UK Singles Chart

The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.

The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Official Big Top 40, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on Capital and Heart stations across the United Kingdom; the Official Big Top 40 is based on Apple data only, plus commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952. According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart.

The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company. The company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 5 March 2020, the UK Singles Chart has had 1366 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Blinding Lights" by the Weeknd. Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music; the idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940.

Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart, it was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead.

Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960. The choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some rival c

Fiat AS.6

The Fiat AS.6 was an unusual Italian 24-cylinder, liquid-cooled V configured aircraft racing engine designed and built in the late-1920s by Fiat for the Schneider Trophy air races, but development and running problems meant that it was never able to compete. Although the engine suffered from technical problems, it was used to set a speed record for piston-powered seaplanes that still stands today; the Italian 1931 Schneider Trophy entrant, the Macchi M. C.72, required an engine of 2,300 horsepower with the capability of producing up to 2,800 horsepower while having a weight of not more than 840 kilograms. The contract was awarded to Fiat, but as their most powerful V engine to that date was the 1,000-horsepower 12-cylinder Fiat AS.5, used for Schneider Trophy racing, the company faced a difficult challenge. The novel solution was to couple two AS.5 V12 engines in tandem to produce a V-24 with each engine independently driving one of a pair of contra-rotating propellers through co-axial shafts.

Except for sharing a common mechanical supercharger, the unit was more a "tandem V12" than a true V24, which would require all cylinders to power a single crankshaft, rather than dual crankshafts rotating in opposite directions with independent crank and driveshafts, or at least to have both cranks geared together to drive a single output. The rear engine drove the front propeller through a reduction gearbox, located between the two engines, up to a shaft that passed between the cylinder banks of the reverse-mounted forward engine; the latter's crankshaft drive faced rearwards and drove the rearmost propeller in a manner, but instead via a hollow shaft passing between the cylinder banks through which the rear engine driveshaft passed. A large rear-mounted mechanical centrifugal supercharger was used to boost the engine, with the fuel/air mixture being delivered to the cylinders through a manifold, centrally mounted between the cylinder banks of both engines; the apparent advantages were that this configuration maintained a small frontal area, that Fiat had previous experience with the AS.5, while having a combined displacement of 50 litres it was thought that the power requirement would be met.

In practice the engine was plagued with technical problems that led to the Italian team being unable to compete in the 1931 Schneider Trophy event. On 23 October 1934 however, after backfiring problems had been solved with the assistance of the British engineer "Rod" Banks, the AS.6 was used by Francesco Agello to set a new airspeed record for piston-powered seaplanes at 709.2 kilometres per hour, a record that still stands today. Macchi M. C. 72. Another AS.6 engine is on display at the Centro Storico Fiat in Italy. Data from Gunston Type: 24-cylinder V-engine Bore: 138 mm Stroke: 140 mm Displacement: 50.25 L Dry weight: 930 kg Valvetrain: Two intake and two exhaust valves per cylinder Supercharger: Single-stage, centrifugal running at up to 19,000 rpm. Boost pressure 1.82 bar. Fuel system: Carburettor Cooling system: Liquid-cooled Power output: 3,100 hp at 3,300 rpm Compression ratio: 7:1 Power-to-weight ratio: 2.47 kW/kg Comparable engines Rolls-Royce RRelated lists List of aircraft engines AS.6 side view - Flight, December 1932

Maria Teresa Casini

Blessed Maria Teresa Casini was an Italian nun and was the founder of the Oblate Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The order was devoted to providing care for those around them with an added emphasis on demonstrating the love of Jesus Christ while spreading the message of the Gospel to the public, she was cleared for beatification in 2015 after a miracle was found to have been attributed to her intercession. She was beatified on 31 October 2015 in Frascati. Cardinal Angelo Amato presided over the celebration on behalf of Pope Francis. Maria Teresa Casini was born on 27 October 1864 to Tommaso Casini and Melania Rayner as their first born daughter, she travelled to Rome for her studies at the Santa Rufina boarding school that the nuns of the Madams of the Sacred Heart conducted. She received her First Communion on 7 May 1878. Due to a period of ill health, she had to leave return home for recuperation. Shortly after she turned eighteen, she responded to her vocation and met Father Arsenio Pellegrini who became her guide and her spiritual director and who served as the Abbot of the Basilian Monks of Grottaferrata.

Despite entering the convent, ill health forced her to leave, though she attempted to enter once again yet failed due to the death of the foundress after which the institute she joined ceased to exist. In due time, she became a nun after entering the monastery of Sepolte Vive in Rome on 2 February 1885. Casini only started to live in Grottaferrata with fellow entrants from 17 October 1892 onwards. On 2 February 1894, she founded the Oblate Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, it was not until 1925 that Casini started the special work of the "Little Friends of Jesus" in order to promote and to cultivate the vocations of prospective priests. The group's special character came to life when Cardinal Francesco Satolli requested Casini and her congregation to take up new and vigorous apostolic work; this group worked for the sanctification of all priests and so the group opened a boarding school for males in order to sate the Lord's request for good and wholesome priests. Throughout her life, Casini offered "the oblation of herself, in faithful response to the Love that overflows from the open Heart of the Savior, which she imparted to so many daughters and priests".

This earned the praise of Pope Pius X in 1904 who wrote: "In order to bring about the reign of Jesus Christ, nothing is more necessary than the sanctity of the clergy. God bless these sisters for their selfless love for these men of God, for through them, through the sacraments, we are fortified and purified for the journey". Casini grew ill in the final years of her life, she died in 1937, her final words were: "I am peaceful. I feel God is near me". Casini's order continues to flourish on an international level in places such as the United States of America and Argentina; the first of the males of the Little Friends of Jesus that Casini herself oversaw was ordained as a priest in 1938. The cause of beatification commenced on 26 January 1981 on a diocesan level which concluded its work in 1985, it submitted the Positio – official documentation – to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. Pope John Paul II declared her to have lived a life of heroic virtue and named her Venerable on 7 July 1997.

Pope Francis approved a decree that recognized a miracle attributed to her intercession on 22 January 2015, clearing her for beatification. Cardinal Angelo Amato presided over the beatification in Frascati on 31 October 2015. Hagiography Circle Saints SQPN Oblate Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus