House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
David Roy Lidington is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Aylesbury since the 1992 election. A member of the Conservative Party, he assumed the roles of Minister for the Cabinet Office and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster on 8 January 2018, he has been described as Theresa May's de facto Deputy Prime Minister. Between 2010 and 2016, he served as Minister of State for Europe holding the position for the entirety of David Cameron's premiership, a longer period than any of his predecessors. Theresa May appointed him to the cabinet for the first time in June 2016, where he has held a number of roles including Leader of the House of Commons, Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice. Born in Lambeth, Lidington was educated at Merchant Taylors' Prep School Haberdashers' Aske's Boys' School in Hertfordshire, followed by Sidney Sussex College, where he took a degree in History and a PhD entitled "The enforcement of the penal statutes at the court of the Exchequer c. 1558 – c. 1576" on Elizabethan history.
While at Cambridge, he was chairman of Cambridge University Conservative Association and Deputy President of the Cambridge University Students' Union. He was the Captain of the Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge team that won the 1979 series of University Challenge; the team won the 2002 University Challenge – Reunited "champion of champions" series for the show's 40th anniversary. Lidington's early employment included posts with BP and the Rio Tinto Group before being appointed in 1987 as special adviser to the Home Secretary Douglas Hurd, he moved to the Commonwealth Office in 1989 when Hurd was appointed Foreign Secretary. In the 1987 general election, Lidington stood unsuccessfully in the Vauxhall constituency. Lidington was selected as the Conservative candidate for the safe seat of Aylesbury in December 1990, he became the constituency's member of parliament at the 1992 general election. At Westminster, Lidington participated in the Education Select Committee and Conservative Backbench Home Affairs Committee.
In 1994, he promoted a Private Members Bill which became the Chiropractors Act 1994. Lidington first joined the Conservative front bench team in August 1994, when he became Parliamentary Private Secretary to Home Secretary Michael Howard. In June 1997, with the Conservatives in opposition, he became Parliamentary Private Secretary to Leader of the Opposition William Hague. Two years in June 1999, he was promoted to become Shadow Home Affairs Minister. In September 2001, Lidington was promoted to become Shadow Financial Secretary to the Treasury. Lidington became a member of the Shadow Cabinet in May 2002, replacing Ann Winterton as Shadow Minister of Agriculture and Food after she resigned; when Michael Howard was elected Conservative Party leader in November 2003, Lidington became Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, but was not included as a member of the Shadow Cabinet. In May 2005, Howard enlarged the Shadow Cabinet, he was one of the few Shadow Cabinet ministers left in his old post by David Cameron when the latter became leader in December 2005.
But on 2 July 2007, Lidington was demoted to be a junior Foreign Affairs spokesman. In May 2009, The Daily Telegraph revealed Lidington had claimed nearly £1,300 for his dry cleaning and had claimed for toothpaste, shower gel, body spray and vitamin supplements on his second home allowance. Lidington decided to repay the claims for the toiletries, saying: "I accept that many people would see them as over-generous."Lidington was criticised by local newspaper the Bucks Herald for claiming £115,891 in expenses in one year double his salary. Following the 2010 general election, Lidington was appointed Minister for Europe. In August 2016 following the resignation of David Cameron, Lidington was appointed a CBE in the 2016 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours for his services to the government as European minister. In November 2013, Lidington was criticised in an editorial of the local newspaper the Bucks Herald after he abstained on votes on the HS2 rail project which will run through his constituency.
On 25 November 2016, when he was serving as Leader of the House of Commons, Lidington deputised for Prime Minister Theresa May at PMQs questioned first-hand by the shadow foreign secretary, Emily Thornberry who deputised, as per custom, for Jeremy Corbyn on the day. Under prime minister Theresa May, Lidington was appointed Leader of the House of Commons and Lord President of the Council; this was a position he held till 11 June 2017, when he was promoted to Justice Secretary and Lord Chancellor. His appointment was criticised due to his record on LGBT rights, having opposed scrapping the ban on'promotion of homosexuality' in schools, as well as civil partnerships. During the debate on the legalisation of same-sex marriage he argued that "marriage was for the procreation of children" and that the "definition of marriage should not be changed without an compelling case for doing so", he said that he regretted voting against civil partnerships. On 8 January 2018, during a Cabinet reshuffle, Lidington became the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and Minister for the Cabinet Office.
Several media outlets have since referred to Lidington as Theresa May's de facto deputy Prime Minister and a serious candidate for her succession. Despite this, Lidington himself has stated on numerous occasions that he has'No wishes' to become Prime minister and instead supports the incumbent Theresa May wholeheartedly stating that she is'doing a fantastic job'. Lidington and his wife Helen have four sons, he was raised
Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
The Department for Business and Industrial Strategy is a department of the government of the United Kingdom, created by Theresa May on 14 July 2016 following her appointment as Prime Minister, through a merger between the Department for Business and Skills and Department of Energy and Climate Change. BEIS brought together responsibility for business, industrial strategy, science and innovation with energy and climate change policy, merging the functions of the former BIS and DECC; the Ministers in the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy are as follows: In October 2016, Archie Norman was appointed as Lead Non Executive Board Member for the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy. The department is responsible for government policy in the following areas: Some policies apply to England alone due to devolution, while others are not devolved and therefore apply to other nations of the United Kingdom; some economic policies are devolved but many aspects of several important policy areas are reserved to Westminster.
Reserved and excepted matters are outlined below. Scotland Reserved matters: The Economy Directorate of the Scottish Government handles devolved economic policy. Northern Ireland Reserved matters: Business regulation and support Climate change policy Company law Competition Consumer protection Corporate governance Import and export control Employment relations Energy Export licensing Insolvency Intellectual property Nuclear energy Outer space Postal services Product standards and liability Research councils Science and research Telecommunications Time Trade associations Units of measurementExcepted matter: Outer space Nuclear powerThe department's main counterpart is: Department for the Economy
Minister for the Cabinet Office
The Minister for the Cabinet Office is a position in the Cabinet Office of the United Kingdom. The office has no statutory footing or recognition, is unpaid; every individual who has held the office has therefore been appointed to a sinecure office to secure a seat at cabinet and a salary. Since 2018, it has functioned as an alternative title to Deputy Prime Minister or First Secretary of State; the Cabinet Office has a primary responsibility to support the work of the Prime Minister and ensure the effective running of government. Within this set-up, the Minister for the Cabinet Office has been seen to have varying responsibilities and stature in the government; the role is a flexible one and has variously been described as one or several of the following under different office-holders: Monitoring the co-ordination of the work of government departments Chairing or sitting on several Cabinet Committees An additional title to indicate special responsibility An additional title to indicate seniority Deputising for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's QuestionsThe government presently describes the minister for the Cabinet Office as being "in overall charge of and responsible for the policy and work of the department, attends Cabinet".
Damian Green held the office in 2017 with the office of First Secretary of State. Green chaired numerous Cabinet Committees and filled in for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions. By virtue of his responsibilities and as First Secretary of State, he was considered a de facto Deputy Prime Minister. Upon the appointment of David Lidington in 2018, Lidington retained the responsibilities Green had held, but the title of First Secretary of State remained vacant; the office in its present form therefore appears to have the responsibilities of a de facto Deputy Prime Minister, without either of the associated titles granted to individuals in the British Government. The current Minister is David Lidington, promoted as part of a New Year Cabinet Reshuffle by Theresa May in January 2018, he holds the sinecure office of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lidington chairs a number of cabinet committees and will deputise for the Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions; the role has had varying responsibilities over time.
The most recent responsibilities are: Supporting the Prime Minister in the running of the Government of the United Kingdom. Deputising for the Prime Minister. Advising the Prime Minister on developing and implementing Government policy. Driving forward government business and implementation including through chairing and deputy chairing cabinet committees and taskforces. Overseeing constitutional affairs and maintaining the integrity of the Union. Oversight of all Cabinet Office policies; every occupant of the position has held a sinecure office, this being Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from Clark to Byrne, Paymaster General from Jowell to Gummer, First Secretary of State with Green. David Lidington holds the role of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. A Minister of State for the Cabinet Office is appointed, junior to the Minister for the Cabinet Office. Cabinet Office
Liberal Democrats (UK)
The Liberal Democrats are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. They have 11 Members of Parliament in the House of Commons, 96 members of the House of Lords, one member of the European Parliament, five Members of the Scottish Parliament and one member in the Welsh Assembly and London Assembly. At the height of its influence, the party formed a coalition government with the Conservative Party from 2010 to 2015 with its leader Nick Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister, it is led by Sir Vince Cable. In 1981, an electoral alliance was established between the Liberal Party, a group, the direct descendent of the 18th-century Whigs, the Social Democratic Party, a splinter group from the Labour Party. In 1988 this alliance was formalised as the Liberal Democrats. Under the leadership of Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy, the party grew during the 1990s and 2000s, focusing its campaigning on specific seats and becoming the third largest party in the House of Commons. Under its leader Nick Clegg, the Liberal Democrats were junior partners in a coalition government headed by Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron, with Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister.
The coalition damaged the Liberal Democrats' electoral prospects: the party was reduced from 57 to 8 seats at the 2015 election. Positioned in the centre ground of British politics, the Liberal Democrats are ideologically liberal. Emphasising stronger protections for civil liberties, the party promotes liberal approaches to issues like LGBT rights, education policy, criminal justice. Different factions take different approaches to economic issues; the party is pro-Europeanist, supporting continued UK membership of the European Union and greater European integration. It calls for electoral reform with a transition from the first-past-the-post voting system to one of proportional representation. Other policies have included further environmental protections and drug liberalisation laws, while it has opposed certain UK military engagements like the Iraq War; the party is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and Liberal International. The Liberal Democrats are strongest in northern Scotland, southwest London, southwest England, mid-Wales.
The Liberal Democrats were formed on 3 March 1988 by a merger between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party, which had formed a pact nearly seven years earlier as the SDP–Liberal Alliance. The Liberal Party, founded in 1859, were descended from the Whigs and Peelites, while the SDP were a party created in 1981 by former Labour Party members, MPs and cabinet ministers, but gained defections from the Conservative Party. Having declined to third party status after the rise of the Labour Party from 1918 and during the 1920s, the Liberals were challenged for this position in the 1980s when a group of Labour MPs broke away and established the Social Democratic Party; the SDP and the Liberals realised that there was no space for two political parties of the centre and entered into the SDP–Liberal Alliance so that they would not stand against each other in elections. The Alliance was led by Roy Jenkins; the two parties had their own policies and emphases, but produced a joint manifesto for the 1983 and 1987 general elections.
Following disappointing results in the 1987 election, Steel proposed to merge the two parties. Although opposed by Owen, it was supported by a majority of members of both parties, they formally merged in March 1988, with Steel and Robert Maclennan as joint interim leaders; the new party was named Social and Liberal Democrats with the unofficial short form The Democrats being used from September 1988. The name was subsequently changed to Liberal Democrats in October 1989, shortened to Lib Dems; the new party logo, the Bird of Liberty, was adopted in 1989. The minority of the SDP who rejected the merger remained under Owen's leadership in a rump SDP. Michael Meadowcroft joined the Liberal Democrats in 2007 but some of his former followers continue still as the Liberal Party, most notably in a couple of electoral wards of the cities of Liverpool and Peterborough; the then-serving Liberal MP Paddy Ashdown was elected leader in July 1988. At the 1989 European Elections, the party received only 6% of the vote, putting them in fourth place after the Green Party.
They failed to gain a single Member of the European Parliament at this election. Over the next three years, the party recovered under Ashdown's leadership, they performed better at the 1990 local elections and in by-elections—including at Eastbourne in 1990 which saw the first success by a Liberal Democrat standing for parliament. They had further successes in Ribble Valley and Kincardine & Deeside in 1991; the Lib Dems did not reach the share of national votes in the 1990s that the Alliance had achieved in the 1980s. At their first election in 1992, they won 17.8 % of twenty seats. In the 1994 European Elections, the party gained its first two Members of European Parliament. Following the election of Tony Blair as Labour leader in July 1994 after the death of his predecessor John Smith, Ashdown pursued co-operation between the two parties becaus
David Hand (statistician)
David John Hand OBE FBA is a British statistician. His research interests include multivariate statistics, classification methods, pattern recognition, the computational statistics and the foundations of statistics, he has written books on finance and computation in statistics, as well as authoring the Very Short Introduction to statistics. Hand was a professor of statistics at the Open University from 1988 until 1999, when he moved to Imperial College London, he was awarded the Guy Medal in Silver by the Royal Statistical Society in 2002 and served as its president in 2008–2009 again from in 2010 after Bernard Silverman stood down. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2003. Hand's book The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences and Rare Events Happen Every Day was published by Scientific American in February 2014. Hand was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to research and innovation. 2001.. Principles of Data Mining. MIT Press.
ISBN 978-0262082907 2014.. "The Wellbeing of Nations: Meaning and Measurement". Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-48957-4 2014. "The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences and Rare Events Happen All the Time". Farrar Strauss Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-17534-4 2008.. Top 10 algorithms in data mining. Knowledge and Information Systems 14.1: 1-37
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis