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Spragueville, Iowa

Spragueville is a city in Jackson County, United States. The population was 81 at the 2010 census. Spragueville is named for the early settler Sprague who arrived there in 1841 and established a gristmill. Spragueville is located at 42°4′32″N 90°25′48″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.67 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 81 people, 37 households, 20 families living in the city; the population density was 120.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 46 housing units at an average density of 68.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 37 households of which 21.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.8% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.9% were non-families. 40.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age in the city was 39.8 years. 25.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 43.2 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 89 people, 42 households, 29 families living in the city; the population density was 133.8 people per square mile. There were 43 housing units at an average density of 64.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.75% White, 1.12% Native American, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.25% of the population. There were 42 households out of which 19.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 26.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.53. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.7% under the age of 18, 13.5% from 18 to 24, 19.1% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 24.7% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,750, the median income for a family was $24,688. Males had a median income of $28,125 versus $28,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,906. There were 16.0% of families and 15.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including 18.2% of under eighteens and 55.6% of those over 64. It is a part of the Easton Valley Community School District, formed in 2013 by the merger of the East Central Community School District and the Preston Community School District

Constantine Chrysomalus

Constantine Chrysomalus was a Byzantine monk, posthumously condemned by a Synod of Constantinople as a teacher of heresies affiliated with Bogomilism and Messalianism. Although Chrysomalus and his writings, the Golden Sermons, had been accused of promoting Bogomil teachings, his association with Bogomilism has been contested by scholars. At the time of his condemnation, Chrysomalus' works had attained great popularity in the monastery of St. Nicholas in Hieron, where he had only died; the posthumous trial was held at the church of St. Alexius in Constantinople in May 1140 under the authority of the patriarch Leo Styppeiotes, the record of the trial still exists. Dimitri Obolensky lists the heretical doctrines that the Synod attributed to Chrysomalus: The Synod claimed that Chrysomalus' replacement of the baptism with his own initiatory rite and the concept of two souls were signs of Bogomolism; this is disputed by Obolensky, who notes that the former was not exclusive to Bogomilism and that latter was associated elsewhere with Messalianism.

Attributed to Chrysomalus were teachings associated with civil disobedience: that the reverence of worldly rulers is akin to paying homage to Satan and that temporal authority should be denounced. Although this is similar to some practices attributed to the Bogomils by Cosmas the Priest, it is not possible to establish a definite connection

Jacinto F. Diniz

Jacinto F. "Jesse" Diniz was an American politician and businessman. Born in São Miguel Island, Azores and his family emigranted to the United States and settled in New Bedford, Massachusetts, he attended public school in New Bedford, Massachusetts as well as Fisher Business College and Bryant & Stratton College. Diniz was awarded the Purple Heart, he was in the furniture and insurance business and served a deputy sheriff for Bristol County, Massachusetts. Diniz served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1943 to 1949. During his tenure in the House, Diniz was twice ejected for controversial remarks, but was allowed to returned after apologizing. In 1947 and 1948 he was Democratic nominee for the Massachusetts's 9th congressional district seat, but lost to Donald W. Nicholson. Diniz died from a heart attack in New Bedford, Massachusetts while giving a speech at a political event, his son Edmund Dinis served in the Massachusetts General Court. Jacinto F. Diniz at Find a Grave

Blagaj massacre

The Blagaj massacre was the mass killing of around 400 Serb civilians by the Croatian nationalist Ustaše movement on 9 May 1941, during World War II. The massacre occurred shortly after the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia and the establishment of the Ustaše-led Axis puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia, it was the second act of mass murder committed by the Ustaše upon coming to power and was part of a wider campaign of genocide against Serbs in the NDH that would last until the end of the war. The victims were drawn from the village of Veljun and its surroundings, ostensibly for their involvement in the robbery and murder of a local Croat Catholic miller, Joso Mravunac, his family; the Ustaše claimed that the murders were ethnically motivated and signalled the start of a regional Serb uprising. Following their arrests, the prisoners were detained in a Blagaj school, where many were beaten and tortured; the Ustaše intended to organize a mass trial of the men under the auspices of a "people's court".

These plans fell apart after Mravunac's surviving daughter was unable to identify perpetrators from a police lineup and prosecutors declined to launch proceedings against any individual without evidence of their guilt. Dissatisfied, Vjekoslav Luburić, a senior Ustaše official, arranged for the creation of a new "special court" and appointed a prosecutor, unwilling to let the lack of evidence hinder a conviction; the following day, the surviving Mravunac daughter identified one of the prisoners from a police lineup as being one of the perpetrators of the crime. This constituted sufficient reason to have 36 of the prisoners sentenced to death; the Ustaše went further and executed all of the men in their custody in a pit behind the Blagaj school, burying their bodies in a mass grave, subsequently covered with crops. Following the massacre, the female relatives of the victims visited Blagaj carrying baskets of food for the prisoners, but were told the men had been sent away to Germany. After three months, a local Ustaše official captured by the Partisans admitted that the prisoners had in fact been killed.

Memories of the massacre fostered animosity between the residents of Blagaj and Veljun that have lasted for decades. During the 1991–1995 war in Croatia, fought amid the breakup of Yugoslavia, the residents of the two communities destroyed and plundered each other's villages, forcibly displaced one another; the inhabitants of the two villages began returning to the region after the war, but tensions persisted, an attempt to commemorate the massacre in May 1999 resulted in the socialist-era monument to the victims being desecrated. Annual commemorations have since resumed; the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes was formed in the immediate aftermath of World War I. It was composed among others. Being the largest ethnic group, the Serbs favoured a centralized state. Croats and Bosnian Muslims did not; the so-called Vidovdan Constitution, approved on 28 June 1921 and based on the Serbian constitution of 1903, established the Kingdom as a parliamentary monarchy under the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty. Belgrade was chosen as the capital of the new state, assuring Serb and Orthodox Christian political dominance.

In 1928, the prominent Croatian politician Stjepan Radić was shot and mortally wounded on the floor of the country's parliament by a Serb deputy. The following year, King Alexander instated a royal dictatorship and renamed the country Yugoslavia to deemphasize its ethnic makeup, it was divided into nine administrative units called banates, six of which had ethnic Serb majorities. In 1931, Alexander issued a decree which allowed the Yugoslav Parliament to reconvene on the condition that only pro-Yugoslav parties be represented in it. Marginalized, far-right and far-left parties thrived; the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist movement, emerged as the most extreme of these. The Ustaše were driven by a profound hatred of Serbs. In 1932, they launched the Velebit uprising; the police responded harshly to the attack and harassed the local population, leading to further animosity between Croats and Serbs. In 1934, an Ustaše-trained assassin killed Alexander. Alexander's cousin, Prince Paul, became regent and took up the king's responsibilities until Alexander's son Peter turned 18.

Following the 1938 Anschluss between Germany and Austria, Yugoslavia came to share its northwestern border with the Third Reich and fell under increasing pressure as her neighbours aligned themselves with the Axis powers. In April 1939, Italy opened a second frontier with Yugoslavia when it invaded and occupied neighbouring Albania. At the outbreak of World War II, the Yugoslav government declared its neutrality. Between September and November 1940, Hungary and Romania joined the Tripartite Pact, aligning themselves with the Axis, Italy invaded Greece. From that time, Yugoslavia was completely surrounded by the Axis powers and their satellites, her neutral stance toward the war became strained. In late February 1941, Bulgaria joined the Pact; the following day, German troops entered Bulgaria from Romania. Intending to secure his southern flank for the impending attack on the Soviet Union, Adolf Hitler began placing heavy pressure on Yugoslavia to join the Axis. On 25 March 1941, after some delay, the Yugoslav government conditionally signed the Pact.

Two days a group of pro-Western, Serbian nationalist Royal Yugoslav Air Force officers deposed the country's regent, Prince Paul, in a bloodless coup d'état, placed his teenaged nephew Peter on the throne, brought to power a "government of national unity" led by General

Cathie Felstead

Cathie Felstead, born 1954 in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, in the UK, is an English illustrator. Felstead attended Chelsea School of Art, she studied illustration at the Royal College of Art, graduating with an MA in 1980. Felstead commenced her career by creating designs for book covers. Among the authors whose books she worked on were William Golding, Iris Murdoch, Isabel Allende, Nadine Gordimer, Alice Walker, she has produced artwork for advertising campaigns, packaging, T-shirts, ballet, magazines, greeting cards and books. Felstead's commercial clients have included British Airways, Channel 4, Ballet Rambert, Oxfam, Walker Books, Barclays Bank, the Glastonbury Festivals, Penguin Books, Radio Times, The Body Shop, she created the cover illustration for John Martyn's 1984 album Sapphire. Her artwork has been shown in many exhibitions in Britain and abroad, she was runner-up in the Mother Goose Award for her illustrations in A Caribbean Dozen and has received awards for book illustration in the United States.

Reviewers have praised the wide range of media and styles which Felstead uses in her work, as well as the way they "realize and complement" the texts. A Caribbean Dozen, one reviewer said, "is made more attractive by the wide-ranging artwork of Ms. Felstead, her styles sweep from collages to pastels, watercolors to oils to inks. Some illustrations are bold and primitive, others impressionistic." The Circle of Days, an adaptation of Canticle of the Sun, is made "outstanding.. The immediacy of Ms. Lindbergh's verse and the beauty of Ms. Felstead's collage paintings, which combine childlike cut-paper images with earthy watercolour and gouache backgrounds. Just like the writing, what at first appears simple is quite complex." In Who Made Me?, a reviewer found, "The art matches the text in its mood--it, too, is reverent but childlike. Mixed-media illustrations combining paints with delicate cut-paper work, they capture the awe-inspiring vastness of the African landscape as well as the intimacy and warmth of Zanele's relationship to her homeland and her seven friends."

In Flamingo Dream, another reviewer said, "The art is a wonderful collage mix: objects, torn paper, childlike drawings colored in pencil or crayon, echo the honesty and realism in the text and are what this little girl would have drawn or collected." One reviewer said about Earthshake - Poems from the Ground Up, "Felstead’s energetic collages of maps, tiny photocopied figures, colored pencil, paint marvelously evocate action and mood."Cathie Felstead lives in Ashwell, Hertfordshire. 1994 - A Caribbean Dozen: Poems from Caribbean Poets, John Agard and Grace Nichols, editors.