that "the Bolsheviks have got an extraordinarily strong hold on Russian society" and marvelled at how Leon Trotsky had managed to mobilise the Red Army forces so well; when the legation was recalled in December 1918, Quisling became the Norwegian military's expert on Russian affairs. In September 1919, Quisling departed Norway to become an intelligence officer with the Norwegian delegation in Helsinki, a post that combined diplomacy and politics. In the autumn of 1921, Quisling left Norway once again, this time at the request of explorer and humanitarian Fridtjof Nansen, in January 1922 arrived in the Ukrainian capital Kharkov to help with the League of Nations humanitarian relief effort there.
Highlighting the massive mismanagement of the area and the death toll of ten thousand a day, Quisling produced a report that attracted aid and demonstrated his administrative skills, as well as his dogged determination to get what he wanted. On 21 August, he married the daughter of a peddler. Alexandra wrote in her memoirs that Quisling declared his love for her, but based on his letters home and investigations undertaken by his cousins, it appears that there was never any question of romantic involvement between the two. Quisling seemed to ha
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but meaningful clothes, but the idea has been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word tradition itself derives from the Latin tradere meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines use the word in a variety of ways; the phrase "according to tradition", or "by tradition" means that whatever information follows is known only by oral tradition, but is not supported by physical documentation, by a physical artifact, or other quality evidence. Tradition is used to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed. For example, "According to tradition, Homer was born on Chios, but many other locales have claimed him as theirs."
This tradition may never be disproven. In another example, "King Arthur, by tradition a true British king, has inspired many well loved stories." Whether they are documented fact or not does not decrease their value as cultural history and literature. Traditions are a subject of study in several academic fields in social sciences such as anthropology and biology; the concept of tradition, as the notion of holding on to a previous time, is found in political and philosophical discourse. For example, it is the basis of the political concept of traditionalism, strands of many world religions including traditional Catholicism. In artistic contexts, tradition is used to decide the correct display of an art form. For example, in the performance of traditional genres, adherence to guidelines dictating how an art form should be composed are given greater importance than the performer's own preferences. A number of factors can exacerbate the loss of tradition, including industrialization and the assimilation or marginalization of specific cultural groups.
In response to this, tradition-preservation attempts have now been started in many countries around the world, focusing on aspects such as traditional languages. Tradition is contrasted with the goal of modernity and should be differentiated from customs, laws, routines and similar concepts; the English word tradition comes from the noun from the verb tradere. According to Anthony Giddens and others, the modern meaning of tradition evolved during the Enlightenment period, in opposition to modernity and progress; as with many other generic terms, there are many definitions of tradition. The concept includes a number of interrelated ideas. Tradition can refer to beliefs or customs that are Prehistoric, with lost or arcane origins, existing from time immemorial. Traditions were passed orally, without the need for a writing system. Tools to aid this process include poetic devices such as alliteration; the stories thus preserved are referred to as tradition, or as part of an oral tradition. Such traditions, are presumed to have originated at some point.
Traditions are presumed to be ancient and important, though they may sometimes be much less "natural" than is presumed. It is presumed that at least two transmissions over three generations are required for a practice, belief or object to be seen as traditional; some traditions were deliberately invented for one reason or another to highlight or enhance the importance of a certain institution. Traditions may be adapted to suit the needs of the day, the changes can become accepted as a part of the ancient tradition. Tradition changes with changes from one generation to the next being seen as significant. Thus, those carrying out the traditions will not be consciously aware of the change, if a tradition undergoes major changes over many generations, it will be seen as unchanged. There are various fields of tradition. Beliefs or customs instituted and maintained by societies and governments, such as national anthems and national holidays, such as Federal holidays in the United States. Beliefs or customs maintained by religious denominations and church bodies that share history, culture, and, to some extent, body of teachings.
For example, one can speak of Christianity's tradition. Many objects and customs can be traditional. Rituals of social interaction can be traditional, with phrases and gestures such as saying "thank you", sending birth announcements, greeting cards, etc. Tradition can refer to larger concepts practiced by groups, organizations or societies, such as the practice of national and public holidays; some of the oldest traditions include citizenship. It can include material objects, such as buildings, works of art or tools. Tradition is used as an adjective
Trondheim is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It has a population of 193,501, is the third-most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area. Trondheim lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the River Nidelva; the city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions; the settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, it served as the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, it was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand and Tiller; the city functions as the seat of the County Mayor of Trøndelag county, but not as the administrative centre, Steinkjer. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.
The city was given the name by Olav Tryggvason. It was for a long time called Niðaróss in the Old Norse spelling, but it was just called kaupangr or, more kaupangr í Þróndheimi. In the late Middle Ages people started to call the city just Þróndheimr. In the Dano-Norwegian period, during the years as a provincial town in the united kingdoms of Denmark–Norway, the city name was spelled Trondhjem. Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931; the name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had resulted in 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and only 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage in the same year taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim; the name of the diocese was, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme in 1918.
Trondheim was named Drontheim during the Second World War, as a German exonym. Trondheimen indicates the area around Trondheim Fjord; the spelling Trondhjem was rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of NidarosTrondheim was named Kaupangen by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Shortly thereafter it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was used as a military retainer of King Olav I, it was used as the seat of the king, was the capital of Norway until 1217. People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the River Nidelva. Harald Fairhair was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I, called'the Good'; the battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke.
Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim. Trondheim was the seat of the Archbishop of Nidaros for Norway from 1152, who operated from the Archbishop's Palace. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium; the city has experienced several major fires. Since much of the city was made of wooden buildings, many of the fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; the 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 led to an total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire.
At the time, the city had a population of 8000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered 10 months later; the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660. During the Second World War, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945; the German invasion force consisted of the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, 4 destroyers and 1700 Austrian Mountain troops. Other than a coastal battery opening fire, there was no resistance to the invasion on 9 April at 5 AM. On 14 and 17 April and French forces landed near Trondheim in a failed attempt to liberate Trondheim as part of the Namsos Campaign. During the occupation, Trondheim was the home of the notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, who operated from a nearby villa a
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages; some countries ban such activities but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014. Alcohol is a depressant, which in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety, improves sociability. In higher doses, it causes drunkenness, unconsciousness, or death. Long-term use can lead to alcohol abuse, physical dependence, alcoholism. Alcohol is one of the most used recreational drugs in the world with about 33% of people being current drinkers; as of 2016 women on average drink 0.7 drinks and males 1.7 drinks a day. In 2015, among Americans, 86% of adults had consumed alcohol at some point, 70% had drunk it in the last year, 56% in the last month.
Alcoholic drinks are divided into three classes—beers and spirits—and their alcohol content is between 3% and 50%. Discovery of late Stone Age jugs suggest that intentionally fermented drinks existed at least as early as the Neolithic period. Many animals consume alcohol when given the opportunity and are affected in much the same way as humans, although humans are the only species known to produce alcoholic drinks intentionally. Beer is a beverage fermented from grain mash, it is made from barley or a blend of several grains and flavored with hops. Most beer is carbonated as part of the fermentation process. If the fermented mash is distilled the drink becomes a spirit. In the Andean region, the most common beer is chicha, made from grain or fruits. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Cider or cyder is a fermented alcoholic drink made from any fruit juice. Cider alcohol content varies from 1.2% ABV to 8.5% or more in traditional English ciders. In some regions, cider may be called "apple wine".
Mead is an alcoholic drink made by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, grains, or hops. The alcoholic content of mead may range from about 8% ABV to more than 20%; the defining characteristic of mead is that the majority of the drink's fermentable sugar is derived from honey. Pulque is the Mesoamerican fermented drink made from the "honey water" of maguey cacti; the drink distilled from pulque is mescal. Wine is a fermented beverage produced from sometimes other fruits. Wine involves a longer fermentation process than beer and a long aging process, resulting in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. "Fruit wines" are made from fruits other than grapes, such as cherries, or apples. Sake is a popular example of "rice wine". Sparkling wine like French Champagne, Catalan Cava or Italian Prosecco can be made by means of a secondary fermentation. A distilled drink or liquor is an alcoholic drink produced by distilling ethanol produced by means of fermenting grain, fruit, or vegetables.
Unsweetened, alcoholic drinks that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. For the most common distilled drinks, such as whiskey and vodka, the alcohol content is around 40%; the term hard liquor is used in North America to distinguish distilled drinks from undistilled ones. Vodka, baijiu, whiskey and soju are examples of distilled drinks. Distilling eliminates some of the congeners. Freeze distillation concentrates ethanol along with fusel alcohols in applejack. Fortified wine is wine, such as sherry, to which a distilled beverage has been added. Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including port, madeira, marsala and the aromatized wine vermouth. Rectified spirit called "neutral grain spirit", is alcohol, purified by means of "rectification"; the term neutral refers to the spirit's lack of the flavor that would have been present if the mash ingredients had been distilled to a lower level of alcoholic purity.
Rectified spirit lacks any flavoring added to it after distillation. Other kinds of spirits, such as whiskey, are distilled to a lower alcohol percentage to preserve the flavor of the mash. Rectified spirit is a clear, flammable liquid that may contain as much as 95% ABV, it is used for medicinal purposes. It may be a grain spirit or it may be made from other plants, it is used in mixed drinks and tinctures, as a household solvent. Alcohol has significant negative health effects, including increased risk of cancer. Negative effects are related to the amount consumed with no safe lower limit seen. Wine, distilled spirits and other alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and alcohol consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person; the effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine, beer or spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an indiv
Rage is intense, uncontrolled anger, an increased stage of hostile response to a egregious injury or injustice. Old French raige, from Medieval Latin rabia, from Latin rabies akin to Sanskrit rabhas; the Vulgar Latin spelling of the word possesses many cognates when translated into many of the modern Romance languages, such as Spanish, Catalan and modern Italian: rabia, rabia, ràbia and rabbia respectively. Rage can sometimes lead to a state of mind where the individuals experiencing it believe they can do, are capable of doing, things that may seem physically impossible; those experiencing rage feel the effects of high adrenaline levels in the body. This increase in adrenal output raises the physical strength and endurance levels of the person and sharpens their senses, while dulling the sensation of pain. High levels of adrenaline impair memory. Temporal perspective is affected: people in a rage have described experiencing events in slow-motion. Time dilation occurs due to the individual becoming hyper aware of the hind brain.
Rational thought and reasoning would inhibit an individual from acting upon impulse. An older explanation of this "time dilation" effect is that instead of slowing our perception of time, high levels of adrenaline increase our ability to recall specific minutiae of an event after it occurs. Since humans gauge time based on the number of things they can remember, high-adrenaline events such as those experienced during periods of rage seem to unfold more slowly. A person in a state of rage may lose much of their capacity for rational thought and reasoning, may act violently, on their impulses to the point that they may attack until they themselves have been incapacitated or the source of their rage has been destroyed. A person in rage may experience tunnel vision, muffled hearing, increased heart rate, hyperventilation, their vision may become "rose-tinted". They focus only on the source of their anger; the large amounts of adrenaline and oxygen in the bloodstream may cause a person's extremities to shake.
Psychiatrists consider rage to be at one end of the spectrum of anger, annoyance to be at the other side. In 1995, rage was hypothesized to occur when oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing hormone are released from the hypothalamus; this results in the pituitary gland producing and releasing large amounts of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, which causes the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. This chain reaction occurs. Nearly two decades more came to be known about the impacts of high epinephrine; as the focus in neuroscience began to shift towards the roles of white matter tissues, a more full bodied understanding of this complex emotion was able to be extrapolated. Memory, being the “retention of perceptions”, can be viewed as a giant mosaic; this mosaic would consist of fragmented perceptions being held together by astrocytes, creating resistance. A ratio of 3:2 could indicate an increased demand on neurons being insulated; this raises the possibility that a more developed memory improved an individual’s fitness.
In addition, an increase in white matter tissues assisted in an individual's ability to adapt to new cultures and environments. The metaphor of a kaleidoscope is utilized when expressing the extraordinary ability humans have at adapting to different cultures by engaging in different patterns of thought. Our ability to perceive patterns of behavior assists in our ability to utilize inductive reasoning, a type of reasoning that can assist in an individual's ability to think of how their behaviors may impact their future; such lines of reasoning are strengthened through the use of deductive reasoning. Together and deductive reasoning have assisted in developing adaptive conflict management strategies that assist in the cessation of rage caused by cognitive dissonance. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from neurons by creating the blood-brain barrier. More these astrocytes are found in close proximity to the ‘end feet’ of blood vessels; these astrocytes aid in the tightening and expansion of the blood vessels to regulate which nutrients make their way to the neurons.
The BBB protects the brain from toxins and helps transport things such as oxygen and glucose to the brain. This system plays a crucial role in the regulation of memory. Studies have suggested that glucose, together with epinephrine from the adrenal medulla have an effect on memory. Although high doses of epinephrine have been proven to impair memory, moderate doses of epinephrine enhance memory; this leads to questioning the role that epinephrine has played on the evolution of the genus Homo as well as epinephrine's crucial role during fits of rage. The crucial role that astrocytes play in the formation of muscle memory may shed light on the beneficial impact of meditation and deep breathing as a method of managing and controlling one's rage; some research suggests that an individual is more susceptible to having feelings of depression and anxiety if he or she experiences rage on a frequent basis. Health complications become much worse. John E. Sarno believes. Cardiac stress and hypertension are other health complications that will occur when rage is experienced on a regular basis.
Psychopathologies such as depression and Posttraumatic stress disorder present comorbidly with rage. Evidence has shown that behavior
A hero or heroine is a real person or a main fictional character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength. On the other hand are post-classical and modern heroes, who perform great deeds or selfless acts for the common good instead of the classical goal of wealth and fame; the antonym of a hero is a villain. The concept of the hero can be found in classical literature, it is the main or revered character in heroic epic poetry celebrated through ancient legends of a people striving for military conquest and living by a continually flawed personal honor code. The definition of a hero has changed throughout time. Merriam Webster dictionary defines a hero as "a person, admired for great or brave acts or fine qualities." Examples of heroes range from mythological figures, such as Gilgamesh and Iphigenia, to historical figures, such as Joan of Arc, Giuseppe Garibaldi or Sophie Scholl, modern heroes like Alvin York, Audie Murphy and Chuck Yeager, fictional superheroes, including Superman and Wonder Woman.
The word hero comes from the Greek ἥρως, "hero" one such as Heracles with divine ancestry or given divine honors. Before the decipherment of Linear B the original form of the word was assumed to be *ἥρωϝ-, hērōw-, but the Mycenaean compound ti-ri-se-ro-e demonstrates the absence of -w-. According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Proto-Indo-European root is *ser meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is akin to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard. Partridge concludes, "The basic sense of both Hera and hero would therefore be'protector'." R. S. P. Beekes rejects an Indo-European derivation and asserts that the word has a Pre-Greek origin. A classical hero is considered to be a "warrior who lives and dies in the pursuit of honor" and asserts their greatness by "the brilliancy and efficiency with which they kill"; each classical hero's life focuses on fighting, which occurs during an epic quest. Classical heroes are semi-divine and extraordinarily gifted, like Achilles, evolving into heroic characters through their perilous circumstances.
While these heroes are resourceful and skilled, they are foolhardy, court disaster, risk their followers' lives for trivial matters, behave arrogantly in a childlike manner. During classical times, people regarded heroes with the highest esteem and utmost importance, explaining their prominence within epic literature; the appearance of these mortal figures marks a revolution of audiences and writers turning away from immortal gods to mortal mankind, whose heroic moments of glory survive in the memory of their descendants, extending their legacy. Hector was a Trojan prince and the greatest fighter for Troy in the Trojan War, known through Homer's The Iliad. Hector acted as leader of the Trojans and their allies in the defense of Troy, "killing 31,000 Greek fighters," offers Hyginus. Hector was known not only for his courage but for his noble and courtly nature. Indeed, Homer places Hector as peace-loving, thoughtful as well as bold, a good son and father, without darker motives. However, his familial values conflict with his heroic aspirations in The Iliad, as he cannot be both the protector of Troy and a father to his child.
Hector is betrayed by the gods when Athena appears disguised as his ally Deiphobus and convinces him to take on Achilles, leading to his death at the hands of a superior warrior. Achilles was a Greek Hero, considered the most formidable military fighter in the entire Trojan War and the central character of The Iliad, he was the child of Peleus, making him a demi-god. He wielded superhuman strength on the battlefield and was blessed with a close relationship to the Gods. Achilles famously refuses to fight after his dishonoring at the hands of Agamemnon, only returns to the war due to unadulterated rage after Hector kills his close friend Patroclus. Achilles was known for uncontrollable rage that defined many of his bloodthirsty actions, such as defiling Hector's corpse by dragging it around the city of Troy. Achilles plays a tragic role in The Iliad brought about by constant de-humanization throughout the epic, having his menis overpower his philos. Heroes in myth had close but conflicted relationships with the gods.
Thus Heracles's name means "the glory of Hera" though he was tormented all his life by Hera, the Queen of the Gods. The most striking example is the Athenian king Erechtheus, whom Poseidon killed for choosing Athena over him as the city's patron god; when the Athenians worshiped Erechtheus on the Acropolis, they invoked him as Poseidon Erechtheus. Fate, or destiny, plays a massive role in the stories of classical heroes; the classical hero's heroic significance stems from battlefield conquests, an inherently dangerous action. The gods in Greek Mythology, when interacting with the heroes foreshadow the hero's eventual death on the battlefield. Countless heroes and gods go to great lengths to alter their pre-destined fate, but with no success, as no immortal can change their prescribed outcomes by the three Fates; the most prominent example of this is found in Oedipus Rex. After learning that his son, will end up killing him, the King of Thebes, takes huge steps to assure his son's death by removing him from the kingdom.
But, Oedipus slays his father without an afterthought when he unknowingly encounters him in a dispute on the road many years