UNICOS is the name of a range of Unix-like operating system variants developed by Cray for its supercomputers. UNICOS is the successor of the Cray Operating System, it provides network source code compatibility layers for some other Unixes. UNICOS was introduced in 1985 with the Cray-2 system and ported to other Cray models; the original UNICOS was based on UNIX System V Release 2, had numerous BSD features added to it. CX-OS was the original name given to what is now UNICOS; this was a prototype system. It was used to demonstrate the feasibility of using Unix on a supercomputer system, prior to the availability of Cray-2 hardware; the operating system revamp was part of a larger movement inside Cray Research to modernize their corporate software: including rewriting their most important Fortran compiler in a higher-level language with more modern optimizations and vectorizations. As a migration path for existing COS customers wishing to transition to UNICOS, a Guest Operating System capability was introduced into COS.
The only guest operating system, supported was UNICOS. A COS batch job would be submitted to start up UNICOS, which would run as a subsystem under COS - using a subset of the systems CPUs, peripheral devices; the UNICOS that ran under GOS was the same as when it ran stand-alone - the difference was that the kernel would make certain low-level hardware requests through the COS GOS hook, rather than directly to the hardware. One of the sites that ran early versions of UNICOS was Bell Labs, where Unix pioneers including Dennis Ritchie ported parts of their Eighth Edition Unix to UNICOS, they experimented with a guest facility within UNICOS, allowing the stand-alone version of the OS to host itself. Cray have released several different OSs under the name UNICOS, including: UNICOS: the original Cray Unix, based on System V. Used on the Cray-1, Cray-2, X-MP, Y-MP, C90, etc. UNICOS MAX: a Mach-based microkernel used on the T3D's processing elements, in conjunction with UNICOS on the host Y-MP or C90 system.
UNICOS/mk: a "serverized" version of UNICOS using the Chorus microkernel to make a distributed operating system. Used on the T3E; this was the last Cray OS based on UNICOS sources, as the following products were based on different sources and used the "UNICOS" name. UNICOS/mp: not derived from UNICOS, but based on IRIX 6.5. Used on the X1. UNICOS/lc: not derived from UNICOS, but based on SUSE Linux. Used on the XT3, XT4 and XT5. UNICOS/lc 1.x comprises a combination of the compute elements run the Catamount microkernel the service elements run SUSE Linux Cray Linux Environment: from release 2.1 onwards, UNICOS/lc is now called Cray Linux Environment the compute elements run Compute Node Linux the service elements run SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Scientific Linux, a Linux distribution by Fermilab and CERN Rocks Cluster Distribution, a Linux distribution for supercomputers "UNICOS 10.0.1.1 Release Overview". Cray Inc. "UNICOS/mk 2.0.6 Release Overview". Cray Inc. "UNICOS/mp 3.1 Release Overview". Cray Inc.
"Cray XT System Software Release Overview". Cray Inc. Fred Gannett. "Cray Supercomputer FAQ and other documents". Dennis Ritchie. "Experiences with the Cray X/MP". Archived from the original on 2013-03-17
Al-Qa'im is an Iraqi town located nearly 400 km northwest of Baghdad near the Syrian border and situated along the Euphrates River, located in the Al Anbar Governorate. It has a population of about 74,100 and it's the center of the Al-Qa'im District; the river water at Al-Qa'im carries less salt and mineral, so that it takes less water to sustainably produce crops here than farther downstream, where more gallons of water must be used to avoid salinity. The Al-Qa'im border crossing connects Al-Qaim to close city Abu Kamal in Syria. In the early 20th century, there was a police station in Al-Qa ` im, but no village; the khan was the residence of a local administrator. The surrounding area was inhabited by Arabs from the Jara'if tribes. Al-Qa'im was the site of Iraq's refined uranium ore production from 1984 through 1990; the named "Chemical Fertilizer Complex" was built by Belgian contractors in January 1976, by 1982 it was processing Phosphate from the nearby Akashat mine. That year, Iraq decided to build a uranium extraction facility on the same site, hired Belgian contractors Mebshem to build the structure, completed in 1984.
Unused uranium from Al-Qa'im was stored in nearby Tuwaitha. The production facility was destroyed during a 1991 US bombing campaign during the Gulf War. In the Iraq War, Qa'im was a center of attacks by the Iraqi insurgency against US military personnel at the nearby military base of Camp Gannon; the U. S. military regarded Qa'im as the entry point for foreign fighters into Iraq and viewed it as a strategically important point. It was reported by Newsweek in 2003 that American soldiers stationed in the border city entered Syria. During the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment's control, a photojournalist embedded to the unit documented the city's events, his photos were used in Time and Newsweek. A more candid article titled "Iraq's a Wild West" appeared in the September 2003 issue of Maxim. In November 2003, the 3rd Cavalry conducted the successful and peaceful Operation Rifles Blitz. During the operation the city was sectioned into three portions and searched house-to-house over a two-week period. Large numbers of weapons and suspected insurgents were captured during the operation, but some ill will was earned during the operation since it prevented Ramadan celebrations from taking place that year.
In March 2004, the 3rd ACR conducted a turnover with the 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines of the 1st Marine Division. 3/7 served in Al Qa'im from March until September 2004. Shortly after the turnover was complete, the enemy launched a sustained offensive throughout the country, attempting to take advantage of the relative inexperience of the new force; this would become a common tactic as the war continued, but caught many units by surprise that spring. In Al Qa'im, the activity heated up during April 2004 until the day of the battalion's pivotal battle on April 17. Although reports of enemy casualties are always difficult to quantify, the Marines killed 80 insurgents in the town of Husaybah that day, including foreign fighters. Five Marines from 3/7 were killed in the battle. Units from every company in the battalion were engaged in Husaybah. On April 7, 2005, Iraqi insurgents captured the city, forcing the local police and US-supported Iraqi Soldiers to abandon the city. U. S. Marines launched several offensives in order to retake the city.
On May 8, 2005, Marines launched the week-long Operation Matador to flush insurgents out of Qa'im. They succeeded. According to local residents, Qa'im remained under the control of the insurgents. Along with towns like Haditha, they imposed a Taliban-like law, in which Western music and hairstyles are banned. In early September 2005, it was reported that a sign posted outside the town stated "Welcome to the Islamic Republic of Qa'im". In 2006 Qa'im, like many cities in the Anbar province, was believed to still be under insurgent dominance; the primary economic activity of Qa'im was smuggling. Damage from previous battles has somewhat depressed the local economy. Qa'im was under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant from August 2014 to November 2017. In November 2014, unconfirmed reports indicated ISIS caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi was travelling there and a coalition airstrike left him critically injured. On 7 December 2016, an Iraqi Air Force airstrike at the town left 100 people dead including ISIS militants and civilians.
It injured another 100 people. By November 2017, Al-Qa'im was one of the last towns still under control of ISIL. In the 2017 Western Iraq campaign, the Iraqi government advanced south of the city and by the end of October had reached its outskirts, they entered Al-Qa'im on 3 November 2017. After the eviction of ISIL forces, the Iraqi-based and Iranian-backed militia Kata'ib Hezbollah, a group under the Popular Mobilization Units, and, linked to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, has played an important military and security role on the Iraqi side of the border; this role has continued after the reopening of the border crossing on 30 September 2019. On 25 August 2019 a PMF convoy was hit by two drones near Al-Qa'im killing six, including a senior commander. PMF blamed Israel for the attack; the Al-Qa'im border crossing between Abu Kamal in Syria and Al Qa'im in Iraq was reopened on 30 September 2019, after eight years of closure due to Syrian Civil War and Iraqi Civil War. On 29 December 2019, the United States bombed a headquarters of Kata'ib Hezbollah.
The airstrikes targeted three targets in Iraq and two in Syria of Kata'ib Hezbollah, included wea
Pablo Javier Campodónico is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Primera B Metropolitana club UAI Urquiza. He is the brother of former footballer Mariano Campodónico. Campodónico began his career in 1997 with Temperley, with whom he stayed with for six years before joining Sarmiento in 2003 but only to return to Temperley two years later. In 2004, Pablo conceded two goals in one match against his brother Mariano who describes it as "the worst thing that's happened to me in my football career". Pablo and his brother played together for Aldosivi when Mariano was with the club in 2009. In 2006, Campodónico left Temperley again. After a season with the club he departed to join Aldosivi; as of the end of the 2016 season he has made 286 league appearances for Aldosivi. As of 31 October 2016. SarmientoPrimera B Metropolitana: 2003–04 Profile at BDFA Pablo Campodónico at Soccerway