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UK Independent Singles and Albums Charts

The UK Independent Singles Chart and UK Independent Albums Chart are charts of the best-selling independent singles and albums in the United Kingdom. Published in January 1980, known as the "indie chart", the relevance of the chart dwindled in the 1990s as major-label ownership blurred the boundary between independent and major labels. Separate independent charts are published weekly by the Official Charts Company. In the wake of punk, small record labels began to spring up, as an outlet for artists that were unwilling to sign contracts with major record companies, or were not considered commercially attractive to those companies. By 1978, labels like Cherry Red, Rough Trade, Mute had started up, a support structure soon followed, including independent pressing and promotion; these labels got bigger and bigger, by 1980 were having top 10 hits in the UK Singles Chart. Chart success was limited, since the official top 40 was based on sales at large chains and ignored significant sales at the scores of independent record shops that existed.

Iain McNay of Cherry Red suggested to the weekly trade paper Record Business the idea of an independent record chart to address the problem, the first independent chart appeared in 1980, published in Record Week, licensed to Sounds. The definition of whether or not a single was "indie" had depended on the distribution channel by which it was shipped—the record needed to be delivered by a distribution service, independent of the four major record companies: EMI, Sony Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group and Universal Music Group. In 1981, compilation of the chart switched to research company MRIB; the chart served to give exposure to the artists on those labels. In 1985, Music Week started compiling its own indie chart, but failed to meet the authority of the original chart. Other weekly music papers published their own charts compiled from single record shops. By 1990, the significance of the chart had been diluted by major record companies forming their own'indie' labels, with independent distribution, in order to break new acts via exposure from the indie chart.

To be included in the indie chart, a record had to be distributed independently of the corporate framework of the major record companies. Large independent distributors emerged such as Pinnacle and Spartan, there emerged The Cartel, an association of regional distributors including Rough Trade and Red Rhino; the first weekly independent chart was published on 19 January 1980, with Spizzenergi's "Where's Captain Kirk" topping the singles chart, Adam and the Ants' Dirk Wears White Sox topping the album chart. Although the independent chart has less relevance today, The Official UK Charts Company still compiles a chart, consisting of those singles from the main chart on independent labels; the OCC's Independent Chart was altered in June 2009. Its new system altered the qualification criteria to include only singles from labels that were at least fifty per cent owned by a record company, not one of the main four record companies; this prevented major record companies from qualifying for the chart by outsourcing the shipping of their singles to smaller distribution services.

These new changes were first unveiled at the 2008 annual general meeting of the British Phonographic Industry on 9 July, the new chart went live on 29 June 2009. The first song to top the chart under the new system was "Bonkers" by Dizzee Rascal, which made it to No. 1 in the main UK Singles Chart. During the 2000s and 2010s many indie rock/post-punk revival bands like the Kaiser Chiefs and Arctic Monkeys topped the OCC's chart. Lists of UK Independent Albums Chart number ones Lists of UK Independent Singles Chart number ones UK Albums Chart UK Independent Singles and Album Breakers Charts UK Singles Chart Official Charts Company UK Top 30 Indie Singles Chart at BBC Online top 40 Charts Online Complete listing of Indie singles and album charts between January 1980 and December 1989 "Indie Hits 1980-89, compiled by Barry Lazell, ISBN 0-9517206-9-4, ISBN 978-0-9517206-9-1"

Stade Saint Ruf

The Stade Pierre Baizet St Ruf or as its more known Stade Saint Ruf is a multi-purpose stadium in Avignon, France. It is the home of rugby league club Sporting Olympique Avignon who play in the French Elite One Championship The ground has been used since 1916 as a sporting venue. There were just wooden benches and grass banks to accommodate spectators and during Sporting Olympique Avignon's heyday in the 1950s crowds of 10,000 were crammed around the playing area. At this time a brewery was sited adjacent to the ground but that has since been demolished to make way for a by-pass. New stands replaced the original wooden stands. From 2000 some minor refurbishment took place. In 2008 a synthetic pitch was laid and at the same time another refurbishment saw the pitch realigned nearer to the main stand along with a VIP area, press facilities, a bar and a club shop fitted; the current capacity is 1,800 with 1,000 seated in the main stand


The sangai is an endemic and endangered subspecies of brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur, India. It is the state animal of Manipur, its common English name is Manipur brow-antlered deer or Eld's deer and the scientific name is Rucervus eldii eldii. Its original natural habitat is the floating marshy grasslands of the Keibul Lamjao National Park, located in the southern parts of the Loktak Lake, the largest freshwater lake in eastern India; the film The Return of Sangai made by the Manipur Forest Department gives a deep insight of Sangai and Keibul Lamjao National Park The brow-antlered deer or the dancing deer is found in its natural habitat only at Keibul Lamjao National Park over the floating biomass locally called "phumdi" in the south eastern part of Loktak Lake. It is located between 24 24 ° 31' N latitude and 93 ° 53' E and 93 ° 55' E longitudes; the park covers an area of 40 km2. and the home range of the deer in the park is confined to 15–20 km2. Phumdi is the most unique part of the habitat.

It is the floating mass of entangled vegetation formed by the accumulation of organic debris and biomass with soil. Its thickness varies from few centimeter to two meters; the humus of phumdi is black in color and spongy with large number of pores. It floats with 4/5 part under water; the number of deer listed in the Red Data Book was only 14 in 1975. After the declaration of the area as a national park and with strict conservation measures taken up by the Forest Department, the fear of its extinction has been reduced; the brow-antlered deer is a medium-sized deer, with uniquely distinctive antlers, measuring 100–110 cm. in length with long brow tine, which form the main beam. The two tines form a continuous curve at right angles to the set pedicels; this signifies its name, brow-antlered deer, the forward protruding beam appears to come out from the eyebrow. The antlers of the opposite sides are unsymmetrical with respect to each other; the beams are unbranched whereas curvature increases as length increases and they get forked also.

The sexes are moderately dimorphic in body weight. The height and weight of a grown stag may be 115–125 cm at shoulder and 95 to 110 kg respectively; the height and weight of the female are less as compared to the male counterpart. The length of the body from the base to the ear up to the tail is about 145 to 155 cm in both sexes; the tail is short and rump patch is not pronounced. Sangai feed on a variety of water living plants, herbaceous plants, shoots. Zizania latifolia, Saccharum munja, S. bengalensis, Erianthus procerus, E. ravernnae, etc. are the favorite food plants of sangai. Feeding behavior of sangai can be seen over new shoots on freshly cut fire line area, it exhibits a bimodial activity pattern. Sangai starts grazing early morning 4:30 am and continue up to 8:00 am. On cloudy morning the period may extend to 10:00 am. In the evening it continue up to 6:00 pm. After feeding it takes rest. During day time it rests under thick and tall grasses. At night some of them rest on the hillocks; the sangai has a maximum lifespan in the wild of around 10 years.

Rutting takes place in the early spring months between May. Males compete with each other to gain control of a harem of females that they can mate with. After a 220- to 240-day-long gestation period a single calf is born; the young are spotted at birth. The young are weaned at 7 months of age, becomes sexually mature from 18 months of age onwards. Culturally, the sangai finds itself imbedded deep into the folklore of the Manipuris. Based on a popular folk legend, the sangai is interpreted as the binding soul between humans and the nature; the slaying of the sangai, an unpardonable sin, is conceived as the rude breaking up of the cordial relationship between humans and the nature. When humans love and respect the sangai, it is respecting nature. In the sangai, humans find a way of expressing their love for the nature; the sangai is the symbol of a prized possession of the state. It is believed that the name sangai was coined from its peculiar posture and behaviour while running. By nature, the deer the males when running for its life stops and looks back as if he is waiting for someone and hence the name.

According to a Manipuri folklore, a legendary hero Kadeng Thangjahanba of Moirang once captured a gravid sangai from Torbung Lamjao for a gift to his beloved Tonu Laijinglembi during an animal hunting expedition. However, as fate would have it, he found his beloved married to the king on his return; the heartbroken hero released the deer free in the wild of Keibul Lamjao. From that time onwards the place became the home of sangai. In another folklore of Manipur, a prince called Pudangkoi of Luwang clan had, by the grace of a divine entity, transformed himself into a deer which has on called sangai. Further, there were references of sangai head with crown of antlers, being decorated on the head of royal boat called Hiyang Hiren. Identified as one of the rarest animal species in the entire world, the sangai is the apple of the eye for the people. Talk of Manipur, one of the first things to introduce the state is the sangai, other than polo, its classical dance and films; the sangai was believed to be extinct by 1950.

However, in 1953 six heads of the sangai were found hovering at its natural habitat. Since the State Government has taken serious and positive measures for the protection of this rare and endangered species; the number

Shironishi Station

Shironishi Station is a railway station on the Iida Line in Tenryū-ku, Shizuoka Prefecture, operated by Central Japan Railway Company. Shironishi Station is served by the Iida Line and is 70.5 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Toyohashi Station. The station has one ground-level side platform serving a single bi-directional track, with a small wooden station building; until 2008, the station had a single island platform, but was rebuilt in 2008. The station is not attended. Shironishi Station was established on November 11, 1955, as a station on Japan National Railway, when the Iida line between Sakuma Station and Ōzore Station was rerouted to avoid the rising waters of the Sakuma Dam. Freight services were discontinued in 1974; the station has been unmanned since 1984. Along with its division and privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control and operation of the Central Japan Railway Company. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 19 passengers daily.

National Route 152 List of railway stations in Japan Media related to Shironishi Station at Wikimedia Commons Iida Line station information

Clarence Road railway station

Clarence Road railway station, was a railway station in Cardiff, was the terminus of the Cardiff Riverside Branch. The line opened in 1882 and was used by the Great Western for freight services only; the passenger station was opened on 2 April 1894 but, although owned by the Great Western Railway, they never ran passenger services to the station until the Grouping in 1923. Prior to that, it served as a terminus for the Barry Railway for its services to Barry and Barry Island and for the Taff Vale Railway for its services to Cadoxton via Penarth; these services were taken over by the Great Western Railway in 1923 when the Barry and the Taff Vale were amalgamated with the Great Western. Photographs of the station show it to have been a simple structure consisting of one platform, with wooden buildings, it was closed on 16 March 1964, when British Railways withdrew passenger services from the branch, along with the Riverside platforms at the northern end of the branch at Cardiff General. Cardiff Bay railway station

Bell boots

Bell boots, or overreach boots, are a type of protective boot worn by a horse. They encircle the horse's ankle, protect the back of the pastern and the heels of the animal. Bell boots are worn to prevent overreaching, or if the horse is wearing shoe studs, to protect him from accidentally injuring himself with the stud of the opposing hoof. In some cases a horse with corrective or poor shoeing wears shoes that protrude behind the foot, making it easier for a horse to overreach and spring or pull off the shoe; this is most seen when the horse is jumping, working in mud or on a slippery surface, running cross-country, or longeing, bell boots can help prevent this from occurring. Bell boots are worn when shipping a horse, if the bandages or boots used do not provide protection to the heel region, or if a horse tends to pull his front shoes by stepping on them with his back feet. Bell boots are sometimes used when the horse is turned out, for extra protection or to help prevent him from accidentally pulling a shoe if he is exuberant while playing.

Bell boots are made of rubber. They may be open, with Velcro or other fastenings to close them, or closed and slipped on over the hoof. Although open bell boots are the easiest to apply, close bell boots are more secure as they have no chance of slipping off. To apply closed bell boots, it is easiest to turn them inside out, before slipping them over the toe of the foot, it may help to place them in warm water so they will expand before trying to put them on. A sized bell boot should just touch the ground behind the bulbs of the heel while the horse is standing; the mouth of the bell boot should be just loose enough to fit a finger or two between it and the horse's pastern. Most horses do not mind wearing bell boots and suffer no adverse effects when they are used properly; however a fitted bell boot may chafe and cause discomfort to a horse if the material the boot is made of is exceedingly stiff or if the horse has sensitive skin