Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
Immigration Enforcement is a division of the Home Office responsible for enforcing immigration law in the United Kingdom. It was established from the section of the former UK Border Agency responsible for enforcing immigration law. Former Home Secretary Theresa May announced the abolition of the UK Border Agency on 26 March 2013, with the intention that its work would be returned to the Home Office; the agency's executive agency status was removed and internally it was split, with one division responsible for the visa system and the other for immigration enforcement. Immigration Enforcement is responsible for enforcing the United Kingdom's immigration laws by conducting "visits" to residential and business premises; these visits can be conducted with a court-issued warrant, in which forced entry may be used if necessary, in order to apprehend immigration offenders. Immigration Officers have a number of powers. Whilst on a visit, IOs will question encountered individuals about their immigration status and will arrest anyone found to be in breach of immigration law.
Arrest IOs, for the most part, will not deal with immigration offences as "criminal matters", unless they are apart of a crime team. In the vast majority of cases, a person, arrested will be served paperwork notifying them of their imminent removal from the United Kingdom, without any court involvement; this is known as "Administrative Removal" and should not be confused with "Deportation." Immigration Enforcement has a number of internal departments, including Criminal & Financial Investigation, a non-uniformed, investigatory unit much like the Criminal Investigation Department within territorial police forces, responsible for investigating criminality surrounding immigration, such as the production of false documents, etc. IE has its own Intelligence Department, responsible for gathering and disseminating information, as well as other functions. Immigration Enforcement has signed up to the Professionalising Investigations Programme; the organisation works closely with other government bodies including police, National Crime Agency, Border Force, UK Visas and Immigration, the National Document Fraud Unit and many more.
IE will work collaboratively with local councils and transport authorities in order to carry out targeted operations. The primary role of the unit is to investigate and disrupt serious organised crime groups who are seeking to undermine the UK’s immigration controls at the border and inland via various criminal means; these teams are regionally based and are made up of immigration officers and seconded police officers who work in joint investigation teams as part of the Home Office. CFI Teams started in the UK Border Agency as the agencies own investigation teams, covering both immigration investigations and Customs investigations drug seizures, that weren't undertaken by the National Crime Agency Criminal and Financial Investigations teams focus on investigating 8 main categories of crime which support other work streams; those categories include: 1). Trafficking in human beings and Modern Slavery Act 2015 offences, this could be trafficking for: the sex industry organ harvesting forced labour other forms of involuntary servitude2).
Facilitation through: lorry drops marriage abuse college abuse rogue employers producing or supplying counterfeit or forged documents other means3). Cash seizures of over £1,000 referred from Immigration Compliance and Enforcement teams and others, under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. Officers in CFI, who have the same arrest powers as a Police Constable under Section 24 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, are required to pass the National Investigators Exam, amended to additionally test Immigration knowledge, before completing the Initial Crime Investigators Development Programme. Once officers have completed their portfolio, they are added on to the national Criminal Investigators register and are the equivalent to a Detective Constable but hold a PACE authority of a Detective Sergeant. Arrest officers are warranted and derive the majority of their powers from the Immigration Act 1971, although some powers are acquired from the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 and the UK Borders Act 2007, as well as others.
In the vast majority of cases, Immigration Officers will use "administrative powers" under Schedule 2 of the Immigration Act 1971. Said powers include the execution of warrants and the power of arrest, as well as powers to search arrested persons and to search premises for evidence relating to a person's immigration status; these powers are used to start a process of "removing" a person administratively - this is confused with "deportation,", a different process entirely. Once an IO has arrested a subject, they must seek authority to detain them and serve paperwork upon them. If and when this is granted, authority must be sought to remove the subject back to their country of origin through an EU nation or via another transit point; this process ensures that no single officer can remove an individual from the United Kingdom without question - the arresting IO must explain and account for their actions before a CIO / HMI will approve detention and removal. In the event of a senior officer making an arrest, he/she must still obtain authority from another senior officer to detain and serve paperwork.
Others include "28" powers of the Immigration Act 1971, which are similar to those in Schedule 2, but are criminal powers an
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Croydon is a large town in south London, England, 9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. Part of the hundred of Wallington in the county of Surrey, at the time of the Norman conquest of England Croydon had a church, a mill, around 365 inhabitants, as recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing; the Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the world's first public railway. Nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydon's growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working and Croydon Airport. In the mid 20th century these sectors were replaced by retailing and the service economy, brought about by massive redevelopment which saw the rise of office blocks and the Whitgift Centre, the largest shopping centre in Greater London until 2008.
Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Croydon lies on a transport corridor between central London and the south coast of England, to the north of two high gaps in the North Downs, one taken by the A23 Brighton Road through Purley and Merstham and the main railway line and the other by the A22 from Purley to the M25 Godstone interchange. Road traffic is diverted away from a pedestrianised town centre consisting of North End. East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast; the town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system. As the vast majority of place names in the area are of Anglo-Saxon origin, the theory accepted by most philologists is that the name Croydon derives from the Anglo-Saxon croh, meaning "crocus", denu, "valley", indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, it was a centre for the cultivation of saffron, it has been argued that this cultivation is to have taken place in the Roman period, when the saffron crocus would have been grown to supply the London market, most for medicinal purposes, for the treatment of granulation of the eyelids.
There is a plausible Brittonic origin for Croydon in the form "Crai-din" meaning "settlement near fresh water", the name Crai being found in Kent at various places as late as the Domesday Book. Alternative, although less probable, theories of the name's origin have been proposed. According to John Corbet Anderson, "The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, dated about the year 962. In this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, a different word. From the Danish came our crook and crooked; this term describes the locality. Anderson challenged a claim made by Andrew Coltee Ducarel, that the name came from the Old French for "chalk hill", because it was in use at least a century before the French language would have been used following the Norman conquest. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, part of Wessex, Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely.
More David Bird has speculated that the name might derive from a personal name, Crocus: he suggests a family connection with the documented Chrocus, king of the Alemanni, who played a part in the proclamation of Constantine as emperor at York in AD 306. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, there is some archaeological evidence for small-scale Roman settlement in the area: there may have been a mansio here. In the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury; the church and the archbishops' manor house occupied the area still known as "Old Town". The archbishops used the manor house as an occasional place of residence: as lords of the manor they dominated the life of the town well into the early modern period, as local patrons they continue to have an influence.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc. Its Domesday assets were: 1 virgate, it rendered £37 10s 0d. The church had been established in the middle Saxon period, was a minster church, a base for a group of clergy living a communal life. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon. An Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by priest of Croydon; the will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to "the church of S John de Croydon", the earliest clear record of its dedication. The church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a weekly market, this marks the foundation of Croydon as an urban centre
Minister for Security
The Minister for Security is a junior ministerial position in the Home Office. The post was created by Labour Prime Minister Gordon Brown on 3 June 2009 by splitting the now-defunct post of the Minister for Security, Counter-Terrorism and Policing between this post and the new post of Minister for Crime and Policing; the current postholder is Ben Wallace MP. The previous Security Minister, Lady Neville-Jones, resigned in May 2011 to be replaced as Minister of State at the Home Office by Lady Browning, while her brief at the Home Office for Security was taken on by James Brokenshire but only as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State. Following the resignation on 8 February 2014 of the Minister of State for Immigration, Mark Harper, the position was temporarily merged with that of Minister for Security. James Brokenshire assumed the enlarged role of Minister for Immigration; the two posts were divided again on 8 May 2015
British nationality law
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality. The law is complex due to the United Kingdom's historical status as an imperial power. English law and Scots law have always distinguished between the Monarch's subjects and aliens, but British nationality law was uncodified until the British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 codified existing common law and statute, with a few minor changes; some thought the single Imperial status of "British subject" was becoming inadequate to deal with a Commonwealth with independent member states. In 1948, the Commonwealth Heads of Government agreed that each member would adopt a national citizenship, but that the existing status of the British subject would continue as a common status held by all Commonwealth citizens; the British Nationality Act 1948 established the status of Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies, the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and colonies on 1 January 1949.
Until the early 1960s there was little difference, if any, in UK law between the rights of CUKCs and other British subjects, all of whom had the right at any time to enter and live in the UK. Independence Acts, passed when the remaining colonies were granted independence, contained nationality provisions. In general, these provisions withdrew the status of CUKC from anyone who became citizens of the newly independent country, unless one had a connection with the UK or a remaining colony. Exceptions were sometimes made in cases. Between 1962 and 1971, as a result of fears about increasing immigration by Commonwealth citizens, the UK tightened controls on immigration by British subjects from other parts of the Commonwealth, which included CUKCs without familial or residential ties to the UK; the Immigration Act 1971 introduced the concept of patriality, by which only British subjects with sufficiently strong links to the British Islands had right of abode, meaning they were free from immigration control and had the right to enter and work in the islands.
The act, had de facto created two types of CUKCs: those with right of abode in the UK, those without right of abode in the UK. Despite differences in immigration status was formally created, there existed no de jure difference between the two under the nationality context, as the 1948 law still specified one tier of citizenship throughout the UK and its colonies; this changed in 1983. The current principal British nationality law in force, since 1 January 1983, is the British Nationality Act 1981, which established the system of multiple categories of British nationality. To date, six tiers were created, viz. British citizens, British Overseas Territories citizens, British Overseas citizens, British Nationals, British subjects, British protected persons. Only British citizens and certain Commonwealth citizens have the automatic right of abode in the UK, with the latter holding residual rights they had prior to 1983. Aside from different categories of a nationality, the 1981 Act ceased to recognise Commonwealth citizens as British subjects.
There remain only two categories of people who are still British subjects: those who acquired British nationality through a connection with former British India, those connected with the Republic of Ireland before 1949 who have made a declaration to retain British nationality. British subjects connected with former British India lose British nationality if they acquire any other. In spite of the fact that the 1981 act repealed most of the provisions of the 1948 act and the nationality clauses in subsequent independence acts, the acquisition of new categories of British nationality created by the 1981 act was dependent on nationality status prior to 1 January 1983, the date the 1981 act came into effect, so many of the provisions of the 1948 act and subsequent independence acts are still relevant. Not taking this into account might lead one to the erroneous conclusion, for example, that the 1981 act's repeal of the nationality clauses in the Kenya Independence Act of 1963 restored British nationality to those who lost their CUKC status as a result of Kenya's independence in 1963.
This is one of the reasons for the complexity of British nationality law. There are six classes of British nationality; the following two classes of British nationality are "active", meaning that they can be acquired at birth, or by naturalization or registration for any eligible person. British citizen Persons who are British citizens hold this status through a connection with the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies who possessed right of abode under the Immigration Act 1971 through a connection with the UK and Islands became Br
A visa is a conditional authorisation granted by a territory to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that territory. Visas may include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, can be revoked at any time. A visa most takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document. Immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport.
Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must apply in advance for what is called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post or over the internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, or may take the form of a separate document or an electronic record of the authorisation, which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the visited territory; some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits. Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travelling, details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry; some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travellers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country. Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty.
Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level in 2015. In Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century and visas were not necessary for moving from one country to another; the high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used. Passports and visas became necessary as travel documents only after World War I. Long before that, in ancient times and visas were the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents; some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist, specialised in the issuance of international travel documents.
These agencies are authorised by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travellers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country one would have to travel to a third country and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border; the need or absence of need of a visa depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits. The issuing authority a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department, consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant; this may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country, proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc.
Some countries ask for proof of health status for long-term visas. The exact conditions depend on the category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Uzbekistan. In Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not enforced. Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory; the issuing authority may require applicants to attest that they have no criminal convictions, or that they not participate in certain activities. Some countries will deny visas if travellers' passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country, considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel. Many countries demand strong evid